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X rating

An X rating is a rating used to classify movies that are only meant for adults. The Australian Classification Board, a government institution, issues ratings for all movies and television shows exhibited, sold, or hired in Australia. Material showing explicit, non-simulated sex, pornographic in nature is rated X18+. People under 18 may not buy, exhibit, or view these films; the exhibition or sale of these films to people under the age of 18 years is a criminal offence carrying a maximum fine of $5,500. Films classified as X18+ are forbidden from being sold or rented anywhere in the six states of Australia, they are available to be sold or hired in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Importing X18+ material from these territories to any of the Australian states is legal, as the constitution forbids any restrictions on trade between the states and territories. Films may be shown in theaters in France only after classification by an administrative commission of the Ministry of Culture.

In 1975, the X classification was created for pornographic movies, or movies with successions of scenes of graphic violence. The commission has some leeway in classification. Movies with an X rating may only be shown in specific theaters. In 2000, some conservative associations sued the government for granting the movie Baise-moi, which contained graphic, realistic scenes of sex and violence, a non-X classification; the Council of State ruled that the movie should have been rated X. The decision was controversial, some suggested changing the law under which it was rated 18; the original X certificate, replacing the H certificate, was issued between 1951 and 1982 by the British Board of Film Censors in the United Kingdom. It was introduced as a result of the Wheare Report on film censorship. From 1951 to 1970, it meant "Extremely limited to those aged 16 and over," and from 1970 to 1982 it was redefined as meaning "Suitable for those aged 18 and over"; the X certificate was replaced in November 1982 by the 18 certificate.

Sometimes the rating of a film has changed over time. For example, the French film Jules and Jim received an X rating in 1962, changed to a PG rating in 1991. In some early cases, films politically motivated received an X rating; the Battleship Potemkin was rejected for "inflammatory subtitles and Bolshevik propaganda" in 1926, rated X in 1954, rated PG in 1987. In the United States, the X rating was applied to a film that contained content judged unsuitable for children, such as extreme violence implied sex, graphic language; when the MPAA film rating system began in America on November 1, 1968, the X rating was given to a film by the MPAA if submitted to it, or due to its non-trademarked status, it could be self-applied to a film by a distributor that knew beforehand that its film contained content unsuitable for minors. From the late 1960s to about the mid-1980s, many mainstream films were released with an X rating, such as Midnight Cowboy, Medium Cool, The Girl on a Motorcycle, Last Summer, Last of the Mobile Hot Shots, Beyond the Valley of the Dolls, A Clockwork Orange, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, Fritz the Cat, Flesh Gordon, Alice in Wonderland: An X-Rated Musical Comedy, Last Tango in Paris and The Evil Dead.

The threat of an X rating encouraged filmmakers to re-edit their films to achieve an R rating. Because the X rating was not trademarked, anybody could apply it to their films, including pornographers, as many began to do in the 1970s; as pornography began to become chic and more and commercially tolerated, pornographers placed an X rating on their films to emphasize the adult content. Some started using multiple X's to give the impression that their film contained more graphic sexual content than the simple X rating. In some cases, the X ratings were applied by reviewers or film scholars, e.g. William Rotsler, who wrote "The XXX-rating means hard-core, the XX-rating is for simulation, an X-rating is for comparatively cool films." Nothing beyond the simple X rating has been recognized by the MPAA. Because of the heavy use of the X rating by pornographers, it became associated with pornographic films, so that non-pornographic films given an X rating would have fewer theaters willing to book them and fewer venues for advertising.

Many newspapers refused to advertise X-rated films. This led to a number of films being released unrated sometimes with a warning that the film contained content for adults only. In response, the MPAA agreed in 1990 to a new NC-17 rating that would be trademarked, could only be applied by the MPAA itself. By trademarking the rating, the MPAA committed to defending an NC-17 film charged with violating obscenity laws. Censorship List of NC-17 rated films Motion Picture Production Code Strong language Television content rating, top-level Internet domain Screen Online article about the X certificate Refused Classification Website covering in varying detail many films that have run foul of the Australian Office of Film and Literature Classification, with separate sections for hardcore films and video games Explanation of X-ratings in the US How “X-rated” Came to Mean “Porn” and

Far-left politics

Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left. The term has been used to describe ideologies such as: communism, neo-Marxism, anarcho-communism, left-communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism and Maoism. Luke March of the School of Social and Political Science at the University of Edinburgh defines the far-left in Europe as those who position themselves to the left of social democracy, which they see as insufficiently left-wing; the two main sub-types are called the radical left, who desire fundamental changes to neo-liberal globalist capitalism and progressive reform of democracy, the extreme left, who denounce liberal democracy as a "compromise with bourgeois political forces," and define capitalism more strictly. March states that "compared with the international communist movement 30 years ago, the far left has undergone a process of profound de-radicalisation; the extreme left is marginal in most places." March specifies four major subgroups within contemporary European far-left politics: communists, which he states exist only as a "commitment to Marxism" and a "historical sense of the movement".

To distinguish the far left from the moderate left and Mudde identify three "useful criteria": firstly, they reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism. Some sources classify the far-left under the category of populist socialist parties. Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopeček suggest secondary characteristics, such as anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, opposition to NATO and in some cases a rejection of European integration. In France, the term extrême-gauche is a accepted term for political groups that position themselves to the left of the Socialist Party, such as Trotskyists, anarcho-communists and New Leftists. Some, such as political scientist Serge Cosseron, limit the scope to the left of the French Communist Party, but there is no real consensus. In conceptualization, March started to refer to the politics as "radical left", constituted of radical left parties that reject the socio-economic structures of contemporary society that are based on the principles and values of capitalism.

In Europe, the support for far-left politics comes from three overlapping groups: far-left subculture, disaffected Social Democrats, protest voters - those who are opposed to their country's EU membership. Many far-left militant organizations formed from existing political parties in the 1960s and 1970s, such as the Red Brigades and the Red Army Faction; these groups aim to overthrow capitalism and the wealthy ruling classes. Anarchism Hard left List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation Moonbat Far-right politics Paolo Chiocchetti; the Radical Left Party Family in Western Europe, 1989-2015. London: Routledge, 2017. Media related to Far-left politics at Wikimedia Commons

Robinson Mine

The Robinson Mine is a porphyry copper deposit located at Ruth, White Pine County, Nevada, in the Egan Range, 4 miles west of Ely. The mine comprises three large open pits: Tripp-Veteran and Ruth; the ore is extracted using conventional surface methods, is processed into a copper-gold concentrate, a molybdenum concentrate in a concentrating plant. Since 2012 the mine has been owned and operated by Polish copper miner KGHM Polska Miedź S. A. Large-scale copper mining began in the district in 1907 and, with some hiatuses and several changes of ownership, continues in 2019. Production from 1908 to 1978 was more than 4 billion pounds of copper and 2,700,000 troy ounces of gold, 2018 annual production of 106 million pounds of copper and 37,100 troy ounces of gold. Published ore reserves at Robinson as of end of 2017 were 565,400,000 pounds of copper. Current plans are for the mine to operate until 2022 before reclamation. Around 1868, prospector Thomas Robinson discovered gold and silver, along with widespread, low-grade copper, in what became the Robinson Mining District.

From around 1892 to 1907, several gold mines were opened. Around 1907, interest turned towards copper. Under Daniel C. Jackling, in 1905 Nevada Consolidated Copper Corporation began copper mining in the Veteran Mine. "The resulting mine was an impressive open-pit and satellite cave."During World War I and until the Great Depression, Nevada Con employed some 1000 - 1200 men in their mines. Mining ended around 1949. Future production would come from open-pit mining. In late 1906, the Guggenheim interests acquired control of Nevada Con, as a part of their growing copper-mining business. In 1932, Nevada Con became a wholly owned subsidiary of Kennecott Copper, another Guggenheim-controlled company. In September 1978, Kennecott closed its Nevada mines, in 1983 the McGill smelter was closed. Recorded production from 1908 to 1978 was more than 4 billion pounds of copper and 2.7 million ounces of gold. Magma Copper bought Robinson in 1991 and began work on reopening the mine in 1994. In 1996, BHP acquired Magma, operated Robinson from 1996 to 1999.

Magma/BHP invested around $480 million in the plant. The mine was closed in 1999 due to low copper prices. Quadra Mining bought Robinson in 2004, reopened the mine that year. Since 2005, production has averaged about 125 million pounds of copper per year. In 2010, Robinson produced 73,000 ounces of gold. In 2012, Quadra was acquired by KGHM Polska Miedź S. A. a large Polish copper producer. As of December 2017, the Robinson Mine had 605 employees. Paleozoic limestones and sandstones were intruded in the Cretaceous by a quartz monzonite porphyry; this intrusion metamorphosed the surrounding sediments creating a tactite zone in the altered limestone up to 150 meters away, producing porphyry ores with traces of gold. Chalcopyrite is the primary ore mineral. Robinson Mine at KGHM International Robinson Mine photos at Flickr

Possilpark & Parkhouse railway station

Possilpark & Parkhouse railway station serves the Possilpark and Parkhouse areas of Glasgow, Scotland. It is located on the Maryhill Line, 3 miles north of Glasgow Queen Street. Services are provided by Abellio ScotRail on behalf of Strathclyde Partnership for Transport; the station was one of five built for Maryhill Line project, supported by what was the Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive and completed by British Rail in December 1993. The route on which the station stands is older though, being opened by the Glasgow and Helensburgh Railway in 1858 - this would be used by trains from the West Highland Line to reach the main line at Cowlairs and thus reach Queen Street High Level; the GD&HR's successors the North British Railway built a station to serve Possilpark on the line in 1887, but this was located a short distance west of the present station and was closed to passengers back in January 1917. Services ran only as far as Maryhill, with the extension to Anniesland opening in 2005.

Monday to Saturdays there is a half-hourly service eastbound to Glasgow Queen Street and westbound to Anniesland via Maryhill. Since 18 May 2014, a limited hourly Sunday service now operates on this line from 09:30 to 19:00. Possil railway station Train times and station information for Possilpark & Parkhouse railway station from National Rail Video footage of Possilpark and Parkhouse Station

George Paraskevaides

George Paraskevaides was a Cypriot philanthropist and businessman who focused on the construction business in Europe and the Middle East. Paraskevaides was one of the co-founders of Joannou & Paraskevaides with fellow Cypriot, Stelios Ioannou. Paraskevaides was born in Athens, Greece, in 1916, his family moved to Cyprus when he was young. He studied architecture at Politecnico di Milano in Italy. Paraskevaides joined forces with Stelios Ioannou following the end of World War II. Together the two partners founded the Joannou & Paraskevaides company, better known as J&P, their company would grow into a major international construction giant, with dozens of projects throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia. J&P was forced into liquidation, he was well known for his philanthropic work. He helped to build an organ transplant center in Cyprus, he paid to send children for medical treatment in the United States. Paraskevaides received a number of awards and recognitions for his work in both business and philanthropy.

He was inducted into the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. He was awarded the Saint Marcus Medal from the Vatican. George Paraskevaides died at the London Clinic in London on December 5, 2007, at the age of 91. "Cyprus construction tycoon George Paraskevaides dies". Financial Mirror. December 5, 2007. "State funeral for Cyprus construction tycoon George Paraskevaides". December 12, 2007. "George Paraskevaides, O. B. E."

Fedora (KGB agent)

Fedora was the codename for Aleksey Isidorovich Kulak, a KGB-agent who infiltrated the United Nations during the Cold War. While working in New York, Kulak offered his services. Kulak told his American handlers there was a KGB mole working at the FBI, leading to a decades-long mole hunt that disrupted the agency. It's not clear whether Kulak was acting as a double agent supplying false information or whether his information was legitimate. Kulak was a Soviet war hero, who prior to his work with the Americans was awarded Hero of the USSR, with a PhD in chemistry, he was sent by the KGB to New York City in the early 1960s, with a cover of being assigned as a consultant to the United Nations on the effects of radiation. Kulak was a close associate and special assistant of the Secretary General of the United Nations, U Thant. In March, 1962, Kulak walked into an FBI field office in New York City and offered his service to the FBI in exchange for cash; when asked whether he was worried about having been spotted walking into an FBI office, Kulak offered a tantalizing clue that he knew of a mole in the FBI, telling agents that the KGB's agents were occupied meeting an FBI agent, spying for the Soviet Union.

Kulak referred to this unidentified FBI double-agent as "Dick". Kulak's information set off a decades-long mole hunt in the FBI, it has never been conclusively determined whether or not there was a mole working in the FBI. It has never been conclusively proven that Kulak's approach to the FBI was not a KGB feint to throw the FBI's counter-intelligence operation into disarray – which his revelation did in fact do, as the agency spent significant resources investigating its own agents. In 1963, Kulak switched his KGB cover to science attaché at the Soviet Embassy, continued working there until 1967, when he returned to Moscow. In 1971, Kulak returned to New York for a second tour of duty which lasted until 1976. Although he had been considered a reliable source, by the end of his second tour, the FBI was beginning to suspect Kulak was secretly controlled by the KGB and was feeding false information to the Americans. Still, before he left New York City, he was recruited by Gus Hathaway, the CIA agent who handled Adolf Tolkachev, to continue his espionage work for the Americans upon his return to Moscow.

In 1977, back in Moscow, Kulak resumed contact with the CIA and provided a valuable list of Soviet scientists attempting to steal U. S. scientific secrets. He promised to provide more valuable sets of data about the inner-most workings of the KGB and the Soviet Union's efforts to steal American technology. However, when he signaled to make contact with CIA agents, he got no response. CIA director Stansfield Turner had issued orders to the Moscow CIA station to halt contacts with undercover spies, out of fear the station had been compromised. Despite Kulak's attempts to signal for a meeting a second time, contact was never made and his offer of more material was never taken up. A book by author Edward Jay Epstein published in 1978 described Fedora in enough detail to make it that the KGB was able to identify Kulak as the source. With his cover blown, the CIA offered to exfiltrate Kulak, devising an elaborate ruse to carry out what would have been a first-of-its-kind operation to pull a spy out of Moscow, but when Kulak was contacted, he politely thanked the CIA for its offer, but declined saying he was not concerned for his safety.

Kulak died of natural causes, in Russia in 1983. Due to the enormous amount of distrust and tumult within the ranks of the FBI inspired by Kulak's claims that a KGB mole was operating at the agency, questions have been raised about whether Kulak was an authentic source of information, or whether he was under the control of the KGB, deliberately feeding false information to the FBI. During his years of service, Kulak was considered a legitimate source by FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, but doubted by CIA's director of counter-intelligence James Angleton; when Kulak approached the FBI, he was a heavy drinker. During his interviews with FBI agents, Kulak drank from a bottle of scotch, his frequent inebriation has been cited as evidence that he was a genuine volunteer for the FBI. Besides providing information about a potential mole, Kulak gave the FBI details on Soviet agents, which led to the FBI making a number of arrests and imprisonments, adding to the sense that he was a genuine volunteer. Additionally, Kulak told the FBI that the KGB's mole in the agency had given the Soviets codes the Americans used in their counter-intelligence work, which would have been a major coup and a guarded secret for the Soviets, which appears to have been true.

One argument made for Kulak being a KGB double-agent falsely feeding information to the FBI is that when he returned to Moscow, he suffered no consequences, unlike Dmitri Polyakov, executed when his work with the FBI was discovered by the KGB. In 1995, former KGB general Oleg Kalugin said in an interview that not only was Kulak an authentic source, but the KGB did indeed have a mole operating in the FBI at the height of the Cold War. Kalugin said that many in the KGB suspected Kulak of working for the Americans, but his status as a war hero, recipient of the Hero of the USSR award, protected him