SeaMonkey is a free and open-source Internet suite. It is the continuation of the former Mozilla Application Suite, based on the same source code, which itself grew out of Netscape Communicator and formed the base of Netscape 6 and Netscape 7. SeaMonkey was created in 2005 after the Mozilla Foundation decided to focus on standalone projects such as Firefox and Thunderbird; the development of SeaMonkey is community-driven, in contrast to the Mozilla Application Suite, which until its last released version was governed by the Mozilla Foundation. The new project-leading group is called the SeaMonkey Council. Compared to Firefox, the SeaMonkey web browser keeps the more traditional-looking interface of Netscape and the Mozilla Suite. Many XUL-based Firefox and Thunderbird add-ons can be modified for compatibility with SeaMonkey, although add-ons built with the WebExtensions architecture used by newer Firefox versions are not yet compatible. SeaMonkey consists of a web browser, a descendant of the Netscape family, an e-mail and news client program, an HTML editor ).
The software suite supports skins. It comes with two skins in the default installation and Classic. Recent versions do not include the IRC client. SeaMonkey Mail is a traditional e-mail client that includes support for multiple accounts, junk mail detection, message filters, HTML message support, address books, among other features, it shares code with Mozilla Thunderbird. SeaMonkey Composer is a WYSIWYG HTML editor, its main user interface features four tabs: Normal, HTML tags, HTML code, browser preview. The generated code is HTML 4.01 Transitional. SeaMonkey Composer is no longer maintained, but the underlying editor code is shared with the Mail component; the SeaMonkey project releases official builds for Linux, macOS, Windows. It releases “unofficial” x86-64 builds for Linux. To avoid confusing organizations that still want to use the original Mozilla Suite, the new product needed a new name. After initial speculation by members of the community, a July 2, 2005 announcement confirmed that SeaMonkey would become the name of the Internet suite superseding the Mozilla Suite.
"Seamonkey" refers to brine shrimp and had been used by Netscape and the Mozilla Foundation as a code name for the never-released "Netscape Communicator 5" and the Mozilla Suite itself. The name "Seamonkey" was derived by Netscape management to replace "Buttmonkey", which their developers had chosen following an internal contest for the codename.. The SeaMonkey Council has now trademarked the name with help from the Mozilla Foundation; the project uses a separate numbering scheme, with the first release being called SeaMonkey 1.0. Despite having a different name and version number, SeaMonkey 1.0 is based on the same code as Mozilla Suite 1.7. For trademark and copyright reasons, Debian rebranded SeaMonkey and distributed it as Iceape until 2013. On March 10, 2005, the Mozilla Foundation announced that it would not release any official versions of Mozilla Application Suite beyond 1.7.x, since it had now focused on the standalone applications Firefox and Thunderbird. However, the Foundation emphasized that it would still provide infrastructure for community members who wished to continue development.
In effect, this meant that the suite would still continue to be developed, but now by the SeaMonkey Council instead of the Mozilla Foundation. SeaMonkey was first released on September 15, 2005. SeaMonkey 1 was released on January 30, 2006. Core Mozilla project source code was licensed under a disjunctive tri-license that gave the choice of one of the three following sets of licensing terms: Mozilla Public License, version 1.1 or GNU General Public License, version 2.0 or GNU Lesser General Public License, version 2.1 or later. The SeaMonkey Council, the team responsible for project and release management consists of Philip Chee, Karsten Düsterloh, Jens Hatlak, Robert Kaiser, Ian Neal, Neil Rashbrook and Justin Wood. Parts of this table are based on the roadmap and the meeting notes. Old release Current release Current test release The SeaMonkey Project SeaMonkey Wiki
Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019, it is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free. Wikipedia was launched on January 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, as a portmanteau of wiki and "encyclopedia". An English-language encyclopedia, versions in other languages were developed. With 5,838,942 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 40 million articles in 301 different languages and by February 2014 it had reached 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors per month.
In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 hard science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Britannica, although critics suggested that it might not have fared so well in a similar study of a random sampling of all articles or one focused on social science or contentious social issues. The following year, Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and the best encyclopedia in the world, was a testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales. Wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truths, half truths, some falsehoods", for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics. In 2017, Facebook announced that it would help readers detect fake news by suitable links to Wikipedia articles. YouTube announced a similar plan in 2018. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.
Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. It was founded on March 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company, its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia; the domains wikipedia.com and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001 and January 13, 2001 and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.
Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit. Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, web search engine indexing. Language editions were created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, its text was incorporated into Wikipedia; the English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia assembled, surpassing the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for 600 years. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002; these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.
Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006. A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that merit an article—have been created and built up extensively. In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend. Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. Two years in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.
In the same interview, Wales claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable". A 2013 article titled; the article revealed
The XPages runtime is part of IBM Domino and leverages the proven and mature capabilities Domino provides. Domino uses a document-oriented database called NSF to manage semi-structured data like rich text and files; the data is stored as views allow finding specific documents efficiently. Documents have unique ids and further built in fields like the last author, last modified date, etc. and they have custom application specific fields. Documents can contain rich text which can be formatted full file attachments. Documents can be queried via views. Domino supports full text search for a full database as built in feature. XPages applications can be deployed on Domino servers or a cluster of Domino servers using IBM Domino Administrator and the replication/synchronization mechanism built into IBM Domino; the replication mechanism supports bi-directional conflict detection and resolution in distributed environments. The XPages development community manages the website XPages.info with various types of information about XPages, including how to get started, downloads and demos.
OpenNTF is an open source site for applications based on IBM Domino and contains several applications and development controls under the Apache License. The origins of XPages technology can be traced as far back as year 2000, when Trilog Group, an IBM Business Partner, invented a component-oriented rapid web application development model, called XSP, similar to the Domino RAD model, but based on J2EE, XML and open standards. In August 2004, IBM acquired the XSP technology assets from Trilog Group in an effort to offer a RAD tool for IBM Workplace, similar to Domino Designer; the XPages technology, based upon JSF and J2EE, started life at IBM, from 2005 to 2007, inside the now discontinued IBM Lotus Workplace Designer and subsequently IBM Lotus Component Designer under the code name'XFaces'. In mid 2007, the XFaces technology became'XPages' and adopted by IBM Lotus Notes Domino, incorporated in the development cycle for the 8.5 release. XPages was previewed at Lotusphere 2008. IBM Lotus Notes Domino 8.5 was released in December 2008 and in time for Lotusphere 2009 where it was one of the many highlights of the show.
IBM Lotus Notes Domino 8.5.1 continued the development of the XPages technology including the running of XPages applications inside the Notes Client. This release als
Mozilla Prism is a discontinued project which integrated web applications with the desktop, allowing web applications to be launched from the desktop and configured independently of the default web browser. As of November 2010, Prism is listed as an inactive project at the Mozilla labs website. Prism is based on a concept called a site-specific browser. An SSB is designed to work with one web application, it doesn't have the menus and other accoutrements of a traditional web browser. The software is built upon XULRunner, so it is possible to get some Mozilla Firefox extensions to work in it; the preview announcement of Prism was made in October 2007. On February 1, 2011, Mozilla labs announced it would no longer maintain Prism, its ideas having been subsumed into a newer project called Chromeless. However, the Mozilla Labs mailing list revealed that Chromeless is not in fact a replacement for Prism, there is no Mozilla replacement for the out-of-the-box site-specific browser functionality of Prism, Chromeless instead being a platform for developers rather than users.
For a while Prism continued to be maintained under the original name of WebRunner, which also was discontinued in September 2011. Chromium Embedded Framework Site-specific browser Rich Internet application Fluid Official website Prism Project at Mozilla Development Center Prism extension for Firefox 3.0 Prism - MozillaWiki prism.mozillalabs.com/ via Internet Archive
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, it was established in 1980. Users post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially; the name comes from the term "users network". A major difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider, employer, or their own server.
Usenet is culturally significant in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ", "flame", "spam". Usenet was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, over a decade before the World Wide Web went online and the general public received access to the Internet, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use, it was built on the "poor man's ARPANET", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News. The name Usenet emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation; the articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects. For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci.* hierarchy, for science.
Or, talk.origins and talk.atheism are in the talk.* hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article; the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into subthreads; when a user posts an article, it is only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should reach every server in the network; the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers. Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.
This is because the POTS network was used for transfers, phone charges were lower at night. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages; the difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients. Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, mailing lists and social media. Usenet differs from such media in several ways: Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned; the groups in alt.binaries are still used for data transfer. Many Internet service providers, many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will offer their users an account from another provider that operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.
Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead. Some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities. Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base, a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents; some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself. Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups. Omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which carries software, music and images, accounts for over 99 percent of article data. There are Usenet providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed. See news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.
Newsgroups are accessed with newsreaders: applications that allow users to read and reply to postings in newsgro
Kiwix is a free and open-source offline web browser created by Emmanuel Engelhart and Renaud Gaudin in 2007. It was first launched to allow offline access to Wikipedia, but has since expanded to include other projects from the Wikimedia Foundation as well as public domain texts from Project Gutenberg. Available in more than 100 languages, Kiwix has been included in several high-profile projects, from smuggling operations in North Korea and encyclopedic access in Cuba to Google Impact Challenge's recipient Bibliothèques Sans Frontières. Founder Emmanuel Engelhart sees Wikipedia as a common good, saying "The contents of Wikipedia should be available for everyone! Without Internet access; this is why I have launched the Kiwix project."After becoming a Wikipedia editor in 2004, Emmanuel Engelhart became interested in developing offline versions of Wikipedia. A project to make a Wikipedia CD, initiated in 2003, was a trigger for the project. In 2012 Kiwix won a grant from Wikimedia France to build kiwix-plug, deployed to universities in eleven countries known as the Afripedia Project.
In February 2013 Kiwix won SourceForge's Project of the Month award and an Open Source Award in 2015. The software is designed as an offline reader for web content, it can be used on computers without an internet connection, computers with a slow or expensive connection, or to avoid censorship. It can be used while traveling. Users first download Kiwix download content for offline viewing with Kiwix. Compression saves disk bandwidth. All of English-language Wikipedia, with pictures, fits on a USB stick. All content files are compressed in ZIM format, which makes them smaller, but leaves them easy to index and selectively decompress; the ZIM files are opened with Kiwix, which looks and behaves like a web browser. Kiwix offers full text search, tabbed navigation, the option to export articles to PDF and HTML. There is an HTTP server version called kiwix-serve; the other computers see an ordinary website. Kiwix-plug is an HTTP server version for plug computers, used to provide a Wi-Fi server. Kiwix uses the deprecated XULRunner Mozilla application framework localised on Translatewiki.net, but plans to replace it.
A list of content available on Kiwix is available for download, including language-specific sublists. Content can be loaded through Kiwix itself. Since 2014, most Wikipedia versions are available for download in various different languages. For English Wikipedia, a full version containing pictures as well as an alternative version containing text only can be downloaded from the archive; the servers are updated every two to ten months, depending on the size of the file. For English Wikipedia, the update frequency is thus lower than the bzip2 database downloads by the Wikimedia Foundation, which are updated twice a month. Besides Wikipedia, content from the Wikimedia foundation such as Wikisource, Wikivoyage and Wikiversity are available for offline viewing in various different languages. In November 2014 a ZIM version of all open texts forming part of Project Gutenberg was made available. Besides public domain content, works licensed under a Creative Commons license are available for download as well.
For example, offline versions of the Ubuntu wiki containing user documentation for the Ubuntu operating system, ZIM editions of TED conference talks and videos from Crash Course are available in the Kiwix archive as ZIM file formats. Kiwix can be installed on a desktop computer as a stand-alone program, installed on a tablet or smartphone, or can create its own WLAN environment from a Raspberry plug; as a software development project, Kiwix itself is not directly involved in deployment projects. However, third party organisations do use the software as a component of their own projects. Examples include: libraries that can't afford broadband Internet access; the Afripedia Project set up kiwix servers in French-speaking universities, some of them with no Internet access, in 11 African countries. Schools in developing countries, where access to the internet is difficult or too expensive. Installed on computers used for the One Laptop per Child project. Installed on Raspberry Pis for use in schools with no electricity in Tanzania by the Tanzania Development Trust.
Installed on tablets in schools in Mali as part of the MALebooks project. Used by school teachers and university professors, as well as students, in Senegal. Deployed in Benin during teacher training seminars run by Zedaga, a Swiss NGO specialized in education; the Fondation Orange has used kiwix-serve in its own French language technological knowledge product they have deployed in Africa. A special version for the organisation SOS Children's Villages was developed for developing countries, but it is used in the developed world. At sea and in other remote areas:Aboard ships in Antarctic waters. By the Senegalese Navy in their patrol ships. Included in Navigatrix, a Linux distribution for people on boats. On a train or plane. In European and US prison education programs. Kiwix was available in the native package managers of some Linux distributions. However, Kiwix is not available in most package databases, due to XULRunner, a program on which Kiwix depends, being deprecated by Mozilla and removed from the package databases.
Kiwix is available in the ArchLinux Linux distributions. It is available on Android. Kiwix is available in the Microsoft Store, on Google Play, Apple's iOS App Store. Since 2015, a series of "customized apps" have been released, of which Medical Wikipedia and PhET simulations are the
Mozilla is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape. The Mozilla community uses, develops and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting free software and open standards, with only minor exceptions; the community is supported institutionally by the not-for-profit Mozilla Foundation and its tax-paying subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation. Mozilla's products include the Firefox web browser, Thunderbird e-mail client, Firefox OS mobile operating system, Bugzilla bug tracking system, Gecko layout engine, Pocket "read-it-later-online" service, others. According to web browsers usage statistics, Mozilla's Firefox trails behind Google Chrome. On January 23, 1998, Netscape made two announcements: first, that Netscape Communicator would be free. One day Jamie Zawinski, from Netscape, registered mozilla.org. The project took its name, "Mozilla", after the original code-name of the Netscape Navigator browser — a portmanteau of "Mosaic and Godzilla", used to co-ordinate the development of the Mozilla Application Suite, the open-source version of Netscape's internet software, Netscape Communicator.
Jamie Zawinski says. A small group of Netscape employees were tasked with coordination of the new community. Mozilla aimed to be a technology provider for companies, such as Netscape, who would commercialize their open-source code; when AOL reduced its involvement with Mozilla in July 2003, the Mozilla Foundation was designated the legal steward of the project. Soon after, Mozilla deprecated the Mozilla Suite in favor of creating independent applications for each function the Firefox web browser and the Thunderbird email client, moved to supply them directly to the public. Mozilla's activities have since expanded to include Firefox on mobile platforms, a mobile OS called Firefox OS, a web-based identity system called Mozilla Persona and a marketplace for HTML5 applications. In a report released in November 2012, Mozilla reported that their total revenue for 2011 was $163 million, up 33% from $123 million in 2010. Mozilla noted that 85% of their revenue comes from their contract with Google. At the end of 2013, Mozilla announced a deal with Cisco Systems whereby Firefox would download and use a Cisco-provided binary build of an open source codec to play the proprietary H.264 video format.
Eich's donation first became public knowledge in 2012, while he was Mozilla’s chief technical officer, leading to angry responses on Twitter—including the use of the hashtag "#wontworkwithbigots". Protests emerged in 2014 following the announcement of Eich's appointment as CEO of Mozilla. U. S. companies OkCupid and CREDO Mobile received media coverage for their objections, with the former asking its users to boycott the browser, while Credo amassed 50,000 signatures for a petition that called for Eich's resignation. Due to the controversy, Eich voluntarily stepped down on April 3, 2014 and Mitchell Baker, executive chairwoman of Mozilla Corporation, posted a statement on the Mozilla blog: "We didn't move fast enough to engage with people once the controversy started. Mozilla believes both in freedom of speech. Equality is necessary for meaningful speech, and you need free speech to fight for equality." Eich's resignation promoted a backlash. OkCupid co-founder and CEO Sam Yagan had donated $500 to Republican candidate Chris Cannon who proceeded to vote for multiple measures viewed as "anti-gay", including the banning of same-sex marriage.