Teseo is an opera seria with music by George Frideric Handel, the only Handel opera, in five acts. The Italian-language libretto was after Philippe Quinault's Thésée, it was Handel's third London opera, intended to follow the success of Rinaldo after the unpopular Il pastor fido. First performed on 10 January 1713,Teseo featured "magical" effects such as flying dragons, transformation scenes and apparitions and had a cast of notable Italian opera singers, it was a success with London audiences, receiving thirteen performances though the stage machinery for the "magical" effects broke down, would have received more performances had not one of the theatre's managers run away with the box office receipts. The opera was premiered at the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket on 10 January 1713, it received an additional 12 performances through 16 May 1713. The singers included the castratos Valentino Urbani. Between 1713 and 1984, there were only two revivals, the first being the revival under Fritz Lehmann in Göttingen on 29 June 1947.
As with all Baroque opera seria, Teseo went unperformed for many years, but with the revival of interest in Baroque music and informed musical performance since the 1960s,Teseo, like all Handel operas, receives performances at festivals and opera houses today. Among other productions, the Handel Festival, Halle performed the work in 2003, the Frankfurt Opera mounted a production in 2013, the work received a staging at the Theater an der Wien in 2018. Scene:Athens, in legendary antiquityKing Egeo of Athens, years before the action begins, had sent away his baby son to a far-off land. Now a grown man, the hero Teseo is fighting on behalf of Athens, his identity as the king's son unknown to himself or others. Teseo is engaged in battle against Athens' foes. Princess Agilea, the ward of King Egeo, is concerned for Teseo's safety, as she confides to her companion the young maiden Clizia, for Agilea has fallen hopelessly in love with Teseo. Clizia has a boyfriend, whom she promises to love always, but when she asks him to find out what he can about Teseo's safety, he becomes jealous.
The Athenians have been victorious in battle, King Egeo declares that his announced marriage to Medea, a sorceress, is now no longer suitable for such a mighty sovereign as himself and he will take Princess Agilea as his bride. Agilea bewails her cruel fate, having no wish to be a Queen, but to be allowed to marry the man she loves, Teseo. Medea is furious at the humiliation caused to her by the King's rejection. Arcane, jealous of Teseo because of his misinterpretation of his sweetheart Clizia's concern for him, warns the King not to trust Teseo who, Arcane suggests, will want to throw Egeo off the throne and take his place now that he has become such a military hero. Medea meanwhile sows seeds of distrust in Teseo's mind – the King is jealous of him, Medea says, only she knows how to treat the King to allay this bad feeling. Teseo tells Medea. Medea, full of hatred, vows revenge for the insults. Arcane has decided to seek marriage to Clizia; the King, learning that Agilea is in love not with him but with Teseo, does not wish to force her to marry him and has given his consent for Agilea and Teseo to be united.
The lovers are overjoyed at this news but Medea and rejected once more, bursts into the room where Agilea and Teseo are celebrating their reunion and, by casting spells, changes the scene to a desert full of terrifying apparitions who carry Agilea away. The King is told by Arcane of; the horrified Egeo swears. In the enchanted realm where Agilea is captive, Medea tells her she must agree to marry the King instead of Teseo, or the hero will meet his death. Medea shows her a vision of the sleeping Teseo. Agilea agrees to renounce him and marry the King instead to save Teseo's life, whereupon Medea transforms the scene to a paradisaical realm where Teseo hears Agilea's voice tearfully telling him she no longer loves him. Agilea's sorrow moves the heart of Medea who informs the lovers she will no longer attempt to part them, to the joy of Teseo and Agilea. Medea's sympathy for Teseo and Agilea's love did not last long. Teseo and Agilea enter with their friends; the King offers to drink to their happiness and gives Teseo the poisoned drink to toast with in return.
Teseo draws his sword to swear his loyalty to the King and is about to drink the poisoned beverage when the King recognises the sword as the one he had sent with his baby son years before so that he would be able to recognise him when grown up. The King embraces him as his son. Not only will Teseo and Agilea now live in married happiness and Clizia can marry too; the enraged Medea appears on a flying chariot drawn by fire-breathing dragons. Swearing vengeance, she orders the dragons to set the palace on fire, but the goddess Minerva descends from heaven, banishes Medea, blesses the King, the two pairs of lovers, Athens; the German-born Handel, after spending some of his early career composing operas and other pieces in Italy, settled in London, where in 1711 he had brought Italian opera for the first time with his opera Rinaldo. A tremendous success, Rinaldo created a craze in Lo
Ottone, re di Germania is an opera by George Frideric Handel, to an Italian–language libretto adapted by Nicola Francesco Haym from the libretto by Stefano Benedetto Pallavicino for Antonio Lotti's opera Teofane. It was the first new opera written for the Royal Academy of Music's fourth season and had its first performance on 12 January 1723 at the King's Theatre, Haymarket in London. Handel had assembled a cast of operatic superstars for this season and the opera became an enormous success; the story of the opera is a fictionalisation of some events in the lives of Adalbert of Italy, his mother Willa of Tuscany, Otto II, the Byzantine Princess Theophanu, who became the wife of Otto II in a state marriage intended to form an alliance between the Byzantine and Holy Roman empires. The German-born Handel, after spending some of his early career composing operas and other pieces in Italy, settled in London, where in 1711 he had brought Italian opera for the first time with his opera Rinaldo. A tremendous success, Rinaldo created a craze in London for Italian opera seria, a form focused overwhelmingly on solo arias for the star virtuoso singers.
In 1719, Handel was appointed music director of an organisation called the Royal Academy of Music, a company under royal charter to produce Italian operas in London. Handel was not only to compose operas for the company but hire the star singers, supervise the orchestra and musicians, adapt operas from Italy for London performance. For the fourth season in 1723, for which his first opera was Ottone, Handel assembled a cast of star singers including the internationally famous castrato, beginning a long and sometimes stormy association with Handel that included creating seventeen leading roles in his operas for London, at a vast salary; the star soprano Margherita Durastanti, who had sung in many of Handel's early works in Italy as well as his previous operas in London, joined the cast, as did English soprano Anastasia Robinson, unhappy about much of the music Handel had written for her to sing in Ottone, feeling that she could not portray, as he desired and anger, appealed in a letter to one of the patrons of the Royal Academy to intervene with Handel to write gentler music for her to suit her abilities.
In the cast was another internationally renowned castrato, Gaetano Berenstadt, in the first of three roles he created in Handel operas. New to London for Ottone, in addition to Senesino, was celebrated Italian soprano Francesca Cuzzoni, she knew that Handel had written much of the music for the opera before he had hired her, at the first rehearsal with the composer, indicated that she would like him to write a new entrance aria for her, to show her unique talents and make a good first impression with the London public. On being asked to replace the aria Falsa imagine with a new one, according to his first biographer John Mainwaring, flew into a rage: Having one day some words with CUZZONI on her refusing to sing Falsa imagine in OTTONE. Madame, je sçais bien que Vous êtes une véritable Diablesse: mais je Vous ferai sçavoir, que je suis Beelzebub le Chéf des Diables.. Cuzzoni yielded and sang the aria Handel had written with enormous success, including it throughout her career in recitals and concerts.
Handel had seen Antonio Lotti's opera Teofane, to the same libretto as Ottone, in Dresden in 1719, with three of the same singers in the same roles, though with newly written music by Handel, they had played in the Lotti work - Senesino, Giuseppe Maria Boschi and Margherita Durastanti repeated their roles from the Lotti opera in Ottone. Place: Rome and environs Time: Around 970 ADThe opera is based on events from the lives of Adalbert of Italy and Otto II; the "Argument" to the opera provides the context of the events. It had been arranged that Ottone would marry daughter of Romano, the Eastern Emperor. Basilio, Teofane's brother, had been driven into exile by a usurper. However, Basilio had become a pirate during his exile, took on the name of Emireno. A gallery adorned with statues Gismonda's dream is to see her son Adelberto on the throne of Italy.. When Adelberto comes to her, she informs him of her scheme to bring this to pass, her deceased husband had ruled Italy illegally as the country was a possession of the German King Ottone, now on the way to reclaim the territory and to marry Teofane, daughter of the Byzantine emperor, in Rome and has been sent a portrait of her bridegroom-to-be, which has caused her to look forward to her marriage with delight.
However Ottone has been delayed in his journey to Rome by an attack on his convoy of ships by pirates, necessitating a battle at sea. Gismonda instructs her son to present himself to Teofane as her bridegroom, marry her, pretending to be Ottone. Adelberto thinks this is a clever plan and Gismonda joyfully anticipates her son's success.. Teofane comes to meet, as she believes, her husband-to-be Ottone, when Adelberto greets her, pretending to be Ottone, she cannot understand why he looks nothing like the handsome and noble young man she had imagined from the miniature portrait she had been sent and carries with her in a locket. Left alone, she accuses the portrait of cruelly misleading her. Tents along the shore of the sea with ships at anchor The true Ottone has arrived to claim his rightful kingdom an
Amadigi di Gaula
Amadigi di Gaula is a "magic" opera in three acts, with music by George Frideric Handel. It was the fifth Italian opera that Handel wrote for London and was composed during his stay at Burlington House in 1715, it is based on Amadis de Grèce, a French tragédie-lyrique by André Cardinal Destouches and Antoine Houdar de la Motte. Charles Burney maintained near the end of the eighteenth century, Amadigi contained "...more invention and good composition, than in any one of the musical dramas of Handel which I have yet and critically examined.”The opera received its first performance in London at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket on 25 May 1715. Handel made prominent use of wind instruments, so the score is unusually colorful, at points resembles the Water Music, which he composed only a few years later. Exceptional care was lavished on the production. Amadigi employs no voices lower than alto and it ends in a minor key; the opera was a success and received a known minimum of 17 further performances in London through 1717.
The identity of the librettist is not known for certain. Previous consensus had been that John Jacob Heidegger, who signed the dedication to Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington was the author, but more recent research has indicated that the librettist was more to be Giacomo Rossi, with Nicola Francesco Haym as a more probable candidate; this libretto is an adaptation of a medieval Spanish knight-errantry epic Amadis de Gaula in which the King of Gaul, educated in Scotland, falls in love with and marries Oriana, daughter of the King of England. David Kimbell compared in detail the treatments of the story by Destouches. What interested Handel was the sufferings of the four characters. Not the descriptive effects of his “magic” operas; the sole preoccupation of each of the protagonists is to make the others fall in or out of love with them. In act 2 Amadigi addresses the Fountain of True Love in a long cavatina of the utmost sensuous beauty; this scene was famous for its spectacular effects. The “coup de theatre” was the use of a real fountain spraying real water.
The scene employed a large number of stage engineers and plumbers, among other things, such that the following newspaper announcement appeared on the day of the premiere: “whereas there is a great many Scenes and Machines to be mov’d in this Opera, which cannot be done if persons should stand upon the Stage, it is therefore hop’d no Body the Subscribers, will take ill that they must be deny’d Entrance on the Stage.”According to Winton Dean the quality of the score the first two acts, is remarkably high, but it shows less careful organization than most of the operas. He states that the tonal design seems off balance; the conception of an opera as a coherent structural organism was slow to capture Handel's imagination. The original manuscript of Amadigi has disappeared, along with ballet sections in the music. Only one edition of the libretto is known, dating from 1715. Two published editions of the opera exist, the Händelgesellschaft edition of 1874, the first critical edition, by J. Merrill Knapp, which Bärenreiter published in 1971.
Dean has examined the history of various manuscripts which contain alternative selections for the score. The opera is scored for two recorders, two oboes, trumpet and basso continuo; the singer Elisabetta Pilotti-Schiavonetti in the role of Melissa, who specialised in playing sorceresses, for whom Handel had written the similar parts of the witch-like Armida in Rinaldo and Medea in Teseo is distinguished in Handel's music between her vengeful character and that of the other leading female part, the sweet Princess Oriana. Hamburg with a different title, Oriana; the opera fell into neglect and was not revived until 1929 in Osnabrück and subsequently in England in 1968, by Unicorn Opera at the Abbey Hall, Oxfordshire. With the revival of interest in Baroque music and informed musical performance since the 1960s, Amadigi di Gaula, like all Handel operas, receives performances at festivals and opera houses today. Among other performances, the opera received its North American premiere in March 2003 at Western University's Don Wright Faculty of Music. and the first staged production in North America was in July 2011 at Central City Opera in Central City, Colorado.
A production of Amadigi di Gaula was seen at the Göttingen International Handel Festival in 2012 and the opera received a production by Haymarket Opera, Chicago in 2015. Amadis de Gaula by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo is a prose pastoral romance written towards the close of the fourteenth century; the work has a complicated history. Oriana was heiress to the throne of England. Amadis of Gaul is a prince born of a secret amour, educated in Scotland, reared as a knight, serving devotedly the fair English princess Oriana. For her sake he contends against monsters and enchantments, defends her father's kingdom from an oppressor. Richard B. Beams wrote: The plot ranges across the continent to Romania and Constantinople, in the continuations as far as the Holy Land and the Cyclades. However, the romance's geography cannot be mapped onto the "real" Europe: it contains just as many fantastic places as real ones. Amadís was influential amongst the Spanish conquistadores. Bernal Diaz del Castillo mentioned the wonders of Amadís upon witnessing the wonders of the New World – and such place names as California and Patagonia come directly from the work.
Amadigi, a Paladin, Dardano, the Prince of Thrace, are both enamoured with Oriana, the daughter of the King of the Fortunate Isles. Oriana prefers Amadigi in her
Almira, Königin von Castilien is George Frideric Handel's first opera, composed when he was 19 years old. It was first performed in Hamburg in January 1705. Handel came to the city of Hamburg in the summer of 1703 and played as a violinist in the theatre at the Gänsemarkt, the local market place. On occasions, he played the harpsichord in the orchestra, his first opera – announced as a Singspiel although it has no spoken dialogue – was premiered on 8 January 1705, after being composed in the months directly preceding this. An Italian libretto was written by Giulio Pancieri in Venice in 1691 for Giuseppe Boniventi's opera L'Almira; the German translation used by Handel was made by Friedrich Christian Feustking. The recitatives of the opera are in German, while some of the arias are in German, others in Italian, as was the custom at the opera house in Hamburg. Almira is the sole example among Handel's many operas with no role for a castrato. Almira was a resounding success; the opera was performed twenty times in total until its place was taken by Handel's next opera, the music of which has not been preserved.
The first modern performance of Almira took place on 23 February 1985, Handel's 300th birthday, at Leipzig's Städtische Oper. As with all of Handel's operas, after going unperformed for many years, Almira is presented by opera houses and festivals today. Among other performances, Almira was staged by operamission in New York City in 2012 and by the Boston Early Music Festival in 2013 The fictional story is set in medieval Valladolid. Princess Almira has inherited the throne from her father and the opera opens with her coronation; the new queen is disconcerted when her guardian Consalvo claims that her father entrusted him with his dying wish, namely that Almira should marry someone from "Consalvo's house" and since he only has one son, a rather feckless army officer called Osman, it would seem her father wished her to marry him. This is unwelcome news to Almira as she is in love with her private secretary, a young man of unknown parentage named Fernando. Osman is not unhappy to be elevated to royal status in this way, but he too is in love with someone else, the Princess Edilia.
At an elaborate court entertainment, Almira mistakenly believes that her beloved Fernando is flirting with Edilia and becomes consumed with jealousy. The restless and jaded Osman attends another brilliant festivity given by Princess Bellante. Princess Bellante has fallen in love with Osman, but Osman's father, Consalvo, is amorously pursuing Bellante, which she finds annoying and tries to put a stop to. Osman, although in love with Edilia, thinks it will be grand to be a royal personage, so is keen to marry Almira, asks Fernando, whom he knows has influence with Almira, to speak to her on his behalf; the king of Mauretania, disguising himself as the "ambassador" from Mauretania, makes an appearance at Almira's court and tries to win her love. Almira is not interested, being still in love with her secretary Fernando, although she has never told him so, she goes to him to confess her devotion, but Osman appears and, desiring Almira not for herself but the status he would gain as her husband, is about to stab Fernando when Almira grabs the dagger from him.
Edilia gets wind of the fact that her sweetheart Osman is now keen to marry Almira and throws a jealous fit. A servant of Fernando, called Tabarco, comes across correspondence from these various persons in these love tangles, opens and reads all their letters. At an elaborate court masque in honour of Raymondo, Fernando and Consalvo allegorically impersonate Europe and Africa. Raymondo now tries to woo Edilia. Princess Bellante once again rebuffs the unwelcome attentions of Consalvo. In fact Bellante is now smitten with Osman. Tabarco hands a goodbye letter and a family heirloom, a ruby, from Fernando to Almira, when Consalvo sees the ruby he realises that Fernando is his long lost son. Now Almira can marry Fernando and still fulfill her father's dying wish, Bellante will marry Osman and Edilia will accept Raymondo after all. All celebrate the fortunate outcome of events. Almira is a mix of spectacle, as in the opening coronation scene and the masque in the third act, dance and drama. Paul O'Dette, artistic co-director of the Boston Early Music Festival, where the opera was staged in 2013, says of this early work by the teenaged Handel:From the first page of the overture, it just overflows with genius and invention.
You can’t believe that an overture of this brilliance could have been written as Handel’s first attempt, because most composers never achieve this level of invention after a whole career. The opera is scored for two traversos, two oboes, three trumpets, timpani and continuo. In 1732 the piece was once more performed in a version edited by Georg Philipp Telemann. In 1879 Franz Liszt composed a transcription of the Sarabande and Chaconne from the opening act of this opera for his English piano student Walter Bache. Noted by critics as one of the most striking of Liszt's late paraphrases as well as his only setting of a baroque piece from his late period, this work is said to anticipate Ferruccio Busoni's late-romantic settings of Bach. Australian Liszt scholar and pianist Leslie Howard has recorded this work as part of Hyperion Records' complete Liszt series. 1994: Andrew Lawrence-King. Studio recording with German recitatives an
Rinaldo is an opera by George Frideric Handel, composed in 1711, was the first Italian language opera written for the London stage. The libretto was prepared by Giacomo Rossi from a scenario provided by Aaron Hill, the work was first performed at the Queen's Theatre in London's Haymarket on 24 February 1711; the story of love and redemption, set at the time of the First Crusade, is loosely based on Torquato Tasso's epic poem Gerusalemme liberata, its staging involved many original and vivid effects. It was a great success with the public, despite negative reactions from literary critics hostile to the contemporary trend towards Italian entertainment in English theatres. Handel composed Rinaldo borrowing and adapting music from operas and other works that he had composed during a long stay in Italy in the years 1706–10, during which he established a considerable reputation. In the years following the premiere, he made numerous amendments to the score. Rinaldo is regarded by critics as one of Handel's greatest operas.
Of its individual numbers, the soprano aria "Lascia ch'io pianga" has become a particular favourite, is a popular concert piece. Handel went on to dominate opera in England for several decades. Rinaldo was revived in London up to 1717, in a revised version in 1731. After 1731, the opera was not staged for more than 200 years. Renewed interest in baroque opera during the 20th century led to the first modern professional production in Handel's birthplace, Germany, in 1954; the opera was mounted sporadically over the following thirty years. Rinaldo was the first Handel Opera; the opera's tercentenary in 2011 brought a modernized production at the Glyndebourne Festival. Handel began to compose operas in Hamburg, where he spent the years 1703–06. At that time, German opera as a genre was still not defined; the music was, in the words of historian Donald Jay Grout, "tinged with the serious, heavy formality of Lutheran Germany". The first of Handel's early works in the German style was Almira, a considerable success when it was premiered on 8 January 1705.
Over the next three years Handel composed three more operas in the German style, but all of these are now lost. However, fragments of the music from these works have been identified in operas. In autumn 1706 Handel went to Italy, he stayed for long periods in Florence, Rome and Venice, making frequent visits to the opera houses and concert halls. He obtained introductions to leading musicians, among them Arcangelo Corelli and Domenico Scarlatti, Agostino Steffani, met numerous singers and performers. From these acquaintances Handel learned the essential characteristics of Italian music, in particular "fluency in the treatment of Italian verse, accurate declamation and flexible harmonic rhythm in recitative... drawing the necessary distinction between vocal and instrumental material and, above all, the release of wonderful melodic gift". Handel's first Italian opera, showed an incomplete grasp of Italian style, with much of Keiser's Hamburg influence still evident, he followed this by a lengthy visit to Rome, where opera performances were forbidden by papal decree, honed his skills through the composition of cantatas and oratorios.
In Rome, Handel met a diplomat and spare-time librettist. After this work's triumphant premiere at the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo in Venice, on 26 December 1709, Handel became, says biographer P. H. Lang, "world famous and the idol of a spoiled and knowledgeable audience"; this sudden recognition led to eager competition for Handel's services. Among those most keen to employ him was Prince Georg Ludwig, the Elector of Hanover and future King George I of Great Britain. In June 1710 Handel accepted the appointment of Kapellmeister to Georg's Hanover court, under terms that gave him considerable scope to pursue his own interests. On the basis of this freedom, in late 1710 Handel left Hanover for London in response to an earlier invitation from members of the English nobility. By 1711, informed London audiences had become familiar with the nature of Italian opera through the numerous pastiches and adaptations, staged; the former Royal Academy of Music Principal, Curtis Price, writes that the popularity of these pieces was the result of a deliberate strategy aimed at the suppression of English opera.
Handel's music was unknown in England, though his reputation from Agrippina was considerable elsewhere. A short "Italian Dialogue" he had written in honour of Queen Anne's birthday was well received when performed at St James's Palace on 6 February 1711. In London, by means which are not documented, Handel secured a commission to write an Italian opera for the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket; this theatre and built by Sir John Vanbrugh, had become London's main opera house.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Published under the title A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called Grove Music Online, now an important part of Oxford Music Online. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians was first published in four volumes edited by George Grove with an Appendix edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland in the fourth volume. An Index edited by Mrs. E. Wodehouse was issued as a separate volume in 1890. In 1900, minor corrections were made to the plates and the entire series was reissued in four volumes, with the index added to volume 4; the original edition and the reprint are now available online. Grove limited the chronological span of his work to begin at 1450 while continuing up to the present day.
The second edition, in five volumes, was edited by Fuller Maitland and published from 1904 to 1910, this time as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The individual volumes of the second edition were reprinted many times. An American Supplement edited by Waldo Selden Pratt and Charles N. Boyd was added in 1920; this edition removed the first edition's beginning date of 1450, though important earlier composers and theorists are still missing from this edition. These volumes are now available online; the third edition in five volumes, was an extensive revision of the 2nd edition. Colles and published in 1927; the fourth edition edited by Colles, was published in 1940 in five volumes. In addition to the American Supplement, Macmillan published a Supplementary Volume edited by Colles; the fifth edition, in nine volumes, was edited by Eric Blom and published in 1954. This was the most thoroughgoing revision of the work since its inception, with many articles rewritten in a more modern style and a large number of new articles.
Many of the articles were written by Blom or translated by him. An additional Supplementary Volume, prepared for the most part by Eric Blom, followed in 1961. Blom died in 1959, the Supplementary Volume was completed by Denis Stevens; the fifth edition was reprinted in 1966, 1968, 1970, 1973, 1975. The next edition was published in 1980 under the name The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and was expanded to 20 volumes with 22,500 articles and 16,500 biographies, its senior editor was Stanley Sadie with Nigel Fortune serving as one of the main editors for the publication. It was reprinted with minor corrections each subsequent year until 1995, except 1982 and 1983. In the mid-1990s, the hardback set sold for about $2,300. A paperback edition was reprinted in 1995 which sold for $500. ISBN 0-333-23111-2 – hardback ISBN 1-56159-174-2 – paperback ISBN 0-333-73250-2 – British special edition ISBN 1-56159-229-3 – American special edition Some sections of The New Grove were issued as small sets and individual books on particular topics.
These were enhanced with expanded and updated material and included individual and grouped composer biographies, a four-volume dictionary of American music, a three-volume dictionary of musical instruments, a four-volume dictionary of opera. The second edition under this title was published in 29 volumes, it was made available by subscription on the internet in a service called Grove Music Online. It was again edited by Stanley Sadie, the executive editor was John Tyrrell, it was to be released on CD-ROM as well, but this plan was dropped. As Sadie writes in the preface, "The biggest single expansion in the present edition has been in the coverage of 20th-century composers"; this edition has been subject to negative criticism owing to the significant number of typographical and factual errors that it contains. Two volumes were re-issued in corrected versions, after production errors caused the omission of sections of Igor Stravinsky's worklist and Richard Wagner's bibliography. ISBN 0-333-60800-3 – British ISBN 1-56159-239-0 – American Publication of the second edition of The New Grove was accompanied by a Web-based version, Grove Music Online.
It too, attracted some initial criticism, for example for the way in which images were not incorporated into the text but kept separate. The complete text of The New Grove is available to subscribers to the online service Grove Music Online. Grove Music Online includes a large number of additions of new articles. In addition to the 29 volumes of The New Grove second edition, Grove Music Online incorporates the four-volume New Grove Dictionary of Opera and the three-volume New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, second edition, The Grove Dictionary of American Music and The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, comprising a total of more than 50,000 articles; the current editor-in-chief of Grove Music, the name given to the complete slate of print and online resources that encompass the Grove brand, is University of Pittsburgh professor Deane Root. He assumed the editorship in 2009; the dictionary published by Macmillan, was sold in 2004 to Oxford University Press. Since 2008 Grove Music Online has served as a cornerstone of Oxford University Press's larger online
George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel was a German British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios and organ concertos. Handel received important training in Halle-upon-Saale and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712, he was influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition. Within fifteen years, Handel had started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera. Musicologist Winton Dean writes; as Alexander's Feast was well received, Handel made a transition to English choral works. After his success with Messiah he never composed an Italian opera again. Blind, having lived in England for nearly fifty years, he died in 1759, a respected and rich man, his funeral was given full state honours, he was buried in Westminster Abbey in London. Born the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach and Domenico Scarlatti, Handel is regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Baroque era, with works such as Messiah, Water Music, Music for the Royal Fireworks remaining steadfastly popular.
One of his four coronation anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally during the sovereign's anointing. Another of his English oratorios, has remained popular, with the Sinfonia that opens act 3 featuring at the 2012 London Olympics opening ceremony. Handel composed more than forty operas in over thirty years, since the late 1960s, with the revival of baroque music and informed musical performance, interest in Handel's operas has grown. Handel was born in 1685 to Georg Händel and Dorothea Taust, his father, aged sixty-three when George Frideric was born, was an eminent barber-surgeon who served the court of Saxe-Weissenfels and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Georg Händel was the son of a coppersmith, Valentin Händel, who had emigrated from Eisleben in 1608 with his first wife Anna Belching, the daughter of a master coppersmith, they were Protestants and chose reliably Protestant Saxony over Silesia, a Hapsburg possession, as religious tensions mounted in the years before the Thirty Years War.
Halle was a prosperous city, home of a salt-mining industry and center of trade. The Margrave of Brandenburg became the administrator of the archiepiscopal territories of Mainz, including Magdeburg when they converted, by the early 17th century held his court in Halle, which attracted renowned musicians; the smaller churches all had "able organists and fair choirs", humanities and the letters thrived. The Thirty Years War brought extensive destruction to Halle, by the 1680s it was impoverished. However, since the middle of the war the city had been under the administration of the Duke of Saxony, soon after the end of the war he would bring musicians trained in Dresden to his court in Weissenfels; the arts and music, flourished only among the higher strata, of which Handel's family was not a member. Georg Händel was born at the beginning of the war, was apprenticed to a barber in Halle at the age of 14, after his father died; when he was 20, he married the widow of the official barber-surgeon of a suburb of Halle, inheriting his practice.
With this, Georg determinedly began the process of becoming self-made. Anna died in 1682. Within a year Georg married again, this time to the daughter of a Lutheran minister, Pastor Georg Taust of the Church of St. Bartholomew in Giebichtenstein, who himself came from a long line of Lutheran pastors. Handel was the second child of this marriage. Two younger sisters were born after the birth of George Frideric: Dorthea Sophia, born 6 October 1687, Johanna Christiana, born 10 January 1690. Early in his life Handel is reported to have attended the gymnasium in Halle, where the headmaster, Johann Praetorius, was reputed to be an ardent musician. Whether Handel remained there or for how long is unknown, but many biographers suggest that he was withdrawn from school by his father, based on the characterization of him by Handel's first biographer, John Mainwaring. Mainwaring is the source for all information of Handel's childhood, much of that information came from J. C. Smith, Jr. Handel's confidant and copyist.
Whether it came from Smith or elsewhere, Mainwaring relates misinformation. It is from Mainwaring that the portrait comes of Handel's father as implacably opposed to any musical education. Mainwaring writes that Georg Händel was "alarmed" at Handel's early propensity for music, "took every measure to oppose it", including forbidding any musical instrument in the house and preventing Handel from going to any house where they might be found; this did nothing to dampen young Handel's inclination. Mainwaring tells the story of Handel's