IceWM is a stacking window manager for the X Window System graphical infrastructure, written by Marko Maček. It was written from scratch in C++ and is released under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License, it is lightweight in terms of memory and CPU usage, comes with themes that allow it to imitate the GUI of Windows 95, Windows XP, Windows 7, OS/2, other graphical user interfaces. IceWM is meant to feel while being lightweight and customizable. IceWM can be configured from plain text files stored in a user's home directory, making it easy to customize and copy settings. IceWM has an optional, built-in taskbar with menu, tasks display, network and CPU meters, mail check and configurable clock. Official support for GNOME and KDE menus used to be available as a separate package. In recent IceWM versions, support for them is built-in as well. External graphical programs for editing the configuration and the menu are available. IceWM is installed as the main Window Manager for Absolute Linux and the light version of VectorLinux.
The Easy mode default desktop of the Asus Eee PC uses IceWM.openSUSE for Raspberry Pi uses IceWM by default as a lightweight GUI. The Raspberry Pi 3 only version of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server uses IceWM. JWM FVWM95 Comparison of X window managers Spri, a former lightweight Linux distribution which used IceWM as its default user interface Official website IceWM on SourceForge.net IceWM Themes IceWM Control Panel IceWM Themes
A paned window is a window, divided into sections known as panes. The meaning pertained to sectioned glass windows in walls. Computer scientists have adopted the term "pane" to refer to parts of sectioned windows on a graphical display. Examples of this usage include in the context of a code browser in a typical integrated development environment. Insulated glazing Fortochka Sash window Graphical User Interface
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
X Window System
The X Window System is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on Unix-like operating systems. X provides the basic framework for a GUI environment: drawing and moving windows on the display device and interacting with a mouse and keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface – this is handled by individual programs; as such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly. X originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984; the X protocol has been version 11 since September 1987. The X. Org Foundation leads the X project, with the current reference implementation, X. Org Server, available as free and open source software under the MIT License and similar permissive licenses. X is an architecture-independent system for remote graphical user interfaces and input device capabilities; each person using a networked terminal has the ability to interact with the display with any type of user input device. In its standard distribution it is a complete, albeit simple and interface solution which delivers a standard toolkit and protocol stack for building graphical user interfaces on most Unix-like operating systems and OpenVMS, has been ported to many other contemporary general purpose operating systems.
X provides the basic framework, or primitives, for building such GUI environments: drawing and moving windows on the display and interacting with a mouse, keyboard or touchscreen. X does not mandate the user interface. Programs may use X's graphical abilities with no user interface; as such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly. Unlike most earlier display protocols, X was designed to be used over network connections rather than on an integral or attached display device. X features network transparency, which means an X program running on a computer somewhere on a network can display its user interface on an X server running on some other computer on the network; the X server is the provider of graphics resources and keyboard/mouse events to X clients, meaning that the X server is running on the computer in front of a human user, while the X client applications run anywhere on the network and communicate with the user's computer to request the rendering of graphics content and receive events from input devices including keyboards and mice.
The fact that the term "server" is applied to the software in front of the user is surprising to users accustomed to their programs being clients to services on remote computers. Here, rather than a remote database being the resource for a local app, the user's graphic display and input devices become resources made available by the local X server to both local and remotely hosted X client programs who need to share the user's graphics and input devices to communicate with the user. X's network protocol is based on X command primitives; this approach allows both 2D and 3D operations by an X client application which might be running on a different computer to still be accelerated on the X server's display. For example, in classic OpenGL, display lists containing large numbers of objects could be constructed and stored in the X server by a remote X client program, each rendered by sending a single glCallList across the network. X provides no native support for audio. X uses a client–server model: an X server communicates with various client programs.
The server sends back user input. The server may function as: an application displaying to a window of another display system a system program controlling the video output of a PC a dedicated piece of hardwareThis client–server terminology – the user's terminal being the server and the applications being the clients – confuses new X users, because the terms appear reversed, but X takes the perspective of the application, rather than that of the end-user: X provides display and I/O services to applications, so it is a server. The communication protocol between server and client operates network-transparently: the client and server may run on the same machine or on different ones with different architectures and operating systems. A client and server can communicate securely over the Internet by tunneling the connection over an encrypted network session. An X client itself may emulate an X server by providing display services to other clients; this is known as "X nesting". Open-source clients such as Xnest and Xephyr support such X nesting.
To use an X client application on a remote machine, the user may do the following: on the local machine, open a terminal window use ssh with the X forwarding argument to connect to the remote machine request local display/input service The remote X client application will make a connection to the user's local X server, providing display and input to the user. Alternatively, the local machine may run a small program that connects to the remote machine and starts the client application. Practical examples of remote clients include: administering a remote machine graphically using a client application to join with large numbers of other terminal users in collaborative workgroups running a computationally intensive simulation on a remote machine and displaying the results on
Dwm is a dynamic, minimalist tiling window manager for the X Window System that has influenced the development of several other X window managers, including xmonad and awesome. It is internally much simpler. Dwm is written purely in C for performance and security in addition to simplicity, lacks any configuration interface besides editing the source code. One of the project's guidelines is that the source code will never exceed 2000 lines, options meant to be user-configurable are all contained in a single header file. Dwm supports multiple workspaces and, unlike ratpoison, allows moving and resizing windows with the mouse. Older versions of dwm displayed their stdin along the edge of the screen. Recent versions instead display the root window's name; this is used to show information that would appear in the notification area of other desktop environments—a clock, system load info, laptop battery and network status, music player information and the like. This status line is complemented with dmenu, a textual application launcher from the same developers as dwm. dwm uses a focus-follows-mouse model and lacks any window decoration other than a border to show focus.
Since dwm's configurability amounts to patching the source code, many other options are possible. Dmenu is a keyboard-driven menu utility developed as part of the dwm project; when invoked by a user-configured key combination, dmenu displays a horizontal menu of its stdin stream at the top edge of the screen. This is used to pipe in a list of executable names from the user's $PATH, but dmenu can be used for any purpose where a menu is required; the user can start typing a program name, dmenu will narrow the list to show only substring matches for what the user typed. The user can use the arrow keys to navigate the menu; when a choice is made, dmenu sends the selected text to stdout, piped into a shell to launch the program. Command-line options can alter the font and colors of the menu, make the search case-insensitive, as well as switch the menu to a vertical orientation or place it at the bottom of the screen. By default, only X Font Server fonts are supported although a patch exists to enable TrueType fonts using Xft. dmenu is similar in function to application launchers such as Katapult or GNOME Do for Linux or LaunchBar or Quicksilver for Mac OS X in that it allows quick launching of programs from a graphical environment using the keyboard.
In addition to dwm, dmenu is used with other window managers like xmonad, or Openbox, other software like the uzbl web browser. Dwm has been an influential project. An extensive list of forks and patches can be found at the official site. Below is a list of a few notable examples: awesome extends dwm with FreeType support, reconfigurability, Lua scripting support and more layout types. Xmonad is a dwm rewrite in Haskell with additional features. Comparison of X window managers Official website Going fast with DWM review in Linux Journal dwm review Configuring dwm Tiling WM review with several pages about twm dwm for Windows dwm page in Free Software Directory stali talk at CLT 2010 referenced dwm
A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form. A monitor comprises the display device, circuitry and power supply; the display device in modern monitors is a thin film transistor liquid crystal display with LED backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent lamp backlighting. Older monitors used a cathode ray tube. Monitors are connected to the computer via VGA, Digital Visual Interface, HDMI, DisplayPort, low-voltage differential signaling or other proprietary connectors and signals. Computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality; the common aspect ratio of televisions, computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9. Modern computer monitors are interchangeable with conventional television sets. However, as computer monitors do not include components such as a television tuner and speakers, it may not be possible to use a computer monitor as a television without external components.
Early electronic computers were fitted with a panel of light bulbs where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of a particular register bit inside the computer. This allowed the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights came to be known as the'monitor'; as early monitors were only capable of displaying a limited amount of information and were transient, they were considered for program output. Instead, a line printer was the primary output device, while the monitor was limited to keeping track of the program's operation; as technology developed engineers realized that the output of a CRT display was more flexible than a panel of light bulbs and by giving control of what was displayed in the program itself, the monitor itself became a powerful output device in its own right. Computer monitors were known as visual display units, but this term had fallen out of use by the 1990s. Multiple technologies have been used for computer monitors.
Until the 21st century most used cathode ray tubes but they have been superseded by LCD monitors. The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes. Prior to the advent of home computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a video display terminal using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a single large chassis; the display was monochrome and far less sharp and detailed than on a modern flat-panel monitor, necessitating the use of large text and limiting the amount of information that could be displayed at one time. High-resolution CRT displays were developed for the specialized military and scientific applications but they were far too costly for general use; some of the earliest home computers were limited to monochrome CRT displays, but color display capability was a standard feature of the pioneering Apple II, introduced in 1977, the specialty of the more graphically sophisticated Atari 800, introduced in 1979. Either computer could be connected to the antenna terminals of an ordinary color TV set or used with a purpose-made CRT color monitor for optimum resolution and color quality.
Lagging several years behind, in 1981 IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or it could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors. In 1984 IBM introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter, capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350. By the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could display 1024 x 768 pixels were available and affordable. During the following decade, maximum display resolutions increased and prices continued to fall. CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium because it was cheaper to produce and offered to view angles close to 180 degrees. CRTs still offer some image quality advantages over LCDs but improvements to the latter have made them much less obvious; the dynamic range of early LCD panels was poor, although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.
There are multiple technologies. Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT; the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points: monochrome, passive color, or active matrix color. As volume and manufacturing capability have improved, the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines. TFT-LCD is a variant of LCD, now the dominant technology used for computer monitors; the first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors. Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors was the Eizo L66 in the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, the Apple Cinema Display in 1999. In 2003, TFT-LCDs outsold CRTs for the first time, becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.
The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are that LC
In computing and telecommunications, a menu is a list of options or commands presented to the user of a computer or communications system. A menu may either be only part of a more complex one. A user chooses an option from a menu by using an input device; some input methods require linear navigation: the user must move a cursor or otherwise pass from one menu item to another until reaching the selection. On a computer terminal, a reverse video bar may serve as the cursor. Touch user interfaces and menus that accept codes to select menu options without navigation are two examples of non-linear interfaces; some of the input devices used in menu interfaces are touchscreens, mice, remote controls, microphones. In a voice-activated system, such as interactive voice response, a microphone sends a recording of the user's voice to a speech recognition system, which translates it to a command. A computer using a command line interface may present a list of relevant commands with assigned short-cuts on the screen.
Entering the appropriate short-cut selects a menu item. A more sophisticated solution offers navigation using the mouse; the current selection can be activated by pressing the enter key. A computer using a graphical user interface presents menus with a combination of text and symbols to represent choices. By clicking on one of the symbols or text, the operator is selecting the instruction that the symbol represents. A context menu is a menu in which the choices presented to the operator are automatically modified according to the current context in which the operator is working. A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data. Most widget toolkits provide some form of pop-up menu. Pull-down menus are the type used in menu bars, which are most used for performing actions, whereas pop-up menus are more to be used for setting a value, might appear anywhere in a window. According to traditional human interface guidelines, menu names were always supposed to be verbs, such as "file", "edit" and so on.
This has been ignored in subsequent user interface developments. A single-word verb however is sometimes unclear, so as to allow for multiple word menu names, the idea of a vertical menu was invented, as seen in NeXTSTEP. Menus are now seen in consumer electronics, starting with TV sets and VCRs that gained on-screen displays in the early 1990s, extending into computer monitors and DVD players. Menus allow the control of settings like tint, contrast and treble, other functions such as channel memory and closed captioning. Other electronics with text-only displays can have menus, anything from business telephone systems with digital telephones, to weather radios that can be set to respond only to specific weather warnings in a specific area. Other more recent electronics in the 2000s have menus, such as digital media players. Menus are sometimes hierarchically organized, allowing navigation through different levels of the menu structure. Selecting a menu entry with an arrow will expand it, showing a second menu with options related to the selected entry.
Usability of submenus has been criticized as difficult, because of the narrow height that must be crossed by the pointer. The steering law predicts that this movement will be slow, any error in touching the boundaries of the parent menu entry will hide the submenu; some techniques proposed to alleviate these errors are keeping the submenu open while moving the pointer in diagonal, using mega menus designed to enhance scannability and categorization of its contents. In computer menu functions or buttons, an appended ellipsis means that upon selection, another dialog will follow, where the user can or must make a choice. If the ellipse is missing, the function will be executed upon selection. "Save": the file will be overwritten without further input. "Save as...": in the following dialog, the user can, for example, select another location or file name or other file format. Drop-down menu Federal Standard 1037C Hamburger button Pie menu Radio button WIMP MenUA: A Design Space of Menu Techniques—Site that discusses various menu design techniques