173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team
The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team is an airborne infantry brigade combat team of the United States Army based in Vicenza, Italy. It is the United States European Command's conventional airborne strategic response force for Europe. Activated in 1915, as the 173rd Infantry Brigade, the unit saw service in World War II but is best known for its actions during the Vietnam War; the brigade was the first major United States Army ground formation deployed in Vietnam, serving there from 1965 to 1971 and losing 1,800 soldiers. Noted for its roles in Operation Hump and Operation Junction City, the 173d is best known for the Battle of Dak To, where it suffered heavy casualties in close combat with North Vietnamese forces. Brigade members received including more than 6,000 Purple Hearts; the brigade returned to the United States in 1972, where the 1st and 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry, were absorbed into the 3d Brigade, 101st Airborne Division, the 3d Battalion, 319th Field Artillery was reassigned to Division Artillery in the 101st.
The remaining units of the 173d were inactivated. Since its reactivation in 2000, the brigade served five tours in the Middle East in support of the War on Terror; the 173d participated in the initial invasion of Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, had four tours in Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2005–06, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2012–13. The brigade returned most from a deployment stretching from late 2013 to late 2014; the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team has received 21 campaign streamers and several unit awards, including the Presidential Unit Citation for its actions during the Battle of Dak To during the Vietnam War. The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team serves as the conventional airborne strategic response force for Europe, it was a subordinate unit of the U. S. Army's V Corps and after June 2013, subordinate to US Army Europe; the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team consists of 3,300 soldiers in seven subordinate battalions as well as a headquarters company: Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment, associated unit 1st Squadron, 91st Cavalry Regiment 4th Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment 54th Brigade Engineer Battalion 173rd Support BattalionAll of these units are airborne qualified, making the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team the only separate airborne brigade in the United States Army.
In August 2016 the 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment became part of the brigade under the Army's Associated Unit Pilot Program. The 173rd Infantry Brigade was constituted on 5 August 1917 as an infantry brigade and organized on 25 August at Camp Pike, Arkansas, as an element of the 87th Division along with the 174th Infantry Brigade; the brigade deployed to France along with the rest of the division in September 1918, but it did not participate in any campaigns and never saw combat, instead being utilized as a pool of laborers and reinforcements for frontline units. Four months the brigade returned to the United States, was demobilized with the rest of the division in January 1919 at Camp Dix, New Jersey. On 24 June 1921, the unit was reconstituted as the Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 173rd Infantry Brigade, was assigned to the Organized Reserve Corps and the 87th Division at Shreveport, Louisiana, it was reorganized in December 1921 at Mobile, redesignated on 23 March 1925 as the HHC 173rd Brigade, redesignated as HHC 173rd Infantry Brigade on 24 August 1936.
During World War II, brigades were eliminated from divisions. The HHC 173rd Infantry Brigade was designated as the 87th Reconnaissance Troop in February 1942 and activated on 15 December 1942. Though the brigade in name did not exist during the war, the redesignation meant that it carried the lineage of the 87th Reconnaissance Troop, when the brigade was reactivated, it would include the troop's lineage and campaign streamers; the troop fought in three European campaigns. The maneuver battalions of the Vietnam era 173rd trace their lineage to the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, which assaulted the fortress island of Corregidor in the Philippines by parachute and waterborne operations, thereby earning the nickname "The Rock". After the war, the troop reverted to reserve status and was posted at Birmingham, Alabama from 1947 until 1951. On 1 December 1951, the troop was inactivated and released from its assignment to the 87th Infantry Division. From 1961 to 1963, the Army began reorganizing its force so that each division would have a similar structure, which would vary depending on the type of division it was.
This move was called the Reorganization Objective Army Division plan. The plan eliminated regiments but reintroduced brigades to the Army's structure, allowing three brigades to a division; the reorganization allowed for the use of "separate" brigades which had no division headquarters and could be used for missions that did not require an entire division. The 173rd Brigade was selected to become a separate brigade and a special airborne task force, which could deploy and act independently, it was designed uniquely from other separate brigades. The 173rd was the only separate brigade to have support formations permanently assigned to it, though other separate brigades would receive support elements of their own a year later; the brigade was the only separate brigade to receive its own tank company, in the form of Company D, 16th Armor. Consi
The Tet Offensive, or called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 by North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam; the name of the offensive comes from the Tết holiday, the Vietnamese New Year, when the first major attacks took place. The offensive was launched prematurely in the late night hours of 30 January in the I and II Corps Tactical Zones of South Vietnam; this early attack allowed South US forces some time to prepare defensive measures. When the main North Vietnamese operation began the next morning, the offensive was countrywide and well coordinated; the offensive was the largest military operation conducted by either side up to that point in the war.
Hanoi had launched the offensive in the belief that the offensive would trigger a popular uprising leading to the collapse of the South Vietnamese government. Although the initial attacks stunned both the U. S. and South Vietnamese armies, causing them to lose control of several cities temporarily, they regrouped, beat back the attacks, inflicted heavy casualties on North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces. The popular uprising anticipated by Hanoi never happened. During the Battle of Huế, intense fighting lasted for a month, resulting in the destruction of the city. During their occupation, the North Vietnamese executed thousands of people in the Massacre at Huế. Around the U. S. combat base at Khe Sanh, fighting continued for two more months. The offensive was a military defeat for North Vietnam though General Westmoreland reported that defeating the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong would require 200,000 more American soldiers and activation of the reserves, prompting loyal supporters of the war to see that the current war strategy required re-evaluation.
The offensive had a strong effect on the U. S. government and shocked the U. S. public, led to believe by its political and military leaders that the North Vietnamese were being defeated and incapable of launching such an ambitious military operation. S. sought negotiations to end the war. The term "Tet Offensive" refers to the January–February 1968 offensive, but it can include the so-called "Mini-Tet" offensive that took place in May and the Phase III Offensive in August, or the 21 weeks of unusually intense combat which followed the initial attacks in January. During the fall of 1967, the question whether the U. S. strategy of attrition was working in South Vietnam weighed on the minds of the American public and the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson. General William C. Westmoreland, the commander of the Military Assistance Command, believed that if a "crossover point" could be reached by which the number of communist troops killed or captured during military operations exceeded those recruited or replaced, the Americans would win the war.
There was a discrepancy, between the order of battle estimates of the MACV and the Central Intelligence Agency concerning the strength of Viet Cong guerrilla forces within South Vietnam. In September, members of the MACV intelligence services and the CIA met to prepare a Special National Intelligence Estimate that would be used by the administration to gauge U. S. success in the conflict. Provided with an enemy intelligence windfall accrued during Operations Cedar Falls and Junction City, the CIA members of the group believed that the number of Vietcong guerrillas and cadre within the South could be as high as 430,000; the MACV Combined Intelligence Center, on the other hand, maintained that the number could be no more than 300,000. Westmoreland was concerned about the possible perceptions of the American public to such an increased estimate since communist troop strength was provided to reporters during press briefings. According to MACV's chief of intelligence, General Joseph A. McChristian, the new figures "would create a political bombshell", since they were positive proof that the North Vietnamese "had the capability and the will to continue a protracted war of attrition".
In May, MACV attempted to obtain a compromise from the CIA by maintaining that Viet Cong militias did not constitute a fighting force but were low-level fifth columnists used for information collection. The agency responded that such a notion was ridiculous since the militias were directly responsible for half of the casualties inflicted on U. S. forces. With the groups deadlocked, George Carver, CIA deputy director for Vietnamese affairs, was asked to mediate the dispute. In September, Carver devised a compromise: The CIA would drop its insistence on including the irregulars in the final tally of forces and add a prose addendum to the estimate that would explain the agency's position. George Allen, Carver's deputy, laid responsibility for the agency's capitulation at the feet of Richard Helms, the director of the CIA, he believed that "it was a political problem... didn't want the agency... contravening the policy interest of the administration."During the second half of 1967 the administration had become alarmed by
Da Nang is one of the five largest cities in Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Cần Thơ in terms of urbanization and economy. Located on the coast of the South China Sea at the mouth of the Han River, it is one of Vietnam's most important port cities; as one of the country's five direct-controlled municipalities, it is under the direct administration of the central government. Da Nang is the commercial and educational centre of Central Vietnam, as well as being the largest city in the region. In addition to its well-sheltered accessible port, Da Nang's location on the path of National Route 1A and the North–South Railway makes it a hub for transportation, it is located within 100 km of several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Imperial City of Hue, the Old Town of Hoi An, the My Son ruins. The city was known as Cửa Hàn during early Đại Việt settlement, as Tourane during French colonial rule. Before 1997, the city was part of Quang Nam-Da Nang Province. On 1 January 1997, Da Nang was separated from Quảng Nam Province to become one of four independent municipalities in Vietnam.
Da Nang is listed as a first class city, has a higher urbanization ratio than any of Vietnam's other provinces or centrally governed cities. Most of the names by which Da Nang has been known make reference to its position at the Hàn River estuary; the city's present name is agreed to be a Vietnamese adaptation of the Cham word da nak, translated as "opening of a large river". Other Chamic sources, with similar definitions, have been proposed. Inrasara, a researcher specializing in Champa, suggests Da Nang is a variation of the Cham word daknan. Another name given to Da Nang was Cửa Hàn; the name used by the French, Tourane, is said to derive from this name, by way of a rough transliteration. Notably, this name appears on maps of the area drafted by Alexandre de Rhodes in 1650; the name Kean was another name purportedly used during the 17th century to refer to the land situated at the foot of the Hải Vân Pass. Other names referring to Da Nang include: a colloquial name which survives in folklore.
Trà Úc, Trà Áo, Trà Sơn and Đồng Long Loan, literary names used by Confucian scholars. In Chữ Nôm, used until 1945, "Đà Nẵng" is written as 沱灢. Thái Phiên, a name used after the 1945 August Revolution, commemorating Thái Phiên, the leader of popular revolts during the 1916 Duy Tân Resistance; the city's origins date back to the ancient kingdom of Champa, established in 192 AD. At its peak, the Chams' sphere of influence stretched from Huế to Vũng Tàu; the city of Indrapura, at the site of the modern village of Dong Duong in Quảng Nam Province, was the capital of Champa from about 875 to about 1000 AD. In the region of Da Nang were the ancient Cham city of Singhapura, the location of, identified with an archeological site in the modern village of Trà Kiệu, the valley of Mỹ Sơn, where a number of ruined temples and towers can still be viewed. In the latter half of the 10th century, the kings of Indrapura came into conflict with the Đại Việt, who were based at Hoa Lư near modern Hanoi. In 982, three ambassadors sent to Champa by emperor Lê Hoàn of the Đại Việt were detained in Indrapura.
Lê Hoàn decided to go on the offensive, sacking Indrapura and killing the Cham King Parameshvaravarman I. As a result of these setbacks, the Cham abandoned Indrapura around 1000 AD; the Đại Việt campaign against Champa continued into the late 11th century, when the Cham were forced to cede their three northern provinces to the rulers of the Lý Dynasty. Soon afterwards, Vietnamese peasants began moving into the untilled former Cham lands, turning them into rice fields and moving relentlessly southward, delta by delta, along the narrow coastal plain; the southward expansion of Đại Việt continued for several centuries, culminating in the annexation of most of the Cham territories by the end of the 15th century. One of the first Europeans to visit Da Nang was Portuguese explorer António de Faria, who anchored in Da Nang in 1535. Faria was one of the first Westerners to write about the area and, through his influence, Portuguese ships began to call at Hội An, a much more important port than Da Nang.
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and Spanish traders and missionaries made landfall at Hội An, just south of Đà Nẵng. An American, John White, arrived at Da Nang on 18 June 1819 in the brig Franklin of Salem and was advised that the country was recovering from devastating wars, that what little produce there had been promised. Other American ships arriving shortly after were the Marmion of Boston, the Aurora and Beverly of Salem. Conditions were such that they were unable to conduct trade, the subsequent missions of British East India Company agent John Crawfurd in 1823 and the two missions of Andrew Jackson's agent, diplomatist Edmund Roberts, in 1833 and 1836 were unable to secure trade agreements. Following the edict of Emperor Minh Mạng in 1835, prohibiting European vessels from making landfall or pursuing trade except at Hàn Port, Da Nang surpassed Hội An, becoming the largest commercial port in the central region. In 1847, French vessels dispatched by Admiral Cécille bombarded Đà Nẵng, ostensibly on the grounds of alleged persecution of Roman Catholic missionaries.
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Fort Shafter is in Honolulu CDP, City and County of Honolulu, Hawai‘i, extending up the interfluve between Kalihi and Moanalua valleys, as well as onto the coastal plain at Māpunapuna. Fort Shafter is the headquarters of the United States Army Pacific, commanding most Army forces in the Asia-Pacific region with the exception of Korea. A portion of the area is known as the Palm Circle Historic District and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, has been further designated as a U. S. National Historic Landmark, it is known as Palm Circle or 100 Area. Palm Circle covers an underground command center. Fort Shafter is the oldest military base on Oahu and celebrated its 100th birthday on June 22, 2007. Fort Shafter has been home to the senior Army headquarters in Hawaii for a century. Construction began in 1905 on the ahupua'a of Kahauiki, former Hawaiian crown lands that were ceded to the United States government after annexation; when the post opened in 1907, it was named for Major General William Rufus Shafter, who led the United States expedition to Cuba in 1898.
Palm Circle was laid out as a cantonment for an infantry battalion. The barracks and officers' quarters were arranged around a parade field ringed by Royal Palms; the 2d Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment was the first unit stationed at the new post. Fort Shafter spread out from Palm Circle. Tripler General Hospital once stood. In 1914, a regimental-sized cantonment area was constructed; the Hawaiian Ordnance Depot was built in 1917 as a separate post. In 1921, the Hawaiian Department moved to Fort Shafter from downtown Honolulu. A new area was constructed in 1940 for Signal Corps elements. War came to Fort Shafter on December 7, 1941, where the Hawaiian Department commander, Lieutenant General Walter C. Short, occupied Quarters 5. One soldier, Corporal Arthur A. Favreau, 64th Coast Artillery, was killed on post by an errant Navy shell. Fort Shafter became the barracks on Palm Circle were converted to offices; the major headquarters was named successively U. S. Army Forces, Central Pacific Area. S. Army Forces, Pacific Ocean Areas.
S. Army Forces, Middle Pacific. In 1944, the Army Corps of Engineers erected the "Pineapple Pentagon" in just 49 days. Two large fishponds were filled in to form Shafter Flats. For most of the next half century, Fort Shafter has remained the senior Army headquarters for the Asia-Pacific region. In 1947, the headquarters was renamed U. S. Army, Pacific; the post continued to adapt to meet the Army's evolving requirements. In the early 1960s the new Moanalua Freeway split the post in two. In 1974, when the headquarters was eliminated, Fort Shafter became home to U. S. Army Support Command and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division. In 1979, the Army established U. S. Army Western Command, renamed U. S. Army, Pacific in 1990. In 1983, the Army conveyed to the State of Hawaii 750 acres of undeveloped land on the northern end of post. Today Fort Shafter remains the focal point for command and support of Army forces in the Asia-Pacific region; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "".
US Army Garrison - Hawaii United States Army Pacific Historic American Buildings Survey No. HI-287-C, "Fort Shafter Military Reservation, Facilities No. 820-822, 824, 826-828, 840, 841, 844-846, Rice Street and Herian Place, Honolulu County, HI", 8 photos, 21 data pages, 2 photo caption pages HABS No. HI-287-D, "Fort Shafter Military Reservation, Facilities No. 823, 825, 842, Herian Place, Honolulu County, HI", 4 photos, 7 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Historic American Landscapes Survey No. HI-9, "Fort Shafter Military Reservation, N. C. O. Housing Area, Honolulu County, HI", 9 photos, 27 data pages, 3 photo caption pages
108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)
The 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade is an air defense artillery brigade of the United States Army. The mission of the brigade is to train and maintain a strategic crisis response air defense artillery brigade capable of deploying worldwide, on short notice, to provide air defense force protection from air-breathing threats and tactical ballistic missiles, as well as allow freedom of maneuver for XVIII Airborne Corps operations. 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Headquarters and Headquarters Battery 1st Battalion, 7th Air Defense Artillery Regiment. 2nd Battalion, 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment 3rd Battalion, 4th Air Defense Artillery Regiment. 1st Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 2nd Battalion, 43rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 2nd Battalion, 52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 6th Battalion, 56th Air Defense Artillery Regiment 2nd Battalion, 60th Air Defense Artillery Regiment 2nd Battalion, 62nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 2nd Battalion, 67th Air Defense Artillery Regiment 555th Maintenance Company, now called Maintenance Support Battery ) The 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade traces its lineage to the 514th Coast Artillery Regiment, formed in Schenectady, New York in October, 1923.
The Regiment was reorganized as the 108th Coast Artillery Group on 3 January 1943 at Camp Davis, North Carolina, again reorganized as the 108th Antiaircraft Artillery Group, in May of the same year. The 108th was moved to Camp Stewart, Georgia on 14 October 1943. Two months the 108th staged at Camp Shanks, New York on 22 December and remained there until they deployed from the New York Port of Embarkation on 6 days and arrived in England on 7 January 1944; the brigade deployed to Europe during World War II, participated in the landings at Normandy, going ashore at Utah Beach on 28 June 1944. The 108th went on to provide antiaircraft defense for the city and port of Cherbourg, for eleven months, moved forward to the cities of Rheims and Rouen; the brigade was moved forward to Germany on 2 May 1945, was stationed in Kaufhueren on 20 August. The Group was deactivated there on 14 December 1945, returned to the Army reserve; the personnel and equipment from the brigade were dispersed to the occupation units.
1/514th CAR became 217th Coast Artillery Battalion on 20 January 1943, was again redesignated as 217th Anti Aircraft Artillery Battalion on 28 June 1943. The 217th deployed from the Boston Port of Embarkation on 7 April 1944 and arrived in England on 17 April 1944; the 217th moved forward to France on 25 June 1944, where they remained until they moved forward to participate in the Ardennes-Alsace Offensive. The 217th was relocated to Stubenag, Germany on 20 August 1945; the 217th returned to the continental US via the Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation on 2 February 1946, was deactivated and returned to the US Army Reserve the same day. 2/514th CAR became 639th Coast Artillery Battalion on 20 January 1943, And was again redesignated as the 639th Anti Aircraft Artillery Battalion on 15 May. The 639th deployed from the New York Port of Embarkation on 29 September 1944, landed in France on 10 October 1944; the 639th was relocated to Braunfels, Germany on 20 August 1945. The 639th returned to the continental US via the New York Port of Embarkation on 2 February 1946, was deactivated at Camp Kilmer, returned to the US Army Reserve on the same day.
3/514th CAR became 363rd Coast Artillery Battalion on 20 January 1943, was redesignated as the 363rd Anti Aircraft Artillery Battalion on 3 March 1943. The 363rd did not deploy, but remained at Fort Gordon, Georgia until 31 October 1944, whereupon the unit was deactivated and returned to the US Army Reserve, with the personnel and equipment transferred elsewhere as required. Normandy 1944-06-06 – 1944-07-24 108th and 217th only. Northern France 1944-07-25 – 1944-09-14 108th and 217th only. Rhineland 1944-09-15 – 1945-03-21 108th, 217th, 639th. Ardennes-Alsace 1944-12-16 – 1945-01-25 108th and 639th only. Central Europe 1945-03-22 – 1945-05-11 108th, 217th, 639th. In September, 1956, the 108th AA Group was reactivated in California, it was again redesignated as the 108th Artillery Group. The 108th was deactivated in April 1960, in California. In May 1967, the group was reactivated at Fort Riley, Kansas as the 108th Artillery Group and deployed to the Republic of Vietnam in October 1967; the Group participated in every major operation conducted in I Corps area of operations and credited with participation in eleven different campaigns while in Vietnam.
For its service it was awarded the Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm. The 108th departed from Vietnam on 22 November 1971 for Fort Lewis, where the unit was again inactivated. On 26 August 1974, the group was again reactivated at Kapaun Barracks, West Germany, as the 108th Air Defense Group, the only Chaparral/Vulcan Group in the US Army. In September 1975 the group moved to Kleber Kaserne and on 1 October 1982 it was redesignated the 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade. On 15 April 1992 the Brigade was moved to Fort Polk, commanding the Patriot battalion, an Avenger unit and the newly activated 208th Signal Company. On 15 August 1996 the brigade moved to Texas. At Fort Polk th
77th Sustainment Brigade
The 77th Sustainment Brigade is a unit of the United States Army that inherited the lineage of the 77th Infantry Division, which served in World War I and World War II. Its headquarters has been at Fort Dix, New Jersey, since its predecessor command, the 77th Regional Readiness Command, was disestablished in 2008 from Fort Totten, in Bayside, New York. Soldiers from the 77th have served in most major conflict and contingency operations since World War II; the division is nicknamed the "Statue of Liberty Division". U. S. Marines on Guam nicknamed them the "77th Marine Division"; the Clearview Expressway in Queens, New York is named the "U. S. Army 77th Infantry Division Expressway", honoring its successor commands. Activated: 18 August 1917 Camp Upton in Yaphank, New York. Operations: Meuse-Argonne, Oise-Aisne; the 77th Infantry Division was organized from draftees, drawn of men from New York City, trained at Camp Upton in Yaphank, New York in the central part of Suffolk County, Long Island. The 77th Infantry Division was the first American division composed of draftees to arrive in France in World War I, landing in April 1918.
The division fought in the Battle of Château-Thierry on 18 July 1918. Throughout its service in France the 77th Division sustained 10,194 casualties: 1,486 killed and 8,708 wounded; the division returned to the United States in April 1919 and was deactivated that month. The 154th Infantry Brigade was composed of the 307th and 308th Infantry Regiments and the 306th Machine Gun Battalion. While the division had been recruited as a National Army unit from the New York City area and replacements had complicated the complexion of the unit. For example, Company K of the 307th Infantry, had been redesignated from the former Company L of the 160th Infantry, part of the California Army National Guard; the company had belonged to the 40th Division, converted into a depot division in August 1918. The "Lost Battalion" of World War I fame was composed of six companies of the 308th Infantry Regiment and one from the 307th Infantry Regiment. 77th Division Commanders: Maj. Gen. J. Franklin Bell Brig. Gen. E. M. Johnson Maj. Gen. G. B. Duncan Brig. Gen. E. M. Johnson Brig. Gen. E. M. Johnson Maj. Gen. Robert Alexander Headquarters, 77th Division 153rd Infantry Brigade 305th Infantry Regiment 306th Infantry Regiment 305th Machine Gun Battalion 154th Infantry Brigade 307th Infantry Regiment 308th Infantry Regiment 306th Machine Gun Battalion 152nd Field Artillery Brigade 304th Field Artillery Regiment 305th Field Artillery Regiment 306th Field Artillery Regiment 302nd Trench Mortar Battery 307th Machine Gun Battalion 302nd Engineer Regiment 302nd Field Signal Battalion Headquarters Troop, 77th Division 303rd Train Headquarters and Military Police 302nd Ammunition Train 302nd Supply Train 302nd Engineer Train 302nd Sanitary Train 305th, 306th, 307th, 308th Ambulance Companies and Field Hospitals The division was reconstituted in the Organized Reserve on 24 June 1921 and assigned to the state of New York.
The headquarters was organized on 1 July 1921. Ordered into active military service: 25 March 1942, Fort Jackson, South Carolina Overseas: 24 March 1944 Campaigns: Western Pacific, Ryukyus Distinguished Unit Citations: 16 Awards: Medal of Honor: 6. Woodruff Maj. Gen. Andrew D. Bruce Chaplain: Fray Angélico Chávez Inactivated: 15 March 1946 in Japan Headquarters, 77th Infantry Division 305th Infantry Regiment 306th Infantry Regiment 307th Infantry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 77th Infantry Division Artillery 304th Field Artillery Battalion 305th Field Artillery Battalion 306th Field Artillery Battalion 902nd Field Artillery Battalion 302nd Engineer Combat Battalion 302nd Medical Battalion 77th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop Headquarters, Special Troops, 77th Infantry Division Headquarters Company, 77th Infantry Division 777th Ordnance Light Maintenance Company 77th Quartermaster Company 77th Signal Company Military Police Platoon Band 77th Counterintelligence Corps DetachmentThe 77th Infantry Division landed in Hawaii, 31 March 1944, continued training in amphibious landings and jungle warfare.
Elements began to leave July 1, 1944, for the amphibious assault on Guam. Attached to III Amphibious Force, the 77th made an assault landing on Guam, 21 July 1944. After taking over defense of the beachhead, the division drove north to seize Mount Tenjo and effected junction with the 3d Marine Division, linking the northern and southern bridgeheads, 23–29 July, it continued to drive north, dislodged the enemy from positions at Barrigada town and mountain, 4 August, resistance ending on 8 August. With Guam recaptured, the 77th sailed for New Caledonia, but plans were changed en route and it was directed to proceed to Leyte; the division landed on the east coast of Leyte, 23 November 1944, was attached to XXIV Corps, Sixth Army. After a short period of training and combat patrolling in the Corps' rear, 23 November – 6 December, it landed at Ipil and fought up the east coast of Ormoc Bay to seize Ormoc on December 10. Attacking north, astride Highway No. 2, the division secured the Libungao-Palompon road junction.
Mopping up o