182nd Mixed Brigade
The 182nd Mixed Brigade, was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed in the spring of 1938 in Andalusia and had four battalions, the 725, 726, 727 and 728; this mixed brigade ended up in the last Republican zone behind the XYZ Line at the end of the conflict. But data are lacking regarding its final fate. In 1937 the Spanish Republican Army Chief of Staff had planned to form a 182nd Mixed Brigade made up from battalions belonging to the Carabineros Corps that would have been placed under the 56th Division of the XVI Army Corps as a reserve of the Northern Army. However, in the summer of 1937 the isolated Republican territory in Northern Spain fell to the rebel faction and this unit ended up not being established. On 30 April 1938 a new unit named'182nd Mixed Brigade' was established in Andalusia, it was placed under the 54th Division of the IX Army Corps of the Andalusian Army. The commander of the unit was Militia Major Pablo Careaga Odriozola; when the 54th Mixed Brigade was disbanded its troops and materiel were integrated into the newly formed 182nd Mixed Brigade.
On 12 June 1938, in the face of the imminent takeover of Castellón de la Plana by the Francoist armies, the 54th Division was transferred to this front in order to become part of the XIII Army Corps of the Levantine Army. But when the 182nd Mixed Brigade arrived to the front line on 21 July the city had been lost to the rebel forces. Since the situation was irreversible the 182nd Mixed Brigade withdrew southwards, seeking the protection afforded by the XYZ Line, it seems that this unit remained in this less active area of the front, seeing little action until the end of the Civil War. Some members of the brigade managed to reach France. Mixed Brigades XYZ Line 182 Brigada Mixta.
Battle of Guadalajara
The Battle of Guadalajara saw the People's Republican Army defeat Italian and Nationalist forces attempting to encircle Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist forces involved in the Battle of Guadalajara were the Italian Corps of Volunteer Troops; the battle opened with an Italian offensive on 8 March. This offensive was halted by 11 March. Between 12 March and 14 March, renewed Italian attacks were supported by Spanish Nationalist units; these were halted too. On 15 March, a Republican counter-offensive was prepared; the Republicans launched their counter-offensive from 18 March to 23 March. After the collapse of the third offensive on Madrid, Spanish Nationalist General Francisco Franco decided to continue with a fourth offensive aimed at closing the pincer around the capital; the Nationalist forces, although victorious at the Battle of the Jarama River, were exhausted and could not create the necessary momentum to carry the operation through. However, the Italians were optimistic after the capture of Málaga, it was thought that the Italian forces could score an easy victory owing to the heavy losses sustained by the People's Republican Army at Jarama.
Italian dictator Benito Mussolini committed Italian units to it. The Italian commander, General Mario Roatta, planned to surround the defences of Madrid from the north-west. After joining the Spanish Nationalist corps "Madrid" on the Jarama River, they would begin the assault on Madrid; the Italian forces would execute the main attack. The Spanish division "Soria" was present to secure the operation, but played no part in the first five days of fighting; the main attack began in the 25 km-wide pass at Guadalajara-Alcalá de Henares. This region was well suited for an advance, as there were five roads of high quality running through it. Three other roads in the area led to Guadalajara, allowing for the possibility of capturing this town as well; the Nationalist forces had 35,000 soldiers, 222 artillery pieces, 108 L3/33 tankettes and L3/35 tankettes, 32 armoured cars, 3,685 motor vehicles, 60 Fiat CR.32 fighter planes. The Italian tankettes and armoured cars were organized as the "Tank and Armoured Cars Group".
The Italian aircraft were organized into the "Legionary Air Force". The Republican presence in the Guadalajara region consisted only of the 12th Division of the People's Republican Army under Colonel Lacalle, he had under his command 10,000 soldiers with only 5,900 rifles, 85 machine guns, 15 artillery pieces. One company of T-26 light tanks were sent to the area. No defensive works had been constructed in the Guadalajara region, because it was regarded as a peaceful part of the front; the People's Republican Army staff was sure that the next Fascist offensive would come from the south. After 30 minutes' artillery fire and air raids on the Republican positions, the Italians began advancing towards the 50th Republican brigade. Led by tankettes, they broke through the Republican line, their assault slowed down because fog and sleet had reduced visibility down to 100 metres in places. The Italians captured 10 to 12 km of terrain, including the towns of Mirabueno and Castejon. Falling back, the Republican commander requested the company of tanks.
The Nationalists continued their assault on Republican positions. The main attack was carried out with tanks, but was again bogged down by poor performance and low visibility; the Republican 50th Brigade escaped without a fight. At about noon, the Italian advance was turned back by battalions of the XI International Brigade; the Italians on the Nationalist side had taken another 15 to 18 km of terrain and the towns of Almadrones, Masegoso. In the evening, the first formations of Italian troops reached the suburb of Brihuega, where they settled down to await a widened breach in the Republican lines; this break in momentum, though incompatible with the blitzkrieg tactics they were nominally following, was under the circumstances necessary to allow the soldiers to rest. The Republican forces on this day consisted of the XI International Brigade, two artillery batteries and two companies of infantry from the 49th Brigade, 12th Division, they had 1,850 soldiers with 1,600 rifles, 34 machine guns, 6 artillery pieces, 5 tanks.
By the end of the day, more reinforcements started to arrive as Colonel Enrique Jurado Barrio was ordered to form IV Corps with Líster's 11 Division in the centre at the Madrid–Zaragoza road at Torija, 12th Division on the left flank and 14th Division on the right. The Republican forces received new reinforcements: Italians and Poles from the XII International Brigade, three artillery batteries, an understrength battalion of tanks; the Republican forces now had 8 mortars, 16 artillery pieces and 26 light tanks. In the morning Italian forces on the Nationalist side launched heavy artillery and air bombardments and began the assault on the XI International Brigade without success. At that point they had 26,000 soldiers, 900 machine guns, 130 light tanks and a large number of artillery pieces committed to battle; the Nationalists captured the towns Brihuega. The latter town was taken unopposed. Nationalist attacks on XI and XII International Brigades continued throughout the afternoon, still without success.
At Torija, they met the Italian Garibaldi Battal
Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, he is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi is known as the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil and Europe, he commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led to the Italian unification. In 1848, the provisional government of Milan made Garibaldi a general, in 1849, the Minister of War promoted him to General of the Roman Republic to lead the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II, his last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War, as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many great intellectuals of the time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, George Sand, showered him with admiration.
The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts that his volunteers, the Garibaldini, wore in lieu of a uniform. Garibaldi was born and christened Joseph-Marie Garibaldi on 4 July 1807 in Nice, directly annexed by the First French Empire in 1805, to the Ligurian family of Giovanni Domenico Garibaldi from Chiavari and Maria Rosa Nicoletta Raimondo from Loano. In 1814, the Congress of Vienna returned Nice to Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. Garibaldi's family's involvement in coastal trade drew him to a life at sea, he participated in the Nizzardo Italians community and was certified in 1832 as a merchant navy captain. In April 1833 he travelled to Russia, in the schooner Clorinda with a shipment of oranges. During ten days in port, he met Giovanni Battista Cuneo from Oneglia, a politically active immigrant and member of the secret Young Italy movement of Giuseppe Mazzini.
Mazzini was a passionate proponent of Italian unification as a liberal republic through political and social reform. Garibaldi joined the society and took an oath dedicating himself to the struggle to liberate and unify his homeland from Austrian dominance. In Geneva during November 1833, Garibaldi met Mazzini, starting a long relationship that became troublesome, he joined the Carbonari revolutionary association, in February 1834 participated in a failed Mazzinian insurrection in Piedmont. A Genoese court sentenced Garibaldi to death in absentia, he fled across the border to Marseille. Garibaldi first sailed to Tunisia before finding his way to the Empire of Brazil. Once there, he took up the cause of the Republic of Rio Grande do Sul in its attempt to separate from Brazil, joining the rebels known as the Ragamuffins in the Ragamuffin War. During this war he met Ana Ribeiro da Silva known as Anita; when the Ragamuffins tried to proclaim another republic in the Brazilian province of Santa Catarina in October 1839, she joined him aboard his ship, Rio Pardo, fought alongside him at the battles of Imbituba and Laguna.
In 1841, Garibaldi and Anita moved to Montevideo, where Garibaldi worked as a trader and schoolmaster. The couple married in Montevideo the following year, they had four children – Menotti, Rosita and Ricciotti. A skilled horsewoman, Anita is said to have taught Giuseppe about the gaucho culture of southern Brazil and Uruguay. Around this time, he adopted his trademark clothing—the red shirt and sombrero worn by gauchos. In 1842, Garibaldi took command of the Uruguayan fleet and raised an "Italian Legion" of soldiers known as Redshirts, who wore red, blouse-type shirts, for the Uruguayan Civil War, he aligned his forces with the Uruguayan Colorados led by Fructuoso Rivera, who were aligned with the Argentine Unitarios. This faction received some support from the French and British Empires in their struggle against the forces of former Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe's Blancos, aligned with Argentine Federales under the rule of Buenos Aires caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas; the Italian Legion adopted a black flag that represented Italy in mourning, with a volcano at the center that symbolized the dormant power in their homeland.
Though contemporary sources don't mention the red shirts, popular history asserts that the legion first wore them in Uruguay, getting them from a factory in Montevideo that had intended to export them to the slaughterhouses of Argentina. These shirts became the symbol of his followers. Between 1842 and 1848, Garibaldi defended Montevideo against forces led by Oribe. In 1845 he managed to occupy Colonia del Sacramento and Martín García Island, led the controversial sack of Gualeguaychú during the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. Adopting guerrilla tactics, Garibaldi achieved two victories during 1846, in the Battle of Cerro and the Battle of San Antonio del Santo. Garibaldi joined Freemasonry during his exile, taking advantage of the asylum the lodges offered to political refugees from European countries governed by despotic regimes. At the age of thirty-seven, during 1844, Garibaldi was initiated in the "L'Asil de la Vertud" Lodge of Montevideo; this was an irregular lodge under a Brazilian Freemasonry not recognized by the main international masonic obediences, such as the United Grand Lodge of E
49th Mixed Brigade
The 49th Mixed Brigade, was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed in February 1937 at the Guadalajara Front; this ill-fated military unit suffered heavy casualties over and over again during its involvement in different conflicts of the Civil War. It was terminated after the bombing of Xàtiva in February 1939; the 49th Mixed Brigade was formed in Guadalajara with four battalions, the "Pablo Iglesias Battalion", the "Triunfo Battalion" and the "Guadalajara nº 1" and "Guadalajara nº 2" Battalions, which became the 193, 194, 195 and 196 battalions respectively. The commander was Infantry Lt. Colonel Ángel de la Macorra Carratalá, a retired commander living in Madrid at the beginning of the conflict; the new unit was placed under the XII Division of the IV Army Corps of the Central Army. On 9 March 1937 the 49th Mixed Brigade had its baptism of fire at the Guadalajara Front, where it became part of the Republican forces that fought the Fascist Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie.
Anti-Fascist Italian Major Arturo Zanoni took the command of the unit relieving de la Macorra for a brief period of time. He was replaced by Infantry Commander Fulgencio González Gómez, captain at the 15th Almansa Regiment in Tarragona; the commissar was Francisco Antón Sanz. After the Battle of Guadalajara the unit was sent to the Extremadura front on 14 May. Thereafter it joined the Cuenca Autonomous Group and went to the Huesca Front, returning to Madrid shortly after the failed offensive. On 8 July the 49th Mixed Brigade became part of the vanguard at the Battle of Brunete and after three days the brigade was placed under the A Division of the V Army Corps of the Central Army, its mission was to advance from Portillera de las Rozas until the Vértice Cristo along the Majadahonda-Boadilla del Monte road until reaching the Vértice Manilla behind Romanillos. On 12 July the brigade crossed to the right flank and after two days it was made part of the Durán Division. During the night of the 24 to 25 July it relieved the 10th Mixed Brigade at the Perales River.
Towards the final phase of the fight at Brunete it was placed under the V Army Corps and at the end of the battle it became part of the XLVII Division of the XVIII Army Corps. The following commander of the unit would be Militia Major Emeterio Rodríguez Sanabria. Under his command the 49th Mixed Brigade took part in the Battle of Teruel and in the Battle of Alfambra, where its ranks were depleted while trying to conquer 961 Hill on 7 and 10 January. Only in the first day it suffered 213 casualties. On 3 April the unit found itself at the breaking point of the front, submitted to vehement attacks by the forces of rebel general Antonio Aranda and it had to withdraw from the first line after being badly shattered. On 30 May the 49th Mixed Brigade was again hard hit fighting the rebel Levante Offensive in the Ares del Maestrat-La Jana sector. Towards the beginning of July the much depleted unit was defending Castellón under the command of Infantry Major Amado Granell, but on the 15 it was definitively withdrawn for its reorganization.
Following the Levante battles Militia Major Fernando Gil Ferragut became the new leader of the unit and the brigade was transferred to the less active southern front of the Levantine Army. On 12 February 1939, when the train transporting the 49th Mixed Brigade was stopped at Xàtiva, a group of Italian Aviazione Legionaria bombers attacked the train station, leaving 129 dead and over 200 wounded. Many of the soldiers in the military train, as well as families and onlookers who were at the station to say farewell became victims of the bombing. There were so many dead among the members of the 49th Mixed Brigade, that the Republican high command desisted from reconstituting it, distributing the survivors among other military units. Mixed Brigades White Terror Images of the bombing of Xàtiva. Hace 60 años que las bombas cayeron sobre Xàtiva
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
A mixed brigade was a tactical military formation of the Spanish Republican Army following the coup of July 1936 and the onset of the Spanish Civil War. It was the basic military unit of the Republican People's Army after its war-dictated 1936 reorganization; the initial structure of this kind of brigade, approved in October 1936, was composed of four infantry battalions of five companies each, a mixed sapper battalion and a Service Corps company that included a medical corps group. Certain brigades had a cavalry section. A division was composed of three mixed brigades; the mixed brigade was based on a model that would replace the columns and militias of the pre-coup Spanish Republican Army. The first six Mixed Brigades were created on 18 October 1936; the first was led by Communist colonel Enrique Líster, the second by Jesús Martínez de Aragón, the third by José María Galán, the fourth by Eutiquiano Arellano, the fifth by Fernando Sabio and the sixth by Miguel Gallo Martínez. By December 1936 there were fifteen brigades in full service.
By the spring of 1937 there were forty active brigades and another fifteen were undergoing training. Mixed brigades were infantry units of the army. However, the 151 Brigada Mixta, among a few others, was a mixed brigade composed of Spanish Republican Navy Marines led by Commander Pedro Muñoz Caro. Photographer Robert Capa took pictures of the 151 Brigada Mixta in the Battle of the Segre. All the units ended up being disbanded after the defeat of the Republican military and the subsequent dismantling of the Spanish Republican state by the Francoist regime; the final fate of some of the mixed brigades and their members is unknown. The Mixed Brigades of the International Brigades are in Roman numerals. Spanish Republican Armed Forces Fifth Regiment Military organization International Brigades Si me quieres escribir Alpert, Michael. ISBN 978-1107028739 Carlos Engel Masoliver. Historia de las Brigadas Mixtas del Ejército Popular de la República. Madrid: Almena. ISBN 978-8-492-26447-6. Helen Graham; the Spanish Republic at War 1936-1939.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521459327. Salas Larrazábal, Ramón. La Esfera de los Libros S. L. ISBN 84-9734-465-0 SBHAC - Guía de Brigadas Mixtas The International Brigades in the Spanish War 1936-1939: Flags and Symbols Arab volunteers in the Spanish Mixed Brigades Las Brigadas Mixtas según Carlos Engel Las Brigadas Mixtas según Mike Blacksmith La Evolución de las Brigadas Mixtas. Las Brigadas Mixtas según Ciutat y Rojo Las Brigadas Mixtas según Alpert
Heinrich Gottlob "Heiner" Rau was a German communist politician during the time of the Weimar Republic. Rau grew up in a suburb of Stuttgart, where early on he became active in socialist youth organizations. After military service in World War I, he participated in the German Revolution of 1918-19. From 1920 onward, he was a leading agricultural policy maker of the Communist Party of Germany; this ended in 1933. Shortly afterward Rau was thrown in jail for two years; as an enemy of the Nazi regime in Germany he was imprisoned, in total, for more than half of the time of Hitler's reign. After his first imprisonment he emigrated in 1935 to the Soviet Union. From there, in 1937, he went on to Spain, where he participated in the Spanish Civil War as a leader of one of the International Brigades. In 1939, he was arrested in France, was delivered by the Vichy regime back to Nazi Germany in 1942. After a few months in a Gestapo prison, he was transferred to the Mauthausen Concentration Camp in March 1943.
While in the concentration camp he participated in conspiratorial prisoner activities, which led to a camp uprising in the final days before the end of World War II in Europe. After the war he played an important role in the political scene of East Germany. Before the establishment of an East German state he was the chairman of the German Economic Commission, the precursor to the East German government. Subsequently, he became chairman of the National Planning Commission of East Germany and a deputy chairman of the East German Council of Ministers, he was a leading economic politician and diplomat of East Germany and led various ministries at different times. Within East Germany's ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany he was a member of the party's CC Politburo. Rau was born in Feuerbach, now a part of Stuttgart, in the German Kingdom of Württemberg, the son of a peasant who became a factory worker, he grew up in the adjacent city of Zuffenhausen, now a part of Stuttgart. After finishing school in spring 1913, he started work as a press operator in a shoe factory.
In November 1913 he moved to the Bosch factory works in Feuerbach. There he completed his training as metal presser and remained until autumn 1920, with interruptions due to war service during 1917-1918 and the subsequent German Revolution of 1918-1919. From 1913 Rau was active in the labour movement. In that year he joined a social democratic youth group in Zuffenhausen. During the following years, which saw the beginning of World War I, Rau's youth group, whose leader he became in 1916, was influenced by the left wing of the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the leftists considered the war a conflict between "imperialist powers". A few local members of a far left SPD group, among them Edwin Hoernle and Albert Schreiner, who became well-known members of the Spartacus League, visited the youth group in Zuffenhausen and gave lectures. In 1916, Rau became a co-founder of their youth organisation. In accordance with the politics of the Spartacists, in 1917 he joined the left-wing Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany and in 1919 the Communist Party of Germany, founded by members of the Spartacus League.
In spring 1917, Rau, by this time an elected trade union official in his firm, participated in the attempt to organise a strike against the war. His action led to a reprimand from his employer, may have hastened his conscription into the army in August 1917. In the army he was trained in the Zuffenhausen-garrisoned Infantry Regiment 126 and deployed to the Western Front as member of a machine gun company. In September 1918 a shell splinter penetrated his lungs. In the following weeks, he was treated in military hospitals in Weimar and in Stuttgart's neighbouring town Ludwigsburg. While in Ludwigsburg, Rau managed to get leave at short notice on 8 November 1918 and joined the in those days developing revolution in Stuttgart; the revolution in November 1918 led in Württemberg, like everywhere in Germany, to the end of the monarchy. King William II left Stuttgart on 9 November, shortly after a revolutionary crowd had stormed his residence, the Wilhelm Palais and flown a red flag above the building.
On the same day the demonstrators were able to seize some of Stuttgart's barracks, where parts of the garrisons joined them. Rau took active part in the events in Stuttgart's streets on the following day; these happenings were a first cumulation of a civil commotion, that had started a few days earlier with large strikes and demonstrations. On 4 November 1918, a first workers' council under the leadership of the 23-year-old Spartacist Fritz Rück had been established in Stuttgart. During the following days and weeks more spontaneously elected worker and soldier councils were formed, took over a large part of Württemberg. Rau was elected leader of the military police in his home city of Zuffenhausen, a part of Stuttgart's urban area; as early as 9 November, about 150 councillors gathered for a two-day meeting in Stuttgart. A majority of the councillors entrusted the leaders of the SPD and USPD political parties, invited to the meeting, with the establishment of a provisional government in Württemberg.
The Spartacist Albert Schreiner chairman of a soldier council assumed the key position of Minister of War in this established first government, which for the time being shared power with the councils. However, he resigned already