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Xanthan gum

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide with many industrial uses, including as a common food additive. It is an effective thickening stabilizer to prevent ingredients from separating, it can be produced from simple sugars using a fermentation process, derives its name from the species of bacteria used, Xanthomonas campestris. Xanthan gum was discovered by Allene Rosalind Jeanes and her research team at the United States Department of Agriculture, brought into commercial production by CP Kelco under the trade name Kelzan® in the early 1960s, it was approved for use in foods in 1968 and is accepted as a safe food additive in the USA, European countries, many other countries, with E number E415, CAS number 11138-66-2. Xanthan gum derives its name from the species of bacteria used during the fermentation process, Xanthomonas campestris; this is the same bacterium responsible for causing black rot to form on broccoli and other leafy vegetables. Xanthan gum, 1%, can produce a significant increase in the viscosity of a liquid.

In foods, xanthan gum is common in salad sauces. It helps to prevent oil separation by stabilizing the emulsion. Xanthan gum helps suspend solid particles, such as spices. Xanthan gum helps create the desired texture in many ice creams. Toothpaste contains xanthan gum as a binder to keep the product uniform. Xanthan gum helps thicken commercial egg substitutes made from egg whites, to replace the fat and emulsifiers found in yolks, it is a preferred method of thickening liquids for those with swallowing disorders, since it does not change the color or flavor of foods or beverages at typical use levels. In gluten-free baking, xanthan gum is used to give the dough or batter the stickiness that would otherwise be achieved with gluten. In most foods it is used at concentrations of 0.5% or less. Xanthan gum is used in wide range food products, such as sauces, dressings and poultry products, bakery products, confectionery products, dairy products, others. In the oil industry, xanthan gum is used in large quantities to thicken drilling mud.

These fluids carry. Xanthan gum provides great "low end" rheology; when circulation stops, the solids remain suspended in the drilling fluid. The widespread use of horizontal drilling and the demand for good control of drilled solids has led to its expanded use, it has been added to concrete poured to increase its viscosity and prevent washout. In cosmetics, xanthan gum is used to prepare water gels, it is used in oil-in-water emulsions to enhance droplet coalescence. Xanthan gum is under preliminary research for its potential uses in tissue engineering to construct hydrogels and scaffolds supporting three-dimensional tissue formation; the viscosity of xanthan gum solutions decreases with higher shear rates. This is called shear pseudoplasticity; this means that a product subjected whether from mixing, shaking or chewing will thin. When the shear forces are removed, the food will thicken again. In salad dressing, the addition of xanthan gum makes it thick enough at rest in the bottle to keep the mixture homogeneous, but the shear forces generated by shaking and pouring thins it, so it can be poured.

When it exits the bottle, the shear forces are removed and it thickens again, so it clings to the salad. The greater the ratio of xanthan gum added to a liquid, the thicker the liquid will become. An emulsion can be formed with as little as 0.1%. Increasing the amount of gum gives a thicker, more stable emulsion up to 1% xanthan gum. A teaspoon of xanthan gum brings one cup of water to a 1 % concentration. To make a foam, 0.2–0.8% xanthan gum is used. Larger amounts result in denser foam. Egg white powder with 0.1–0.4% xanthan gum yields bubbles similar to soap bubbles. Evaluation of workers exposed to xanthan gum dust found evidence of a link to respiratory symptoms. On May 20, 2011, the FDA issued a press release about SimplyThick, a food-thickening additive containing xanthan gum as the active ingredient, warning parents and health care providers not to feed SimplyThick, a thickening product, to premature infants The concern is that the product may cause premature infants to suffer necrotizing enterocolitis.

According to a 2017 safety review by a scientific panel of the European Food Safety Authority, xanthan gum is extensively digested during intestinal fermentation, causes no adverse effects at high intake amounts. The EFSA panel found no concern about genotoxicity from long-term consumption. EFSA concluded that there is no safety concern for the general population when xanthan gum is consumed as a food additive. Xanthan gum is produced by the fermentation of sucrose; the polysaccharide is prepared by the bacteria being inoculated into a sterile aqueous solution of carbohydrate, a source of nitrogen, dipotassium phosphate, some trace elements. The medium is well-aerated and stirred, the xanthan polymer is produced extracellularly into the medium. After one to four days, the polymer is precipitated from the medium by the addition of isopropyl alcohol, the precipitate is dried and milled to give a powder, soluble in water or brine, it is composed of pentasaccharide repeat units, comprising glucose and glucuronic acid in the molar ratio 2:2:1.

A strain of X. campestris has been developed that will grow on lactose - which allows it to be used to process whey, a waste product of cheese production. This can produce 30 g/L of xanthan gum for every 40 g/L of whey powder. Whey-derived xanthan gum is used in many

1901 (song)

"1901" is a song by French indie pop band Phoenix. It was released as the lead single from their fourth studio album, Wolfgang Amadeus Phoenix, on 23 February 2009, it peaked at number 73 in Canada and number 84 in the United States, making "1901" the band's first song to chart there. It reached number one on the US Alternative Songs chart; the song has been covered by English singer Birdy. It was released in February 2009 as the album's lead single as a free download from the band's official website, but was issued as a retail single due to the song's popularity. A black-and-white music video for the song was released in May. In July, the song entered the U. S. Billboard Alternative Songs chart, where it reached number one, becoming only the fourth independent label single to achieve the feat; the single was re-issued in the UK in February 2010. According to lead singer Thomas Mars, the song is about early 20th century Paris. Mars said, "Paris in 1901 was better. So the song is a fantasy about Paris."Phoenix performed "1901" on television programs such as The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien, Late Show with David Letterman, Saturday Night Live, MTV's It's On with Alexa Chung.

The song has received positive reviews from music critics, with Pitchfork Media's Jason Crock saying it is "just as smooth and spirited and dementedly catchy as any of their best singles." The Village Voice's Pazz & Jop critics' poll ranked "1901" at number two to find the best music of 2009, after Jay-Z's "Empire State of Mind". In October 2009, "1901" ranked number 228 in Pitchfork's list of "The Top 500 Tracks of the 2000s," the fifth-highest placement on the list amongst 2009 songs; the NME's Gavin Haynes praised the song's "rave-like stop-go guitars," while Evan Sawdey of PopMatters said it might be Phoenix's "finest song to date." Philadelphia Inquirer music critic Dan DeLuca described the song as "joyously exultant riff-happy pop." The song was ranked number two on Spin magazine's list of the "20 Best Summer Songs of 2009." The song is featured in episodes of Friday Night Dinner, Gossip Girl, Melrose Place, The Vampire Diaries and Hellcats, the trailer for the film New York, I Love You, television advertisements for PlayStation and the 2010 Cadillac SRX, appears on the soundtrack to the NHL 2K10 video game.

An edited version is used as the theme tune for BBC Radio 5 Live's 6-0-6 football phone-in show. Samples from the song were used for the track "Triple Double" from Girl Talk's fifth studio album, All Day; the song was released for the Rock Band series on January 19, 2010 along with "Lisztomania". It was released as part of a Phoenix Track Pack for Guitar Hero 5 on April 8, 2010, it appears on the Test Drive Unlimited 2 soundtrack. The song is featured as the default music for the "Modern" template in the iOS version of iMovie; the song is featured on the NHL 2K10 and NBA 2K13 soundtrack. The song appears on the soundtrack of Forza Horizon, playing on the Horizon Pulse in-game radio station, in the free-to-play MMOTPS sandbox game APB: Reloaded. In 2014, the song was featured in Boyhood. Promo CD single"1901" – 3:13 For the week ending December 19, 2009, "1901" debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 chart at number 90, it peaked at number 84 for the week ending January 23, 2010. The single reached number 73 on the Canadian Hot 100.

The single would top the Alternative chart for two weeks, become the second longest running song on the chart at the time at 57 weeks, trailing only "Savior" by Rise Against, in the latter part of its record breaking 65-week run. English singer Birdy released a cover version of the song on March 9, 2012 as a digital download in the United Kingdom; the music video for "1901" was uploaded to YouTube on October 25, 2009. Featured artists include Ian Roe. List of Billboard number-one alternative singles of the 2010s Watch the "1901" video on Myspace Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics


The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals and birds. Its lining is specialized for the absorption by enterocytes of small nutrient molecules which have been digested by enzymes in the duodenum; the jejunum lies between the duodenum and the ileum and is considered to start at the suspensory muscle of the duodenum, a location called the duodenojejunal flexure. The division between the jejunum and ileum is not anatomically distinct. In adult humans, the small intestine is 6–7 metres long, about two-fifths of, the jejunum; the interior surface of the jejunum—which is exposed to ingested food—is covered in finger–like projections of mucosa, called villi, which increase the surface area of tissue available to absorb nutrients from ingested foodstuffs. The epithelial cells which line these villi have microvilli; the transport of nutrients across epithelial cells through the jejunum and ileum includes the passive transport of sugar fructose and the active transport of amino acids, small peptides and most glucose.

The villi in the jejunum are much longer than in the ileum. The pH in the jejunum is between 7 and 8; the jejunum and the ileum are suspended by mesentery which gives the bowel great mobility within the abdomen. It contains circular and longitudinal smooth muscle which helps to move food along by a process known as peristalsis. If the jejunum is impacted by blunt force the emesis reflex will be initiated; the jejunum contains few Brunner's glands or Peyer's patches. However, there are a few jejunal lymph nodes suspended in its mesentery; the jejunum has many large circular folds in its submucosa called plicae circulares that which increase the surface area for nutrient absorption. The plicae circulares are the best developed in the jejunum. There is no line of demarcation between the ileum. However, there are subtle histological differences: The jejunum has less fat inside its mesentery than the ileum; the jejunum is of larger diameter than the ileum. The villi of the jejunum look like long, finger-like projections, are a histologically identifiable structure.

While the length of the entire intestinal tract contains lymphoid tissue, only the ileum has abundant Peyer's patches, which are unencapsulated lymphoid nodules that contain large numbers of lymphocytes and immune cells, like microfold cells. The lining of the jejunum is specialized for the absorption by enterocytes of small nutrient particles which have been digested by enzymes in the duodenum. Once absorbed, nutrients pass from the enterocytes into the enterohepatic circulation and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein, where the blood is processed; the jejunum is involved in magnesium absorption. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms middle intestine or mid-gut may be used instead of jejunum. Jejunum is derived from the Latin word jējūnus, meaning "fasting." It was so called because this part of the small intestine was found to be void of food following death, due to its intensive peristaltic activity relative to the duodenum and ileum. The Early Modern English adjective jejune is derived from this word. Jejunum Peyer's patches Anatomy photo:37:11-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Abdominal Cavity: The Jejunum and the Ileum" Anatomy image:7856 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center

Wiener's attack

The Wiener's attack, named after cryptologist Michael J. Wiener, is a type of cryptographic attack against RSA; the attack uses the continued fraction method to expose the private key d. Fictional characters Alice and Bob are people. More Alice wants to send a message to Bob which only Bob can read. First Bob chooses two primes q, he calculates the RSA modulus N = pq. This RSA modulus is made public together with the encryption exponent e. N and e form the public key pair. By making this information public, anyone can encrypt messages to Bob; the decryption exponent d satisfies e d = 1 mod λ, where λ denotes the Carmichael function, though sometimes φ, the Euler’s phi function, is used. The encryption exponent e and λ must be prime so that there is a modular inverse; the factorization of N and the private key d are kept secret, so that only Bob can decrypt the message. We denote the private key pair as; the encryption of the message M is given by C ≡ M e mod N and the decryption of cipher text C is given by C d ≡ d ≡ M ≡ M mod N.

Using the Euclidean algorithm, one can efficiently recover the secret key d if one knows the factorization of N. By having the secret key d, one can efficiently factor the modulus of N. In the RSA cryptosystem, Bob might tend to use a small value of d, rather than a large random number to improve the RSA decryption performance. However, Wiener’s attack shows that choosing a small value for d will result in an insecure system in which an attacker can recover all secret information, i.e. break the RSA system. This break is based on Wiener’s Theorem, which holds for small values of d. Wiener has proved that the attacker may efficiently find d when d < 1 3 N 1 4. Wiener's paper presented some countermeasures against his attack that allow fast decryption. Two techniques are described as follows. Choosing large public key: Replace e by e ′, where e ′ = e + k ⋅ λ for some large of k; when e ′ is large enough, i.e. e ′ > N 3 2 Wiener’s attack can not be applied regardless of how small d is. Using the Chinese Remainder Theorem: Suppose one chooses d such that both d p = d mod and d q = d mod are small but d itself is not a fast decryption of C can be done as follows: 1.

First compute M p ≡ C d p mod p and M q ≡ C d q mod q. 2. Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to compute the unique value of M ∈ Z N which satisfies M ≡ M p mod p and M ≡ M q mod q; the result of M satisfies M ≡ C d mod N as needed. The point is. Note that λ = lcm ⁡ = G = φ G {\displaystyle \lambda =\operatorname ={\frac

Checkerboard Lounge

The Checkerboard Lounge was an historic blues nightclub located on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois. It was established in 1972, at 423 E. 43rd St. by L. C. Thurman and Buddy Guy. In 1985, Guy left the partnership and established Buddy Guy's Legends in Chicago's South Loop neighborhood; the lounge is known as the venue where The Rolling Stones video and live album Live at the Checkerboard Lounge, Chicago 1981 was recorded. In 2003, the Checkerboard Lounge, in danger of closing due to structural issues with their original building, moved to a newly renovated building at 5201 S. Harper Court in Hyde Park. Several years after moving, the club experienced declining attendance and it closed its doors in 2015, after the death of L. C. Thurman. During the club's existence, it hosted musical acts including Stevie Ray Vaughan, Eric Clapton, Magic Slim, Vance Kelly, Chuck Berry

Princeton Airport (New Jersey)

Princeton Airport is a public-use airport in Montgomery, Somerset County, New Jersey, three miles north of Princeton and just west of Rocky Hill. The airport is owned by Princeton Aero Corp; the airport houses the Raritan Valley Flying School, Princeton Pilot Shop, Pacific Aircraft, Analar Helicopter Charter and Platinum Helicopters. The airport was established by Richard A. Newhouse. Among his other aviation-related projects, in 1911 he built a plane of his own design, featuring separate floating ailerons — a major innovation, as the planes of that time used wing warping for roll control; the paved runway opened about 1965, the airport has since had occasional commuter airline flights— e.g. in 1979, Princeton Airways was operating fifteen scheduled passenger flights to Newark each weekday with Britten-Norman Islander STOL capable aircraft. Princeton Airways flew scheduled passenger service from the airport with the GAF Nomad STOL capable turboprop. On March 29, 1985, the airport was purchased by Princeton Aero Corp.

Principals of the company are members of the Nierenberg family the fixed-base operator at Kupper Airport for eighteen years. Princeton Airport covers 104 acres and has one paved runway, 3,500 x 75 ft. In the year ending July 2, 2012 the airport had 39,421 aircraft operations, average 108 per day: 87% general aviation and 13% air taxi. 48 aircraft are based at the airport: 85% single engine, 2% multi-engine and 13% helicopters. Princeton Airport Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for 39N AirNav airport information for 39N FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for 39N