Stevenson is a city in Jackson County, United States, is included in the Chattanooga-Cleveland-Dalton, TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. Sources listed either 1866 or 1867 as the year of incorporation, but that seems to conflict with the dates given for the town being granted a charter, it did not first appear on the U. S. Census until 1880, where it was the second largest town in Jackson County behind Scottsboro. Since 1900, it has been the third largest town behind either Scottsboro and Bridgeport or vice versa. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 2,046, up from 1,770 in 2000. Stevenson is located at 34°52′10″N 85°49′55″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.2 square miles, of which 4.9 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. In the 2000 census, there were 1,770 people, 795 households, 508 families residing in the city; the population density was 357.8 per square mile. There were 948 housing units at an average density of 191.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 72.88% White, 22.37% Black or African American, 0.90% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 1.30% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races. 1.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 795 households of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.83. 21.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median household income was $26,908 and the median family income was $34,125.
Males had a median income of $27,188 compared with $21,375 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,806. About 15.5% of families and 19.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under age 18 and 22.1% of those age 65 or over. In the 2010 census, there were 2,046 people, 904 households, 554 families residing in the city; the population density was 393.5 per square mile. There were 1,041 housing units at an average density of 200.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.8% White, 17.4% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.6% from other races, 4.3% from two or more races. 3.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 904 households of which 24.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.7% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.90. 22.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males. The median household income was $241 and the median family income was $634. Males had a median income of $210 compared with $917 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,647. About 26.6% of families and 31.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.9% of those under age 18 and 25.3% of those age 65 or over. The Stevenson Railroad Depot Museum, located in downtown Stevenson, is dedicated to preserving an important part of railroading history through the display of related artifacts. In addition, the museum displays artifacts recalling Native American culture, pioneer life, Civil War events; the depot, built in 1872 and listed in the National Register of Historic Places, stands on the ruins of Stevenson's first railroad depot, built around 1852 for common use by the Nashville Chattanooga and the Memphis & Charleston Railroads.
That original depot was destroyed either during, or shortly after, the Civil War. Bricks salvaged may have been used in the building of the present structure. Constructed by the Union Army in summer 1862 and expanded in 1864, using soldiers and slaves, Fort Harker was built on a broad hill a quarter-mile east of the town of Stevenson, it overlooked Crow Creek and was well within firing range of Stevenson’s strategic railroad lines, supply depots and warehouses. Ft. Harker was an earthen redoubt, 150 feet square, with walls that were 14 feet high, surrounded by an 8-foot-deep dry moat, it contained 7 cannon platforms, a bomb-proof powder magazine, a draw-bridge entrance and an 8-sided wooden blockhouse at its center. Fort Harker was critical to Union plans. No major fighting occurred here, but skirmishes and sniper attacks were common as territory traded hands between Union and Confederate forces. One other large fort, two smaller redoubts and at least seven blockhouses were constructed along the railroad lines at Stevenson during the Civil War.
Stevenson was the major junction for the Memphis and Charleston Railroad and the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad. In addition to forts, the Union Army established a refugee camp at Stevenson; the remains of Gen. Rosecrans’ headquarters is on the National Register of Historic Places. Both may be seen near downtown Stevenson today; every June, the town of Stevenson holds the a
Army of Northern Virginia
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia, it was most arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac. The name Army of Northern Virginia referred to its primary area of operation, as did most Confederate States Army names; the Army originated as the Army of the Potomac, organized on June 20, 1861, from all operational forces in northern Virginia. On July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17, 1862; the Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12, 1862. Robert E. Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, 1862.
However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in army command, prior to that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia. Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name. Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, thus it is referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia if, correct only in retrospect. In addition to Virginians, it included regiments from all over the Confederacy, some from as far away as Georgia and Arkansas. One of the most well known was the Texas Brigade, made up of the 1st, 4th, 5th Texas, the 3rd Arkansas, which distinguished themselves in numerous battles, such as during their fight for the Devil's Den at the Battle of Gettysburg.
The first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P. G. T. Beauregard from June 20 to July 20, 1861, his forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the battle flag of the army, which came to be the primary battle flag for all corps and forces under the Army of Northern Virginia; the flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate "Stars and Bars" flag and the flag of the United States. Beauregard continued commanding these troops as the new First Corps under Gen. J. E. Johnston as it was joined by the Army of the Shenandoah on July 20, 1861, when command was relinquished to General J. E. Johnston; the following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas. With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston took command from July 20, 1861, until May 31, 1862. First Corps – commanded by General P.
G. T. Beauregard Second Corps – commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith Left Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill Center Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet Right Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder Reserve – commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. SmithUnder the command of Johnston, the Army entered into the First Battle of Manassas. On October 22, 1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was created ending the Army of the Potomac; the Department comprised three districts: Aquia District, Potomac District, the Valley District. In April 1862, the Department was expanded to include the Departments of the Peninsula. Gen. Johnston was forced into maneuvering the Army southward to the defenses of Richmond during the opening of the Peninsula Campaign, where it conducted delay and defend tactics until Johnston was wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines. During the months after the First Battle of Bull Run, Johnston organized his Shenandoah Army and Beauregard's Potomac Army into two divisions under a unified command with Gustavus Smith and James Longstreet as division commanders.
Beauregard quarreled with Johnston and was transferred to the Western theater over the winter months. Jackson was sent to the Shenandoah Valley in October 1861 with his own old Stonewall Brigade and with two other brigades from Western Virginia. Several newly arrived brigades were added to Johnston's army in late 1861-early 1862; when the Peninsula Campaign began, Johnston took his army down to the Richmond environs where it was merged with several smaller Confederate commands, including a division led by D. H. Hill as well as Benjamin Huger's Department of Norfolk, John Magruder's Army of the Peninsula, miscellaneous brigades and regiments pulled from various Southern states. Richard Ewell was elevated to division command in the spring of 1862 and sent to join Jackson in the Valley. On May 27, an additional new division was created and led by A. P. Hill consisting of several new brigades from the Carolinas and Virginia, soon augmented with James Archer's brigade from Smith's division. At Seven Pines and Smith served as temporary wing commanders, operational control of their divisions went to Brig.
Gen William H. C. Whiting and Brig. Gen Richard H. Anderson. Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith commanded the ANV on May 31, 1862, following the wounding of Gen. J. E. Johnston during the Battle of Seven Pines. With Smith having a nervous breakdown, President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day. On June 1, 1862, its most
Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph Eggleston Johnston was a career United States Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican–American War, Seminole Wars. After Virginia seceded, he entered the Confederate States Army as one of the most senior general officers. Johnston was trained as a civil engineer at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, graduating in the same class as Robert E. Lee, he served in Florida and Kansas. By 1860 he achieved the rank of brigadier general as Quartermaster General of the U. S. Army. Johnston's effectiveness in the American Civil War was undercut by tensions with Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Victory eluded him in most campaigns he commanded, he was the senior Confederate commander at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861, but the victory is credited to his subordinate, P. G. T. Beauregard. Johnston defended the Confederate capital of Richmond, during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, withdrawing under the pressure of Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's superior force.
He suffered a severe wound at the Battle of Seven Pines, was replaced by Robert E. Lee. In 1863, in command of the Department of the West, Johnston was criticized for his inaction and failure in the Vicksburg Campaign. In 1864, he fought against Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in the Atlanta Campaign. Facing an enemy with a massive numerical advantage, Johnston maneuvered to avoid having his forces surrounded or cut off from Atlanta, while looking for a chance to make a decisive stand that would turn back the tide. Although he repulsed Sherman's attempt to defeat him through direct assault at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, he was outflanked again forced to withdraw from northwest Georgia to the outskirts of Atlanta. Fed up with Johnston's constant withdrawal from Confederate territory, Davis relieved him of command and replaced him with John Bell Hood. In the final days of the war, Johnston was returned to command of the few remaining forces in the Carolinas Campaign, he surrendered his armies to Sherman at Bennett Place near Durham Station, North Carolina on April 26, 1865.
Union generals Ulysses S. Grant and Sherman both praised his actions in the war, became friends with Johnston afterward. After the war, Johnston served as an executive in the insurance businesses, he was elected as a Democrat in the United States House of Representatives. He was appointed as commissioner of railroads under Grover Cleveland, he died of pneumonia. Johnston was born at Longwood House in "Cherry Grove", near Farmville, Virginia on February 3, 1807, his grandfather, Peter Johnston, emigrated to Virginia from Scotland in 1726. Joseph was the seventh son of Judge Peter Johnston and Mary Valentine Wood, a niece of Patrick Henry, he was named for Major Joseph Eggleston, under whom his father served in the American Revolutionary War, in the command of Light-Horse Harry Lee. His brother Charles Clement Johnston served as a congressman, his nephew John Warfield Johnston was a senator. In 1811, the Johnston family moved to Abingdon, Virginia, a town near the Tennessee border, where his father Peter built a home he named Panecillo.
Johnston attended the United States Military Academy, nominated by John C. Calhoun in 1825 while he was Secretary of War, he received only a small number of disciplinary demerits. He graduated in 1829, ranking 13th of 46 cadets, was appointed a second lieutenant in the 4th U. S. Artillery, he would become the first West Point graduate to be promoted to a general officer in the regular army, reaching a higher rank in the U. S. Army than did Robert E. Lee. Johnston studied civil engineering. During the Second Seminole War, he was a civilian topographic engineer aboard a ship led by William Pope McArthur. On January 12, 1838, at Jupiter, the sailors who had gone ashore were attacked. Johnston said there were "no less than 30 bullet holes" in his clothing and one bullet creased his scalp, leaving a scar he had for the rest of his life. Having encountered more combat activities in Florida as a civilian than he had as an artillery officer, Johnston decided to rejoin the Army, he departed for Washington, D.
C. in April 1838 and was appointed a first lieutenant of topographic engineers on July 7. On July 10, 1845, in Baltimore, Johnston married Lydia Mulligan Sims McLane, the daughter of Louis McLane and his wife, her father was the president of a prominent politician. They had no children. Johnston was enthusiastic about the outbreak of the Mexican–American War, he served on the staff of Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott in the Siege of Veracruz, having been chosen by Scott to be the officer carrying the demand for surrender beforehand to the provincial governor, he was in the vanguard of the movement inland under Brig. Gen. David E. Twiggs and was wounded by grapeshot performing reconnaissance prior to the Battle of Cerro Gordo, he was appointed a brevet lieutenant colonel for his actions at Cerro Gordo. After recovering in a field hosp
Army of the Cumberland
The Army of the Cumberland was one of the principal Union armies in the Western Theater during the American Civil War. It was known as the Army of the Ohio; the origin of the Army of the Cumberland dates back to the creation of the Army of the Ohio in November 1861, under the command of Brig. Gen. Robert Anderson; the army fought under the name Army of the Ohio until Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans assumed command of the army and the Department of the Cumberland and changed the name of the combined entity to the Army of the Cumberland; when Rosecrans assumed command, the army and the XIV Corps were the same unit, divided into three "grand divisions" commanded by Alexander McCook, George H. Thomas, Thomas L. Crittenden. General Orders No. 168 was the order passed by the Union Army on October 24, 1862, that called for the commissioning the XIV Corps into the Army of the Cumberland. The army's first significant combat under the Cumberland name was at the Battle of Stones River. After the battle the army and XIV Corps were separated.
The former Center wing became XIV Corps, the Right wing became XX Corps, the Left wing became XXI Corps. Rosecrans still retained command of the army, he next led it through the Tullahoma Campaign and at the Battle of Chickamauga, after which the army became besieged at Chattanooga. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant arrived at Chattanooga. Reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Tennessee arrived. Rosecrans had been a popular and respected commander, but because of his defeat at Chickamauga and inability to lift the Confederate siege, Grant chose to replace him with George H. Thomas on October 19, 1863. In the Battles for Chattanooga, Grant had been leery of using the Army of the Cumberland in the main fighting, fearing their morale to be too low after the defeat at Chickamauga. Instead, he used the veterans from the Army of the Potomac, proud of their recent victory at the Battle of Gettysburg, to take Lookout Mountain and planned to use the troops from the Army of the Tennessee recent victors at the Siege of Vicksburg, to attack the Confederate right flank on Missionary Ridge.
The Army of the Cumberland was given the minor task of seizing the rifle pits at the base of Missionary Ridge. However, once they achieved their objective, four divisions stormed up the ridge and routed the Confederate center; when Grant angrily asked who had ordered those troops up the ridge both Thomas and Gordon Granger, a corps commander in the army, responded they did not know. Granger replied, "Once those boys get started, all hell can't stop'em." After Grant's victory at Chattanooga earned him promotion to general-in-chief of the U. S. Army, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman assumed command of Grant's Military Division of the Mississippi, which controlled all Union armies in the West, he created an "army group" of the Army of the Cumberland, the Army of the Tennessee, the Army of the Ohio and marched towards Atlanta in May 1864. On the way to Atlanta they fought in many battles and skirmishes including the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. In September, Atlanta fell to Sherman's army group; when Confederate general John B.
Hood moved north from Atlanta, Sherman chose not to follow him and instead dispatched some of the Army of the Cumberland and the Army of the Ohio after him. Thomas met Hood at the Battle of Nashville and crushed him, thus bringing to an end any significant military actions for the Army of the Cumberland. Other elements of the Army of the Cumberland marched to the sea and north through the Carolinas with Sherman, under the command of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum; these forces became the Union's Army of Georgia and participated in the Grand Review of the Armies in Washington, D. C. before President Andrew Johnson in 1865. Stones River Union order of battle Chickamauga Union order of battle Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign Union order of battle Atlanta Campaign Union order of battle Peachtree Creek Union order of battle Nashville Union order of battle Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Organization of U. S. Forces in the Civil War Daniel, Larry J.
Days of Glory: The Army of the Cumberland, 1861–1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8071-3191-6. Hunt, Robert Eno; the Good Men Who Won the War: Army of the Cumberland Veterans and Emancipation Memory. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8173-1688-4. Prokopowicz, Gerald J. All for the Regiment: The Army of the Ohio, 1861–1862. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8078-2626-X. Van Horne, Thomas B; the Army of the Cumberland: Its Organizations and Battles. New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1996. ISBN 0-8317-5621-7. First published 1885 by Robert Co.. Cist, Henry M; the Army of the Cumberland. Edison, NY, Castle Books, ISBN 0-7858-1579-1. First Published 1882, Cist, a general in the army, is considered the definitive work on the Army of the Cumberland. Rosecrans' campaign with the Fourteenth Army Corps, or the Army of the Cumberland: a narrative of personal observations, with an appendix consisting of official reports of the Battle of Stone River at the Internet Archive Army Organization during the Civil War Annals of the Army of the Cumberland: comprising biographies, descriptions of departments, accounts of expeditions and battles its police record of spies and prominent rebel emissaries: together with anecdotes, poetry, etc. and official reports of the battle of Stone River at the Internet Archive
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, in Spotsylvania County, near the village of Chancellorsville. Two related battles were fought nearby on May 3 in the vicinity of Fredericksburg; the campaign pitted Union Army Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac against an army less than half its size, General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Chancellorsville is known as Lee's "perfect battle" because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory; the victory, a product of Lee's audacity and Hooker's timid decision making, was tempered by heavy casualties, including Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Jackson was hit by friendly fire. Lee's difficulty in replacing his lost men as well as his inability to prevent the Union Withdrawal have led to his great victory being regarded as a Pyrrhic one.
The Chancellorsville Campaign began with the crossing of the Rappahannock River by the Union army on the morning of April 27, 1863. Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. George Stoneman began a long distance raid against Lee's supply lines at about the same time; this operation was ineffectual. Crossing the Rapidan River via Germanna and Ely's Fords, the Federal infantry concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30. Combined with the Union force facing Fredericksburg, Hooker planned a double envelopment, attacking Lee from both his front and rear. On May 1, Hooker advanced from Chancellorsville toward Lee, but the Confederate general split his army in the face of superior numbers, leaving a small force at Fredericksburg to deter Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick from advancing, while he attacked Hooker's advance with about four-fifths of his army. Despite the objections of his subordinates, Hooker withdrew his men to the defensive lines around Chancellorsville, ceding the initiative to Lee. On May 2, Lee divided his army again, sending Stonewall Jackson's entire corps on a flanking march that routed the Union XI Corps.
While performing a personal reconnaissance in advance of his line, Jackson was wounded by fire after dark from his own men close between the lines, cavalry commander Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart temporarily replaced him as corps commander; the fiercest fighting of the battle—and the second bloodiest day of the Civil War—occurred on May 3 as Lee launched multiple attacks against the Union position at Chancellorsville, resulting in heavy losses on both sides. That same day, Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River, defeated the small Confederate force at Marye's Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, moved to the west; the Confederates fought a successful delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church and by May 4 had driven back Sedgwick's men to Banks' Ford, surrounding them on three sides. Sedgwick withdrew across the ford early on May 5, Hooker withdrew the remainder of his army across U. S. Ford the night of May 5–6; the campaign ended on May 7. In the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, the objective of the Union had been to advance and seize the Confederate capital, Virginia.
In the first two years of the war, four major attempts had failed: the first foundered just miles away from Washington, D. C. at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign took an amphibious approach, landing his Army of the Potomac on the Virginia Peninsula in the spring of 1862 and coming within 6 miles of Richmond before being turned back by Gen. Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days Battles; that summer, Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia was defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run. In December 1862, Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside commanded the Army of the Potomac and attempted to reach Richmond by way of Fredericksburg, where he was defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg; this string of Union defeats was interrupted in September 1862 when Lee moved into Maryland and his campaign was turned back by McClellan at the Battle of Antietam, but this represented no threat to Richmond. In January 1863, the Army of the Potomac, following the Battle of Fredericksburg and the humiliating Mud March, suffered from rising desertions and plunging morale.
Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside decided to conduct a mass purge of the Army of the Potomac's leadership, eliminating a number of generals who he felt were responsible for the disaster at Fredericksburg. In reality, he had no power to dismiss anyone without the approval of Congress. Predictably, Burnside's purge went nowhere, he offered President Abraham Lincoln his resignation from command of the Army of the Potomac, he offered to resign from the Army, but the president persuaded him to stay, transferring him to the Western Theater, where he became commander of the Department of the Ohio. Burnside's former command, the IX Corps, was transferred to the Virginia Peninsula, a movement that prompted the Confederates to detach troops from Lee's army under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, a decision that would be consequential in the upcoming campaign. Abraham Lincoln had become convinced that the appropriate objective for his Eastern army was the army of Robert E. Lee, not any geographic features such as a capital city, but he and his generals knew that the most reliable way to bring Lee to a decisive battle was to threaten his capital.
Lincoln tried a fifth time with a new general on January 25, 1863—Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, a man with a pugnacious reputation who had performed
James Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, with Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Longstreet served in the Mexican–American War, he was wounded in the thigh at the Battle of Chapultepec, afterward married his first wife, Louise Garland. Throughout the 1850s, he served on frontier duty in the American Southwest. In June 1861, Longstreet resigned his U. S. Army joined the Confederate Army, he commanded Confederate troops during an early victory at Blackburn's Ford in July and played a minor role at the First Battle of Bull Run. Longstreet's talents as a general made significant contributions to several important Confederate victories in the Eastern Theater as one of Robert E. Lee's chief subordinates in the Army of Northern Virginia.
He performed poorly at Seven Pines by accidentally marching his men down the wrong road, causing them to be late in arrival. He played an important role in the success of the Seven Days Battles in the summer of 1862. Longstreet led a devastating counterattack, his men held their ground in defensive roles at Fredericksburg. Longstreet's most controversial service was at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, where he disagreed with General Lee on the tactics to be employed and reluctantly supervised several attacks on Union forces, including the disastrous Pickett's Charge. Afterwards, Longstreet was, at his own request, sent to the Western Theater to fight under Braxton Bragg, where his troops launched a ferocious assault on the Union lines at Chickamauga, which carried the day. Afterwards, his performance in semiautonomous command during the Knoxville Campaign resulted in a Confederate defeat. Longstreet's tenure in the Western Theater was marred by his central role in numerous conflicts amongst important Confederate generals.
Unhappy serving under Bragg and his men were sent back to Lee. He ably commanded troops during the Battle of the Wilderness in 1864, where he was wounded by friendly fire, he returned to the field, serving under Lee in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox Campaign. He enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the U. S. government as a diplomat, civil servant, administrator. His conversion to the Republican Party and his cooperation with his old friend, President Ulysses S. Grant, as well as critical comments he wrote in his memoirs about General Lee's wartime performance, made him anathema to many of his former Confederate colleagues, his reputation in the South further suffered when he led African-American militia against the anti-Reconstruction White League at the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874. Authors of the Lost Cause movement focused on Longstreet's actions at Gettysburg as a primary reason for the Confederacy's loss of the war. Since the late 20th century, his reputation has undergone a slow reassessment.
Many Civil War historians now consider him among the war's most gifted tactical commanders. James Longstreet was born on January 8, 1821 in Edgefield District, South Carolina, an area, now part of North Augusta, Edgefield County, he was the fifth child and third son of James Longstreet, of Dutch descent, Mary Ann Dent of English descent from New Jersey and Maryland who owned a cotton plantation close to where the village of Gainesville would be founded in northeastern Georgia. James's ancestor Dirck Stoffels Langestraet immigrated to the Dutch colony of New Netherland in 1657, but the name became Anglicized over the generations. James's father was impressed by his son's "rocklike" character on the rural plantation, giving him the nickname Peter, he was known as Pete or Old Pete for the rest of his life. Longstreet's father decided on a military career for his son, but felt that the local education available to him would not be adequate preparation. At the age of nine, James was sent to live with his aunt Frances Eliza and uncle Augustus Baldwin Longstreet in Augusta, Georgia.
James spent eight years on his uncle's plantation, just outside the city while he attended the Academy of Richmond County. His father died from a cholera epidemic while visiting Augusta in 1833. Although James's mother and the rest of the family moved to Somerville, following his father's death, James remained with uncle Augustus; as a boy, Longstreet enjoyed swimming, hunting and riding horses. He became adept at shooting firearms. Northern Georgia was rural frontier territory during Longstreet's boyhood, Southern genteel traditions had not yet taken hold; as a result, Longstreet's manners were sometimes rather rough. He dressed. In his old age, Longstreet described his uncle as caring and loving, he never made any known political statements before the war and seemed disinterested in politics. But Augustus, as a lawyer, newspaper editor, Methodist minister, was a man of some political prominence, was a fierce states' rights partisan who supported South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis. Longstreet must have been exposed to these ideas while living with him.
Augustus was known for drinking whiskey and playing card games though many Americans in this era considered them to be immoral, habits he seems to have passed on to Longstreet. In 1837, Augustus attempted to o
The Atlanta Campaign was a series of battles fought in the Western Theater of the American Civil War throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta during the summer of 1864. Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman invaded Georgia from the vicinity of Chattanooga, beginning in May 1864, opposed by the Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston. Johnston's Army of Tennessee withdrew toward Atlanta in the face of successive flanking maneuvers by Sherman's group of armies. In July, the Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, replaced Johnston with the more aggressive General John Bell Hood, who began challenging the Union Army in a series of costly frontal assaults. Hood's army was besieged in Atlanta and the city fell on September 2, setting the stage for Sherman's March to the Sea and hastening the end of the war; the Atlanta Campaign followed the Union victory in the Battles for Chattanooga in November 1863. After Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to general-in-chief of all Union armies, he left his favorite subordinate from his time in command of the Western Theater, William T. Sherman, in charge of the Western armies.
Grant's strategy was to apply pressure against the Confederacy in several coordinated offensives. While he, George G. Meade, Benjamin Butler, Franz Sigel, George Crook, William W. Averell advanced in Virginia against Robert E. Lee, Nathaniel Banks attempted to capture Mobile, Sherman was assigned the mission of defeating Johnston's army, capturing Atlanta, striking through Georgia and the Confederate heartland. At the start of the campaign, Sherman's Military Division of the Mississippi consisted of three armies: Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson's Army of the Tennessee, including the corps of Maj. Gen. John A. Logan, Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, Maj. Gen. Frank P. Blair, Jr.. When McPherson was killed at the Battle of Atlanta, Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard replaced him. Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield's Army of the Ohio, consisting of Schofield's XXIII Corps and a cavalry division commanded by Maj. Gen. George Stoneman. Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas's Army of the Cumberland, including the corps of Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, Maj. Gen. John M. Palmer, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, Brig. Gen. Washington L. Elliott.
After Howard took army command, David S. Stanley took over IV Corps. On paper at the beginning of the campaign, Sherman outnumbered Johnston 98,500 to 50,000, but his ranks were depleted by many furloughed soldiers, Johnston received 15,000 reinforcements from Alabama. However, by June, a steady stream of reinforcements brought Sherman's strength to 112,000. Opposing Sherman, the Army of Tennessee was commanded first by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, relieved of his command in mid-campaign and replaced by Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood; the four corps in the 50,000-man army were commanded by: Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee. Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood. Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk; when Polk was killed on June 14, Loring took over as commander of the corps but was replaced by Alexander P. Stewart on June 23. Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler. Johnston was a conservative general with a reputation for withdrawing his army before serious contact would result, but in Georgia, he faced the much more aggressive Sherman. Johnston's army took up entrenched defensive positions in the campaign.
Sherman prudently avoided suicidal frontal assaults against most of these positions, instead maneuvering in flanking marches around the defenses as he advanced from Chattanooga towards Atlanta. Whenever Sherman flanked the defensive lines, Johnston would retreat to another prepared position. Both armies took advantage of the railroads as supply lines, with Johnston shortening his supply lines as he drew closer to Atlanta, Sherman lengthening his own. Johnston had entrenched his army on the long, high mountain of Rocky Face Ridge and eastward across Crow Valley; as Sherman approached, he decided to demonstrate against the position with two columns while he sent a third one through Snake Creek Gap, to the right, to hit the Western & Atlantic Railroad at Resaca, Georgia. The two columns engaged the enemy at Dug Gap. In the meantime, the third column, under McPherson, passed through Snake Creek Gap and on May 9 advanced to the outskirts of Resaca, where it found Confederates entrenched. Fearing defeat, McPherson pulled his column back to Snake Creek Gap.
On May 10, Sherman decided to join McPherson to take Resaca. The next morning, as he discovered Sherman's army withdrawing from their positions in front of Rocky Face Ridge, Johnston retired south towards Resaca. Union troops tested the Confederate lines around Resaca to pinpoint their whereabouts. Full scale fighting occurred on May 14, the Union troops were repulsed except on Johnston's right flank, where Sherman did not exploit his advantage. On May 15, the battle continued with no advantage to either side until Sherman sent a for