Wilsons Raid was a cavalry operation through Alabama and Georgia in March–April 1865, late in the American Civil War. Thomas ordered Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson to lead a raid to destroy the arsenal at Selma, Selma was strategically important as one of the few Confederate military bases remaining in Southern hands. The town contained an arsenal, a foundry, gun factories, a powder mill, military warehouses. Wilson led approximately 13,500 men in three divisions, commanded by Brig, Edward M. McCook, Eli Long, and Emory Upton. Each cavalryman was armed with the formidable 7-shot Spencer repeating rifle, James R. Chalmers and William H. Jackson, two partial brigades under Brig. Gen. Philip D. Roddey and Colonel Edward Crossland, and a few local militia. Wilson was delayed in crossing the rain-swollen Tennessee River, but he got underway on March 22,1865, departing from Gravelly Springs in Lauderdale County, Alabama. He sent his forces in three columns to mask his intentions and confuse the enemy, Forrest learned very late in the raid that Selma was the primary target.
Minor skirmishes occurred at Houston and Black Warrior River, and Wilsons columns rejoined at Jasper on March 27, on March 28, at Elyton, near present-day Birmingham, another skirmish occurred and the Union troopers destroyed the Oxmoor and Irondale iron furnaces. A detachment of General Emory Uptons division destroyed the C. B. Churchill and Company foundry in Columbiana and they burned the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, the site of a prominent military school, on April 4. This movement diverted Chalmers division away from Forrests main force, on March 31, Forrest was routed by the larger, better-armed Union force at Montevallo. The cavalrymen under Chalmers had not arrived to reinforce Forrest, during the action, Forrests headquarters were overrun and documents captured that gave valuable intelligence concerning his plans. Wilson dispatched McCook to link up with Croxtons brigade at Trion, Forrest made a stand on April 1 at Plantersville, near Ebenezer Church, and was routed once again at the Battle of Ebenezer Church.
The Confederates raced toward Selma and deployed into a three-mile, semicircular defensive line anchored at both ends by the Alabama River, the Battle of Selma took place on April 2. The divisions of Long and Upton assaulted Forrests hastily constructed works, General Wilson personally led a mounted charge of the 4th U. S. Cavalry against an unfinished portion of the line. General Long was severely wounded in the head during the assault, who was wounded, and whose tiny corps was severely damaged, regrouped at Marion, where he finally rejoined Chalmers. Wilsons men worked for over a week at destroying military facilities, from there, Wilsons forces moved toward Montgomery, which they occupied on April 12. Before Wilson could do just that, there were several key bridges over the Chattahoochee River that needed taking, one such bridge led into the town of West Point. To avoid any delay in the raid, Wilson separated his force sending a 3, the Battle of West Point, was fought on Easter Sunday, April 16, when Colonel Oscar Hugh La Granges brigade attacked an earthwork defensive position named Fort Tyler
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the only President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I and he was the first President of France to be elected by a direct popular vote. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution, during the first years of the Empire, Napoleons government imposed censorship and harsh repressive measures against his opponents. Some six thousand were imprisoned or sent to penal colonies until 1859, thousands more went into voluntary exile abroad, including Victor Hugo. From 1862 onwards, he relaxed government censorship, and his came to be known as the Liberal Empire. Many of his opponents returned to France and became members of the National Assembly, Napoleon III is best known today for his grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. He launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, greatly expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world.
He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with Frances other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize, womens education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War and his regime assisted Italian unification and, in doing so, annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France, at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. Napoleon doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific, on the other hand, his armys intervention in Mexico which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection ended in failure.
Beginning in 1866, Napoleon had to face the power of Prussia. In July 1870, Napoleon entered the Franco-Prussian War without allies, the French army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris, and Napoleon went into exile in England, charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, known as Louis Napoleon and Napoleon III, was born in Paris on the night of 20–21 April 1808. His presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleons wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by infertile. Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen and they had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periods
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, fought from June 9,1864, to March 25,1865, during the American Civil War. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond, many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines, overloading dwindling Confederate resources. Lee finally gave in to the pressure and abandoned cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House. The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that was common in World War I and it featured the wars largest concentration of African American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffins Farm. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and was given command of the Union Army. He devised a strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T, George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj.
Gen. Nathaniel P. Most of these failed, often because of the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butlers Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May, banks was distracted by the Red River Campaign and failed to move on Mobile. However and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, on May 4, Grant and Meades Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign. Grant spent the remainder of May maneuvering and fighting battles with the Confederate army as he attempted to turn Lees flank. Grant knew that his army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee. This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor when Grants army once again came into contact with Lees near Mechanicsville and he chose to engage Lees army directly, by ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate fortified positions on June 3.
This attack was repulsed with heavy losses, Cold Harbor was a battle that Grant regretted more than any other and Northern newspapers thereafter frequently referred to him as a butcher. On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank and he planned to cross to the south bank of the river, bypassing Richmond, and isolate Richmond by seizing the railroad junction of Petersburg to the south. While Lee remained unaware of Grants intentions, the Union army constructed a pontoon bridge 2,100 feet long, what Lee had feared most of all—that Grant would force him into a siege of Richmond—was poised to occur. This represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign, Lee at first believed that Grants main target was Richmond and devoted only minimal troops under Gen. P. G. T
Army of the Gulf
The Army of the Gulf was a Union Army that served in the general area of the Gulf states controlled by Union forces. It mainly saw action in Louisiana and Alabama, the Department of the Gulf was created following the capture of New Orleans by Admiral David G. Farragut in 1862. The commander of the Union occupation forces, Benjamin F. Butler, was placed in command of the department, in March, Butler assumed command of the department, and the Army of the Gulf was created from the troops now designated to the Department of the Gulf. The army saw little action the rest of 1862 and Butler was replaced by Major General Nathaniel P, Banks assumed command of the Department of the Gulf and the Army of the Gulf. At the time the Army of the Gulf consisted of one corps, the XIX Corps. Banks led the army in several engagements in lower Louisiana that eventually led to the Siege of Port Hudson, the army endured the siege and the post was finally surrendered by Confederate forces on July 9,1863. The next year the XIII Corps and two divisions of the XVI Corps were added to the department, increasing the army to over three corps, Banks retained command of the army and department while Gen.
William H. Emory assumed command of the XIX Corps, in March 1864, Banks began his disastrous Red River Campaign. After it failed, he resigned from the Army and was replaced by Maj. Gen. Stephen A. Hurlbut, the XIX Corps was sent to the Shenandoah Valley, and the forces that remained in the army participated in the land attack at the Battle of Mobile Bay. Late in the war, Maj. Gen. Edward Canbys Military Division of West Mississippi was given the two remaining corps, the XIII and the XVI, for a planned offensive to capture the city of Mobile. During this operation, Canby renamed the force the Army of West Mississippi after the division that he commanded. Although now under a different title, the force was virtually the same army and it took part in the Battle of Spanish Fort and the Battle of Fort Blakely. Canby was appointed command of the Department of the Gulf at the closing of the war, Port Hudson order of battle Eicher, John H. & Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
Army and Department of the Gulf Army of West Mississippi
Army of Virginia
The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. It should not be confused with its opponent, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. The Army of Virginia was constituted on June 26,1862, by General Orders Number 103, from four existing departments operating around Virginia, Maj. Gen. John Pope commanded the new organization, which was divided into three corps of over 50,000 men. Three corps of Maj. Gen. George B, mcClellans Army of the Potomac were added for combat operations. Bankss corps of the Army of Virginia fought against Stonewall Jackson at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, gaining initial advantage, but was defeated by a Confederate counterattack led by A. P. Hill. The entire army was defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run by Jackson and Lee. On September 12,1862, the units of the Army of Virginia were merged into the Army of the Potomac, major General John Pope The first three corps were given numeric designations that overlapped with those in the Army of the Potomac.
They were redesignated as shown for the Maryland Campaign and later and Leaders of the Civil War Army Organization during the Civil War Opposing Forces at Second Bull Run
Godfrey Weitzel was a German-American major general in the Union army during the American Civil War. He was the acting Mayor of New Orleans during the Union occupation of the city and captured and occupied the Confederate capitol, Virginia. Gottfreid Weitzel was born in Winzeln, near Pirmasens in the Palatinate, once part of Lorraine but which had returned to German control in 1806, and was part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. His father Ludwig, had served in the German military, and wanted to emigrate to America like his brother Wilhelm, when his wife, the former Susanna Krummel, became pregnant with what turned out to be a second son, the family immigrated to the United States. Lewis Weitzel operated a store in the Tenth Ward, which included the Over the Rhine neighborhood with many Germanic immigrants. In 1853, Lewis Weitzel became a city commissioner and served on the school board. Educated with his brother in the city schools, Godfrey finished at the top of his class. There, Godfrey was nicknamed Dutch and continued to excel academically, demonstrating proficiency in mathematics and his roommates included Cyrus Comstock, and Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls of Donaldsonville, Louisiana.
Nonetheless, Weitzel graduated 2nd out of 34 cadets in the Class of 1855, second Lieutenant Weitzels first assignment was helping improve the defenses of New Orleans under Major P. G. T. Beauregard, who had graduated second in his class and his work on Fort Jackson, Fort St. Philip and the Customs house earned the respect of Major Beauregard and Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, so Weitzel was promoted to First Lieutenant. Knowledge of those defenses would prove crucial in his career, in 1859, Weitzel returned to West Point as Assistant Professor of Civil and Military Engineering, working under professor Dennis Mahan. During home leave in 1858, he had engaged to Louisa C. Moor of Cincinnati, and they married at Cincinnatis German Lutheran Church on November 3,1859, three weeks her skirts caught fire as she prepared Thanksgiving dinner, and despite Godfreys efforts to douse them, she suffered severe burns and died within hours. Weitzel accompanied her body to Cincinnati, the grief-stricken widower was granted eight months leave, including permission to travel to Germany.
While remaining close to the Moor family, Weitzel became engaged on another furlough home, on January 6,1865, he married Louise Bogen, daughter of Peter Bogen, a prominent pork-packer and grower of Catawba grapes for winemaking. They would have three children, only one of whom survived infancy and their first child was a stillborn son named Godfrey Weitzel, delivered on September 26,1865. Their second child, Blanche Celeste Weitzel, was born on February 16,1868 and their third child, Irene Weitzel, born on April 11,1876, lived until 1936 and left descendants. Weitzel was promoted to first lieutenant of engineers in 1860, in 1861, he was reassigned to Washington, D. C. in the Corps of Engineers
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions
The French Army, officially the Land Army is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. Along with the French Air Force, the French Navy and the National Gendarmerie, the current Chief of Staff of the French Army is General Jean-Pierre Bosser, a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. All soldiers are considered professionals following the suspension of conscription, voted in parliament in 1997, as of 2014, the French Army employed 111,628 personnel. In addition, the element of the French Army consisted of 15,453 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Kings of France needed reliable troops during and after the Hundred Years War and these units of troops were raised by issuing ordonnances to govern their length of service and payment. These Compagnies dordonnance formed the core of the Gendarme Cavalry into the sixteenth century, stationed throughout France and summoned into larger armies as needed. There was made for Francs-archers units of bowmen and foot soldiers raised from the non-noble classes.
The bulk of the infantry for warfare was still provided by urban or provincial militias, raised from an area or city to fight locally and named for their recruiting grounds. Gradually these units became more permanent, and in 1480s Swiss instructors were recruited and these men would be paid and contracted and receive training. Henry II further regularised the French army by forming standing Infantry regiments to replace the Militia structure, the first of these the Régiments de Picardie, Piémont and Champagne were called the Les Vieux Corps. It was normal policy to disband regiments after a war was over as a cost saving measure with the Vieux Corps and the Kings own Household Troops the Maison du Roi being the only survivors. Regiments could be raised directly by the King and so called after the region in which they were raised, or by the nobility and so called after the noble or his appointed colonel. In 1684 there was a reorganisation of the French infantry and again in 1701 to fit in with Louis XIVs plans.
This reshuffle created many of the regiments of the French Army and standardised their equipment. The army of the Sun King tended to wear coats with coloured linings. There were exceptions and the troops, recruited from outside France. In addition to these regiments of the line the Maison du Roi provided several elite units, the Swiss Guards, French Guards, the revolution split the army with the main mass losing most of its officers to aristocratic flight or guillotine and becoming demoralised and ineffective. The French Guard joined the revolt and the Swiss Guards were massacred during the storming of the Tuileries palace, under Napoleon I, the French Army conquered most of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
United States Colored Troops
The United States Colored Troops were regiments in the United States Army composed primarily of African-American soldiers. Other people of color who were not of African descent, such as Native Americans Pacific Islanders, the USCT was the precursor to the Buffalo Soldier regiments in the American Old West. The U. S. Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1862 in July 1862 and it freed slaves whose owners were in rebellion against the United States, and Militia Act of 1862 empowered the President to use freed slaves in any capacity in the army. Lincoln opposed early efforts to recruit soldiers, although he accepted the Armys using them as paid workers. Native American played a significant role in the regiments of the American Civil War. In September 1862, Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, announcing that all slaves in rebellious states would be free as of January 1, recruitment of colored regiments began in full force following the Proclamation in January 1863. Regiments, including infantry, engineers, light artillery, approximately 175 regiments comprising more than 178,000 free blacks and freedmen served during the last two years of the war.
Their service bolstered the Union war effort at a critical time, by wars end, the men of the USCT made up nearly one-tenth of all Union troops. The USCT suffered 2,751 combat casualties during the war, disease caused the most fatalities for all troops, both black and white. USCT regiments were led by officers, while rank advancement was limited for black soldiers. The Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments in Philadelphia opened the Free Military Academy for Applicants for the Command of Colored Troops at the end of 1863. For a time, black soldiers received less pay than their white counterparts, notable members of USCT regiments included Martin Robinson Delany and the sons of Frederick Douglass. The courage displayed by colored troops during the Civil War played an important role in African Americans gaining new rights, before the USCT was formed, several volunteer regiments were raised from free black men, including freedmen in the South. In 1863 a former slave, William Henry Singleton, helped recruit 1,000 blacks from escaped slaves in New Bern and he became a sergeant in the 35th USCT.
Freedmen from the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, established in 1863 on the island, formed part of the Free North Carolina Colored Volunteers, nearly all of the volunteer regiments were converted into USCT units. In 1922 Singleton published his memoir of his journey from slavery to freedom, glad to participate in reunions, years at the age of 95, he marched in a Grand Army of the Republic event in 1938. Four regiments were considered Regular units, rather than auxiliaries and their veteran status allowed them to get valuable federal government jobs after the war, from which African Americans had usually been excluded in earlier years. But, the men received no recognition for combat honors
Department of the Pacific
The Department of the Pacific or Pacific Department was a major command of the United States Army during the 19th century. The department reported directly to the headquarters of the Army in Washington and it oversaw the military affairs in the country west of the Rocky Mountains, except for the Utah Territory and the Territory of New Mexico east of the 110th meridian west. On September 2,1854, the headquarters was moved to Benicia Barracks, from 1855-57 the Puget Sound District was organized. In January 1857, the headquarters returned to San Francisco. On January 14,1858, the Utah Territory was placed within the Department but soon removed into the Department of Utah, in 1858, the Department of California included the territory west of the Rockies, the Umpqua and Rogue River districts in Oregon and New Mexico. The Department of Oregon included the Oregon and Washington Territories, during the American Civil War the army again reorganized, and on January 15,1861, the independent Pacific Department was reconstituted by consolidating the Departments of California and Oregon.
The first commander of the new Department of the Pacific was Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston who was to become a prominent General in the Confederate Army. August 6,1862 - July 27,1865 District of Arizona March 7,1865 - July 27,1865 On July 27,1865 the Military Division of the Pacific was created under Major General Henry W and this step brought an end to the Eighth Corps
District of Oregon (military)
The District of Oregon was a Union Army command department formed during the American Civil War. On March 3,1865 the district included Idaho Territory after it was formed from the part of Washington Territory. On March 14,1865, the District of Oregon was extended to include the state of Oregon. On July 27,1865 the Military Division of the Pacific was created under Major General Henry W. Halleck and it consisted of the Department of the Columbia replacing the District of Oregon and the Department of California. George Wright, now a U. S. Army Brigadier General, was assigned to command the new Department of the Columbia, colonel George Wright, January 15,1861 – September 13,1861. Colonel Benjamin L. Beall, September 13,1861 – October 23,1861