The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
The Philippine Constabulary was a gendarmerie-type police force of the Philippines from 1901 to 1991. It was created by the American colonial government to replace the Spanish colonial Guardia Civil, it was the first of the four service commands of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. On January 29, 1991, it was merged with the Integrated National Police to form the Philippine National Police; the Philippine Constabulary was established on August 18, 1901, under the general supervision of the civil Governor-General of the Philippines, by authority of Act. No. 175 of the Second Philippine Commission, for the purpose of maintaining peace and order in the various provinces of the Philippine Islands. By the end of 1901, a total of 180 officers had been commissioned; the constabulary assisted the United States military in combating the remaining irreconcilable revolutionaries following the March 23 capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo and his 1 April pledge of allegiance to the United States. This phase of the Philippine–American War ended in Luzon by 1906, with the surrender and execution of one of its last remaining generals, Macario Sakay.
Continued disorder and brigandry prompted Governor-General William Howard Taft to maintain the PC to combat insurgents. Captain Henry T. Allen of the 6th U. S. Cavalry, a Kentucky-born graduate of West Point, was named as the chief of the force, was dubbed as the "Father of the Philippine Constabulary". With the help of four other army officers, Captains David Baker, W. Goldsborough, H. Atkinson, J. S. Garwood, Captain Allen organized the force, trained and armed the men as best as could be done at the time. Although the bulk of the officers were recruited from among U. S. commissioned and non-commissioned officers, two Filipinos qualified for appointment as 3rd Lieutenants during the first month of the PC: Jose Velasquez of Nueva Ecija and Felix Llorente of Manila. Llorente retired as a Colonel in 1921 while Velasquez retired as Major in 1927; the Philippine Constabulary Band was formed on October 15, 1902 by Colonel Walter Loving upon the instructions of Governor-General Taft, known as a music lover.
The 86-piece band toured the United States to great acclaim, leading the parade in Washington, D. C. to celebrate Taft's 1909 presidential inauguration, performing at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the 1915 World's Fair. Before the First World War, the PC Band would serve as a source of national pride. A school for the constabulary was established on February 17, 1905 at the Santa Lucia barracks in Intramuros. In 1908, the school was transferred to Baguio. In 1916 the school was renamed Academy for Officers of the Philippine Constabulary. In 1926, the school was renamed the Philippine Constabulary Academy; when the Philippine Army was created in 1936, as the Philippine Commonwealth Army, the institution became the Philippine Military Academy. The school is the main source of regular officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which prior to 1991 included those of the Philippine Constabulary. In 1935, a large tract of land was acquired in New Manila Heights, now part of Quezon City.
It was given by the City of Manila government in exchange for the old Gagalangin barracks compound in Tondo. Part of this tract became Camp Crame, named after Brigadier General Rafael Cramé of Rizal Province who became the first Filipino appointed Chief of the Constabulary on December 17, 1917. Other parts of the tract became Camp Murphy, Zablan Field, site the Philippine Constabulary Air Corps. Under the National Defense Act of 1935, the PC became the backbone of the Philippine Army re-established after World War II and was known as both the Philippine Constabulary and as the Military Police Command, it consisted of soldiers trained in military police duties with nationwide jurisdiction. The move to abolish the national police force and to make it a nucleus of a Philippine Army got underway when the Army of the Philippines was created in 1936. Thus, the transfer of the PC to the regular force of the new military organization was effected under the provisions of Sec. 18 of the National Defense Act, pursuant to Executive Order No. 11 of President Manuel L. Quezon dated January 11, 1936.
The Constabulary was inactivated on this date and was known as the Constabulary Division, Philippine Army. The PC got submerged in a bigger organization. Thereafter, the insular police duties, formally reposed in the PC, was discharged by a "State Police" created by Commonwealth Act No. 88 dated October 26, 1936. After turning over the former Constabulary duties to a State Police, which proved to be short-lived and unsuccessful, the Constabulary was revived as a military police force on June 23, 1938 by Commonwealth Act No. 343. By operation of the CA 343, the State Police was abolished and its military police duties reverted to the PC. President Quezon himself recommended to the National Assembly that the State Police be abolished and in its place the PC was to be reconstituted into a separate organization and divorced from the Philippine Army, for "national defense"; the PC once again existed as an independent force retaining all duties in maintaining peace and order and protection of life and property.
One of the most significant provisions of the law re-creating it was that which provided that officers and enlisted men detached from the army and transferred to the PC shall retain their identity and legal rights and obligations as officers and enlisted men of the army.
Battle of Leyte
The Battle of Leyte in the Pacific campaign of World War II was the amphibious invasion of the island of Leyte in the Philippines by American forces and Filipino guerrillas under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, who fought against the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita. The operation, codenamed King Two, launched the Philippines campaign of 1944–45 for the recapture and liberation of the entire Philippine Archipelago and to end three years of Japanese occupation. Japan had conquered the Philippines in 1942. Controlling it was vital for Japan's survival in World War II because it commanded sea routes to Borneo and Sumatra by which rubber and petroleum were shipped to Japan. For the U. S. capturing the Philippines was a key strategic step in isolating Imperial Japan's military holdings in China and the Pacific theater. It was a personal matter of pride for MacArthur. In 1942, just a month before Japan forced the surrender of all USAFFE forces in the Philippines, U.
S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had ordered MacArthur to leave the Philippines and organize the U. S. forces gathering in Australia, which were meant to relieve the USAFFE. Those relief forces were non-existent. Still, MacArthur had vowed, he stated that it was a moral obligation of the U. S. to liberate the Philippines as soon as possible. In March 1944, the Joint Chiefs of Staff ordered MacArthur to plan an attack on the southern Philippines by the end of the year, Luzon in early 1945. In July 1944, Roosevelt met with MacArthur and Chester Nimitz in Hawaii, where the decision was made to invade the Philippines, from which land air bases could be used for the Pacific Theater of Operations. Over the summer of 1944, planes from the aircraft carriers of the U. S. 3rd Fleet under Admiral William F. Halsey carried out several successful missions over the Philippines and found Japanese resistance lacking. Halsey recommended a direct strike on Leyte, canceling other planned operations, the Leyte invasion date moved forward to October.
Leyte, one of the larger islands of the Philippines, has numerous deep-water approaches and sandy beaches which offered opportunities for amphibious assaults and fast resupply. The roads and lowlands extending inland from Highway 1, that ran for 40 mi along the east coast between Abuyog town to the north and the San Juanico Strait between Leyte and Samar Islands, provided avenues for tank-infantry operations, as well as suitable ground for airfield construction. American air forces based on Leyte could strike at enemy bases and airfields anywhere in the archipelago. A forested north-south mountain range dominates the interior and separates two sizable valleys, or coastal plains; the larger Leyte Valley extends from the northern coast to the long eastern shore and contains most of the towns and roadways on the island. The other, Ormoc Valley, situated on the west side, was connected to Leyte Valley by a roundabout and winding road, Highway 2; this continued south to the port of Ormoc City along the western shore to Baybay town.
The road turned east to cross the mountainous waist of the island and it connected with Highway 1 on the east coast at Abuyog. Below these towns, the mountainous southern third of Leyte was undeveloped. High mountain peaks over 4,400 ft, as well as the jagged outcroppings and caves typical of volcanic islands offered formidable defensive opportunities; the timing late in the year of the assault would force combat troops and supporting pilots, as well as logistical units, to contend with monsoon rains. Leyte's population of over 900,000 people—mostly farmers and fishermen—could be expected to assist an American invasion, since many residents supported the guerrilla struggle against the Japanese in the face of harsh repression. Japanese troop strength on Leyte was estimated by U. S. intelligence at 20,000. Southwest Pacific Area General Douglas MacArthur in light cruiser Nashville US Seventh Fleet Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid in amphibious command ship Wasatch Task Group 77.4 – Escort Carrier Group Rear Adm. Thomas L. Sprague Task Force 78 – Northern Attack Force Rear Admiral Daniel E. Barbey in amphibious command ship Blue Ridge Embarking Maj. Gen. Franklin C.
Sibert's X Army CorpsTask Force 79 – Southern Attack Force Vice Admiral Theodore S. Wilkinson Embarking Maj. Gen. John R. Hodge's XXIV Army CorpsAllied Air Forces Lieutenant General George C. Kenney, USAAF Fifth Air Force Thirteenth Air ForceUS Sixth Army Lieutenant General Walter Krueger X Army Corps Lieutenant General Franklin C. Sibert Left Sector: 24th Infantry "Taro" Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. Frederick A. Irving 19th Infantry Regiment 34th Infantry RegimentRight Sector: 1st Cavalry Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. Verne D. Mudge 5th Cavalry Regiment 7th Cavalry Regiment 12th Cavalry Regiment Reserve: 7th Cavalry RegimentXXIV Army Corps Lieutenant General John R. Hodge Left Sector: 7th Infantry "Bayonet" Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. Archibald V. Arnold 17th Infantry Regiment 32nd Infantry Regiment 184th Infantry RegimentRight Sector: 96th Infantry "Deadeye" Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. James L. Bradley 381st Infa
United States Army Reserve
The United States Army Reserve is the reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the Army element of the Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. On 30 June 2016, Lieutenant General Charles D. Luckey became the 33rd Chief of Army Reserve, Commanding General, United States Army Reserve Command. On 2 November 2012, Command Sergeant Major James Lambert was sworn in as the Interim Command Sergeant Major of the Army Reserve, serving as the Chief of the Army Reserve's senior advisor on all enlisted soldier matters areas affecting training, leader development, employer support, family readiness and support, quality of life. On 23 April 1908 Congress created the Medical Reserve Corps, the official predecessor of the Army Reserve. After World War I, under the National Defense Act of 1920, Congress reorganized the U. S. land forces by authorizing a Regular Army, a National Guard, an Organized Reserve of unrestricted size, which became the Army Reserve.
This organization provided a peacetime pool of trained Reserve officers and enlisted men for use in war. The Organized Reserve included the Officers Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, Reserve Officers' Training Corps; the Organized Reserve infantry divisions raised after World War I continued the lineage and geographic area distribution of National Army divisions that had served in the war. They were maintained on paper with one-third of their enlisted men. Units in other arms of the Army besides infantry, most notably cavalry, field artillery and engineers were formed. Organized Reserve units, depending upon their geographic area, maintained relationships with one or several colleges or universities, which populated them with officers through the ROTC. In the event of war, Organized Reserve officers and enlisted men would be called to duty to form the cores of the divisions they were assigned to, be moved to other parts of the Army that needed officers. Service in the Organized Reserve during the interwar period was not as appealing as the Army expected.
Most divisions reached their full complement of officers, but had less than 100 enlisted men, since there was no incentive for them to serve. The 101st Infantry Division was designated a division of the Organized Reserve after World War I and assigned to the state of Wisconsin. A tentative troop basis for the Organized Reserve Corps, prepared in March 1946, outlined 25 divisions: three armored, five airborne, 17 infantry; these divisions and all other Organized Reserve Corps units were to be maintained in one of three strength categories, labeled Class A, Class B, Class C. Class A units were divided into two groups, one for combat and one for service, units were to be at required table of organization strength; the troop basis listed nine divisions as Class A, nine as Class B, seven as Class C. Major General Ray E. Porter therefore proposed reclassification of all Class A divisions as Class B units; the War Department agreed and made the appropriate changes. Although the dispute over Class A units lasted several months, the War Department proceeded with the reorganization of the Organized Reserve Corps divisions during the summer of 1946.
That all divisions were to begin as Class C units, progressing to the other categories as men and equipment became available, undoubtedly influenced the decision. The War Department wanted to take advantage of the pool of trained reserve officers and enlisted men from World War II. By that time Army Ground Forces had been reorganized as an army group headquarters that commanded six geographic armies; the armies replaced the nine corps areas of the prewar era, the army commanders were tasked to organize and train both Regular Army and Organized Reserve Corps units. The plan the army commanders received called for twenty-five Organized Reserve Corps divisions, but the divisions activated between September 1946 and November 1947 differed somewhat from the original plans; the First United States Army declined to support an airborne division, the 98th Infantry Division replaced the 98th Airborne Division. After the change, the Organized Reserve Corps had four airborne, three armored, eighteen infantry divisions.
The Second Army insisted upon the number 80 for its airborne unit because the division was to be raised in the prewar 80th Division's area, not that of the 99th. The 103rd Infantry Division, organized in 1921 in New Mexico and Arizona, was moved to Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota in the Fifth United States Army area; the Seventh Army, allotted the 15th Airborne Division, refused the designation, the adjutant general replaced it by constituting the 108th Airborne Division, which fell within that component's list of infantry and airborne divisional numbers. Thus the final tally of divisions formed after World War II appears to have been the 19th, 21st, 22d Armored Divisions. A major problem in forming divisions and other units in the Organized Reserve Corps was adequate housing. While many National Guard units owned their own armories, some dating back to the nineteenth century, the Organiz
Battle of Chosin Reservoir
The Battle of Chosin Reservoir known as the Chosin Reservoir Campaign or the Battle of Jangjin Lake was an important battle in the Korean War. The name "Chosin" is derived from the Japanese pronunciation "Chōshin", instead of the Korean pronunciation. Official Chinese sources refer to this battle as the eastern part of the Second Phase Campaign; the western half of the Second Phase Campaign resulted in a Chinese victory in the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River. The battle took place about a month after the People's Republic of China entered the conflict and sent the People's Volunteer Army 9th Army to infiltrate the northeastern part of North Korea. On 27 November 1950, the Chinese force surprised the US X Corps commanded by Major General Edward Almond at the Chosin Reservoir area. A brutal 17-day battle in freezing weather soon followed. Between 27 November and 13 December, 30,000 United Nations troops under the field command of Major General Oliver P. Smith were encircled and attacked by about 120,000 Chinese troops under the command of Song Shilun, ordered by Mao Zedong to destroy the UN forces.
The UN forces were able to break out of the encirclement and to make a fighting withdrawal to the port of Hungnam, inflicting heavy casualties on the Chinese. US Marine units were supported in their withdrawal by the US Army's Task Force Faith to their east, which suffered heavy casualties and the full brunt of the Chinese offensive; the retreat of the US Eighth Army from northwest Korea in the aftermath of the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River and the evacuation of the X Corps from the port of Hungnam in northeast Korea marked the complete withdrawal of UN troops from North Korea. By mid-October 1950, after the successful landing at Inchon by the US X Corps and the subsequent destruction of the Korean People's Army, the Korean War appeared to be all but over. United Nations forces advanced into North Korea with the intention of reuniting North and South Korea before the end of 1950. North Korea is divided through the center by the impassable Taebaek Mountains, which separated the UN forces into two groups.
The US Eighth Army advanced north through the western coast of the Korean Peninsula, while the Republic of Korea I Corps and the US X Corps advanced north on the eastern coast. At the same time the People's Republic of China entered the conflict after issuing several warnings to the United Nations. On 19 October 1950, large formations of Chinese troops, dubbed the People's Volunteer Army, secretly crossed the border and into North Korea. One of the first Chinese units to reach the Chosin Reservoir area was the PVA 42nd Corps, it was tasked with stopping the eastern UN advances. On 25 October, the advancing ROK I Corps made contact with the Chinese and halted at Funchilin Pass, south of the Chosin Reservoir. After the landing at Wonsan, the US 1st Marine Division of the X Corps engaged the defending PVA 124th Division on 2 November, the ensuing battle caused heavy casualties among the Chinese. On 6 November, the PVA 42nd Corps ordered a retreat to the north with the intention of luring the UN forces into the Chosin Reservoir.
By 24 November, the 1st Marine Division occupied both Sinhung-ni on the eastern side of the reservoir and Yudami-ni on the west side of the reservoir. Faced with the sudden attacks by Chinese forces in the Eighth Army sector, General Douglas MacArthur ordered the Eighth Army to launch the Home-by-Christmas Offensive. To support the offensive, MacArthur ordered the X Corps to attack west from the Chosin Reservoir and to cut the vital Manpojin—Kanggye—Huichon supply line; as a response, Major General Edward M. Almond, commander of the US X Corps, formulated a plan on 21 November, it called for the US 1st Marine Division to advance west through Yudami-ni, while the US 7th Infantry Division would provide a regimental combat team to protect the right flank at Sinhung-ni. The US 3rd Infantry Division would protect the left flank while providing security in the rear area. By the X Corps was stretched thin along a 400-mile front. Surprised by the Marine landing at Wonsan, China's Chairman Mao Zedong called for the immediate destruction of the ROK Capital Division, ROK 3rd Infantry Division, US 1st Marine Division, US 7th Infantry Division in a telegraph to Commander Song Shilun of the PVA 9th Army on 31 October.
Under Mao's urgent orders, the 9th Army was rushed into North Korea on 10 November. Undetected by UN intelligence, the 9th Army entered the Chosin Reservoir area on 17 November, with the 20th Corps of the 9th Army relieving the 42nd Corps near Yudami-ni. Chosin Reservoir is a man-made lake located in the northeast of the Korean peninsula; the name Chosin is the Japanese pronunciation of the Korean place name Changjin, the name stuck due to the outdated Japanese maps used by UN forces. The battle's main focus was around the 78-mile long road that connects Hungnam and Chosin Reservoir, which served as the only retreat route for the UN forces. Through these roads, Yudami-ni and Sinhung-ni, located at the west and east side of the reservoir are connected at Hagaru-ri. From there, the road passes through Koto-ri and leads to the port of Hungnam; the area around the Chosin Reservoir was sparsely populated. The battle was fought over some of the roughest terrain during some of the harshest winter weather conditions of the Korean War.
The road was created by cutting through the
65th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 65th Infantry Regiment, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" from the original Taíno name of the island, is a Puerto Rican regiment of the United States Army. The regiment's motto is Fidelitas, Latin for Honor and Fidelity; the Army Appropriation Bill created by an act of Congress on March 2, 1898, authorized the creation of the first body of native troops in Puerto Rico. On June 30, 1901, the "Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry" was organized. On July 1, 1908, Congress incorporated the regiment into the Regular Army as the Puerto Rico Regiment of Infantry, United States Army. On May 14, 1917, the Regiment was activated and additional men were assigned, with the unit being sent to serve at Panama. On June 4, 1920, the Regiment was renamed 65th Infantry. During World War II, the Regiment saw action throughout Europe France and Germany, participating in Naples-Foggia, Rome-Arno and Rhin. Several Purple Hearts were handed posthumously to members of the 65th Regiment; the 65th Infantry Regiment participated in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, in what is known in the United States as the War on Terror.
On April 13, 2016, the 65th Infantry was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. Puerto Ricans have participated in many of the military conflicts in which the United States has been involved. For example, they participated in the American Revolution, when volunteers from Puerto Rico and Mexico fought the British in 1779 under the command of General Bernardo de Gálvez, have continued to participate up to the present-day conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Puerto Rico became a U. S. Territory after the 1898 Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish–American War; the United States appointed a military governor and soon the United States Army established itself in San Juan. On March 2, 1899, the Army received an assignation of funds and authorization meant to formally organize troops in Puerto Rico. On March 24, 1899, the General Commander of the Puerto Rico Department, Mayor General Guy V. Henry ordered the creation of the Porto Rico Battalion of Volunteer Infantry. Formed by four companies named A through D and assigned to San Juan, Mayagüez and Ponce, the unit was activated on May 20, 1899, led by Major Lorenzo Davinson.
Shortly afterwards, each company received additional men for a total of 112. Major Ebon Swift replaced Davison as commander; the formalization of this move was notified in General Order 65, issued by the new General Commander Gen. George Davis. On February 12, 1900, the Mounted Battalion was organized and both were designated Porto Rico Regiment, U. S. Volunteers; the following year, the units were renamed Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry. The Band and First Battalion were sent to Washington on March 4, 1901, to participate in the inauguration of McKinley. On July 1, 1901, the United States Senate passed a bill which would require a strict mental and physical examination for those who wanted to join the regiment, it approved the recruitment of native Puerto Rican civilians to be appointed the grade of second lieutenants for a term of four years if they passed the required tests. On April 23, 1904, Congress authorized the recruitment of the local population as Second Lieutenants, leading to the recognition of Jaime Nadal, Henry Rexach, Pedro Parra, Eduardo Iriarte, Teofilo Marxuach, Eugenio de Hostos, Luis Emmanuelli and Pascual López.
In 1905, one of its battalions was sent to March along the First a Brigade of the First Division of the Regular Army during Roosevelt's inauguration. An act of Congress, approved on May 27, 1908, reorganized the regiment as part of the "regular" Army and the "Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry" was renamed "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry". Since the native Puerto Rican officers were Puerto Rican citizens and not citizens of the United States, they were required to undergo a new physical examination to determine their fitness for commissions in the Regular Army and to take an oath of U. S. citizenship with their new officers oath. By 30 January 1917, the Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry was training in Camp Las Casas, located in Santurce, a section of San Juan in what is now Residencial Las Casas. Different units of the regiment were stationed at other forts throughout the island under the command of William P. Burnham. Lieutenant Teófilo Marxuach, the officer of the day, was stationed at El Morro Castle at San Juan Bay on March 21, 1915.
The Odenwald, built in 1903, was an armed German supply ship which tried to force its way out of the San Juan Bay and deliver supplies to the German submarines waiting in the Atlantic Ocean. Marxuach gave the order to open fire on the ship from the walls of the fort. Sergeant Encarnación Correa manned a machine gun and fired warning shots with little effect. Marxuach fired a warning shot from a cannon located at the Santa Rosa battery of El Morro fort, in what is considered to be the first shot of World War I fired by the regular armed forces of the United States against a ship flying the colors of the Central Powers, forcing the Odenwald to stop and to return to port where its supplies were confiscated; the Odenwald was renamed SS Newport News. It was assigned to the U. S. Shipping Board, where it served until 1924 when it was retired. Puerto Ricans were unaccustomed to the racial segregation policies of the United States which were implemented in Puerto Rico and refused to designate themselves as "white" or "black".
Puerto Ricans of African descent were assigned to all-black units. In 1916, the Third Battalion and the companies of service and machine-guns were integrated into the regiment; when the United States declared war against Germany, the regiment was transferred to