Keesler Air Force Base
Keesler Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Biloxi, a city along the Gulf Coast in Harrison County, United States. The base is named in honor of aviator 2d Lt Samuel Reeves Keesler, Jr. a Mississippi native killed in France during the First World War. The base is home of Headquarters, Second Air Force and the 81st Training Wing of the Air Education and Training Command; the base has specialized in ground trade training since its opening in 1941 during World War II. It has had high-quality technical schools and absorbed units moved from other bases under the Base Realignment and Closure Act. In early January 1941, Biloxi city officials assembled a formal offer to invite the United States Army to build a base to support the World War II training buildup; the War Department activated Army Air Corps Station No. 8, Aviation Mechanics School, Mississippi, on 12 June 1941. On August 25, 1941, the base was dedicated as Keesler Army Airfield, in honor of 2d Lt Samuel Reeves Keesler, Jr. a Mississippi native and distinguished aerial observer, killed in action in France during the First World War.
Congress appropriated $6 million for construction at Biloxi and an additional $2 million for equipment. By the time the War Department allocated the funds in April 1941, the projected cost had risen to $9.6 million. On 14 June 1941, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers awarded contracts totaling $10 million to build Biloxi's technical training school. At the time, it was the most expensive government project to have been undertaken in the State of Mississippi; when the War Department activated Keesler Field in June 1941, not only was Keesler getting a technical training center, but it would be getting one of the Army's newest replacement, or basic training centers. The first shipment of recruits arrived at Keesler Field on 21 August 1941. Many stayed at Keesler to become airplane and engine mechanics, while others transferred to aerial gunnery or aviation cadet schools. Development of the base residential construction in Biloxi; the Tuskegee Airmen were trained at Keesler. More than 7,000 Black soldiers were stationed at Keesler Field by the autumn of 1943.
These soldiers included pre-aviation cadets, radio operators, aviation technicians and aviation mechanics. Keesler continued to focus upon specialized training in Consolidated B-24 Liberator maintenance until mid-1944. Thereafter, the base expanded its curricula to train mechanics for other aircraft. By September 1944, the number of recruits had dropped. Keesler personnel began processing veteran ground troops and combat crews who had returned from duty overseas for additional training and follow-on assignments; the number of men who went through basic training wound down markedly after the end of World War II, it was discontinued at Keesler on 30 June 1946. In late May 1947, the Radar School was established at Keesler, making it responsible for operating the two largest military technical schools in the United States. Thereafter, shrinking budgets forced the base to reduce its operating costs: the Airplane and Engine Mechanics School and the Radar School were consolidated on 1 April 1948. In early 1949, the Radio Operations School transferred to Keesler from Scott Air Force Base, Illinois.
In addition to training radio operators, Keesler was to begin teaching air traffic service technicians. The last mechanics training courses had moved to Texas, by November. In early 1956, Keesler entered the missile age by opening a ground support training program for the Atlas missile. In 1958, all control tower operator, radio maintenance, general radio operator courses were put under Keesler's broad technical training roof. During the early 1960s, Keesler lost many of its airborne training courses, but it remained the largest training base throughout the 1970s; this included limited flight training operations in the T-28 Trojan for Republic of Vietnam Air Force student pilots. Hurricane Camille produced considerable damage as it passed over Biloxi in 1969. Most of the Back Bay housing area was under water. Keesler's student load dropped to an all-time low; as a result, Air Training Command inactivated the USAF School of Applied Aerospace Sciences on 1 April 1977 and replaced it with the 3300th Technical Training Wing, which activated the same day.
During the early 1980s Keesler's air traffic control program garnered publicity - when the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization walked off the job in August 1981. When President Ronald Reagan fired the strikers, Keesler-trained military air traffic controllers were used to direct some of the nation's air traffic; as the air traffic control school it was the logical location for the USAF Combat Controllers. Keesler AFB was the primary training base for many avionics maintenance career fields, including Electronic Warfare, Navigational Aids, Computer Repair and Ground Radio Repair, it was the primary training base for most USAF administrative career fields. Driven by deep defense budget cuts, base closures following the end of the Cold War forced an end to technical training at Chanute Air Force Base and Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado when those bases were closed by Base Realignment and Closure Commission actions. Keesler acquired Chanute's weather forecasting courses and Lowry's meteorology and precision measurement equipment laboratory training programs during 1992 and 1993.
Massive restructuring of the Air Force in the early 1990s meant several changes for Keesler associate units. The first occur
Xavier University of Louisiana
Xavier University of Louisiana, located in the Gert Town section of New Orleans, Louisiana, in the United States, is a private, liberal arts college with the distinction of being the only black Roman Catholic institution of higher education in the United States. Located in New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana was established in 1925 when Saint Katharine Drexel and the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament founded the coeducational secondary school from which it evolved. Drexel, supported by the interest of a substantial inheritance from her father, banker-financier Francis Drexel and staffed many institutions throughout the United States in an effort to help educate Native Americans and African Americans. Aware of the serious lack of Catholic-oriented education available to young Blacks in the South, Katharine Drexel came to New Orleans and established a high school on the site occupied by Southern University; the high school was in operation until 2013 as Xavier University Preparatory School known as Xavier Prep.
Today, St. Katharine Drexel Preparatory School operates from the same location on Magazine Street in New Orleans. In 1917 a Normal School offering teaching, one of the few career fields open to Blacks at the time. In 1925 Xavier University of Louisiana became a reality when the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences was established; the first degrees were awarded three years later. The College of Pharmacy was opened two years in 1927. Recognizing the university's need for a separate identity and room to expand, St. Katharine bought a tract of undeveloped land for a campus on the corner of Palmetto and Pine Streets in 1929. Construction of the U-shaped, Gothic Revival Xavier University Main Building and Library were completed between 1932 and 1937; the Administration building is a City of New Orleans landmark. Through the years, as needs dictated, the campus expanded: In 2018, Xavier had an endowment of $171 million, the fourth highest of Louisiana's colleges and universities; the campus of Xavier University of Louisiana is referred to as "Emerald City" due to the various buildings on campus that have green roofs.
These include the Library/Resource center, the Norman C. Francis science addition, the University Center, the Living Learning Center, the Saint Martin De Porres hall and the Katharine Drexel hall; the Blessed Sacrament Sisters remain a vital presence on campus, providing much-needed staffing and some financial assistance, but today Xavier is governed by a multicultural Board of Trustees. In 1987, Pope John Paul II addressed the presidents of all U. S. Catholic colleges from the courtyard of the Xavier administration building. Norman C. Francis retired after 47 years as president of the university. In May 1961, the civil rights activist group known as the Freedom Riders arrived in New Orleans by plane after bus drivers in Alabama refused to take them to Montgomery, Alabama. Locals, aware of the fire bombings and other attacks that had befallen the group, refused to accommodate them with lodging out of fear of retaliatory violence. Xavier President Emeritus Norman C. Francis, at the time the university's Dean of Men, secretly arranged for the group to stay several days in a dormitory on campus.
Francis received permission from University President Sister Mary Josephina to allow the group to occupy space on the third floor of St. Michael's Hall under the condition that the press would not be alerted as to the move. Historic St. Michael's Hall, on Pine Street on Xavier's campus, still accommodates male students in traditional dormitory style. Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005. Xavier, located in the lower-lying Gert Town section and adjacent to the Washington-Palmetto Canal, suffered damage to every structure on campus. Many buildings sat submerged for extended periods of time following the hurricane. Dr. Norman C. Francis, President of the University, organized boats and buses to transport stranded faculty and students from the campus to safe areas. Students began returning to the university in January 2006. In April 2006, the nation of Qatar donated $17.5 million to assist the university in hurricane recovery and in expanding the school's College of Pharmacy. The groundbreaking ceremony in 2008 was attended by Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, leader of Qatar, on 15 October 2010 the school's Qatar Pharmacy Pavilion opened, adding 60,000 square feet adjacent to the existing College of Pharmacy building.
President Barack Obama visited New Orleans in August 2010 to commemorate the fifth anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. He gave his address from Xavier, complimenting the work of the leaders of the community and affirming the commitment to continue to aid in the re-building of the area. In 2006, the university had bestowed an Honorary Degree on then-Senator Obama. Xavier University received the "Katrina Compassion Award" from the US government Corporation for National and Community Service in 2006, for the combined efforts of an estimated 60% of its students in rebuilding the neighborhoods damaged by the hurricane. Xavier is Catholic and black. However, its doors have always been open to qualified students of every creed. Today 25.1 percent of its students are not African-American and 74.3 percent are not Catholic. More than half of Xavier students are from Louisiana – from the New Orleans area. Non-local enrollment continues to increase with students coming from at least 40 other states – most notably Texas and Georgia.
Five foreign countries are represented on campus. Student life is enriched by the social and cultural setting of New Orleans and by ca
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is a college athletics association for small colleges and universities in North America. For the 2018–2019 season, it has 251 member institutions, of which two are in British Columbia, one in the U. S. Virgin Islands, the rest in the conterminous United States; the NAIA, whose headquarters is in Kansas City, sponsors 26 national championships. The CBS Sports Network called CSTV, serves as the national media outlet for the NAIA. In 2014, ESPNU began carrying the NAIA Football National Championship. In 1937, Dr. James Naismith and local leaders staged the first National College Basketball Tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City—one year before the first National Invitation Tournament and two years before the first NCAA Tournament; the goal of the tournament was to establish a forum for small colleges and universities to determine a national basketball champion. The original eight-team tournament expanded to 32 teams in 1938. On March 10, 1940, the National Association for Intercollegiate Basketball was formed in Kansas City, Missouri.
In 1952, the NAIB was transformed into the NAIA, with that came the sponsorship of additional sports such as men's golf and outdoor track and field. Football in the NAIA was split based on enrollment; the 1948 NAIB national tournament was the first intercollegiate postseason to feature a black student-athlete, Clarence Walker of Indiana State under coach John Wooden. Wooden had withdrawn from the 1947 tournament; the association furthered its commitment to African-American athletes when, in 1953, it became the first collegiate association to invite black colleges and universities into its membership. In 1957, Tennessee A&I became the first black institution to win a collegiate basketball national championship; the NAIA began sponsoring intercollegiate championships for women in 1980, the second coed national athletics association to do so, offering collegiate athletics championships to women in basketball, cross country, gymnastics and outdoor track and field, softball and diving, tennis and volleyball.
The National Junior College Athletic Association had established a women's division in the spring of 1975 and held the first women's national championship volleyball tournament that fall. In 1997, Liz Heaston became the first female college athlete to play and score in a college football game when she kicked two extra points during the 1997 Linfield vs. Willamette football game. Launched in 2000 by the NAIA, the Champions of Character program promotes character and sportsmanship through athletics; the Champions of Character conducts clinics and has developed an online training course to educate athletes and athletic administrators with the skills necessary to promote character development in the context of sport. In 2010, the association opened the doors to the NAIA Eligibility Center, where prospective student-athletes are evaluated for academic and athletic eligibility, it delivers on the NAIA’s promise of integrity by leveling the playing field, guiding student-athlete success, ensuring fair competition.
Membership – The NAIA was the first association to admit colleges and universities from outside the United States. The NAIA began admitting Canadian members in 1967. Football – The NAIA was the first association to send a football team to Europe to play. In the summer of 1976, the NAIA sent Henderson State and Texas A&I to play 5 exhibition games in West Berlin, Nuremberg and Paris; the NAIA sponsors 14 sports. The NAIA recognizes three levels of competitions: "emerging", "invitational", "championship"; the association conducts, or has conducted in the past, championship tournaments in the following sports. Men's Basketball Division I Division II Women's Basketball Division I Division II The NAIA men's basketball championship is the longest-running collegiate National Championship of any sport in the United States; the tournament was the brainchild of creator of the game of basketball. The event began in 1937 with the inaugural tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, MO; the 2017 men's championship marked the 80th edition of what has been tabbed College Basketball’s Toughest Tournament.
The tournament has awarded the Chuck Taylor Most Valuable Player award since 1939, as well as the Charles Stevenson Hustle Award, the basis for Pete Rose's nickname, given to him by Whitey Ford. Basketball is the only NAIA sport in which the organization's member institutions are aligned into divisions. Effective with the 2020–21 school year, the NAIA will return to a single division for both men's and women's basketball; the NAIA has 21 member conferences, including 9 that sponsor football, the Association of Independent Institutions. Central States Football League Mid-States Football Association Al Ortolani Scholarship The $500 undergraduate scholarship is awarded to an outstanding student trainer, at least a junior and has maintained a GPA of 3.00. Athletic Trainer of the
Tad Gormley Stadium
Tad Gormley Stadium is a 26,500 seat multi-purpose outdoor stadium, located in City Park, in New Orleans, named for Frank "Tad" Gormley. The stadium is home to the University of New Orleans Privateers men's and women's track and field teams; the Tulane University Green Wave men's and women's track and field teams host track meets at the stadium. The Xavier University men's and women's track and field teams use the stadium as its home venue, it is frequently used for Louisiana High School Athletic Association football games, soccer games and track meets. The stadium features GameDay Grass MT from AstroTurf, a 400-meter all-weather track, three locker rooms, a press box seating 110, press suite seating for 40. Tad Gormley Stadium was built in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression, it has been used for football, track & field, soccer. In its early years, the stadium would host high school games in front of sellout crowds with standing-room only crowds surrounding the playing field.
The record for attendance was set in 1940 when 34,345 spectators attended a game between Jesuit High School of New Orleans and Holy Cross High School of New Orleans. The stadium has hosted Louisiana High School Athletic Association state championship football games; the last Class AAAA championship game held in the stadium was on December 10, 1971 when Brother Martin defeated New Orleans Catholic League rival St. Augustine 23-0 in front of 25,000; the last title game in the facility was in 1975, when John Curtis defeated Notre Dame of Crowley 13-12 for the Class AA title, the Patriots' first. The stadium was home to the New Orleans Pelicans team from 1958-1959, after the closing of Pelican Stadium in 1957; the University of New Orleans Privateers' club football team played in the stadium from 1965-1968 and again from 2008-2011. On April 6, 1969, the New York Mets and Minnesota Twins played a doubleheader at the stadium. On March 28, 1982 the stadium hosted a World Cup tune-up match for the Honduras National Team against the Tampa Bay Rowdies of the North American Soccer League.
The match ended in a 1–1 draw. It played host to the 1992 U. S. Olympic Track & Field Trials for the 1992 Summer Olympic games held in Spain; the New Orleans Riverboat Gamblers of the USL A-League played in the stadium from 1996-1997. The Tulane Green Wave football team played four homecoming games and one non-conference game at the stadium in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2008; this was to provide more tailgating opportunities for fans than at their former regular home stadium, the Mercedes-Benz Superdome. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded the stadium, along with parts of New Orleans, it remained structurally sound, but required major repairs to the electrical and plumbing systems along with the playing field. In 2006, running back Reggie Bush was drafted by the New Orleans Saints, he donated over $80,000 to repair the playing field. In acknowledgement of his generosity, Tad Gormley Stadium's playing field was renamed Reggie Bush Field; the first event held at the newly renovated stadium was an LHSAA high school prep-football game on September 21, 2006 pitting Brother Martin High School versus L.
W. Higgins High School. In 2008, Tad Gormley hosted select New Orleans Jesters; the stadium hosted another international friendly match on February 4, 2012 between Major League Soccer's Chicago Fire Soccer Club and Honduran soccer club Real C. D. España. Tad Gormley stadium has hosted concerts by many famous artists, including The Beatles, Pearl Jam and Rage Against the Machine, among others. City Park Louisiana High School Athletic Association New Orleans Privateers New Orleans Pelicans List of soccer stadiums in the United States List of music venues New Orleans City Park UNO Privateers Athletics
City Park (New Orleans)
City Park, a 1,300-acre public park in New Orleans, Louisiana, is the 87th largest and 20th-most-visited urban public park in the United States. City Park is 50% larger than Central Park in New York City, the municipal park recognized by Americans nationwide as the archetypal urban greenspace. Although it is an urban park whose land is owned by the City of New Orleans, it is administered by the City Park Improvement Association, an arm of state government, not by the New Orleans Parks and Parkways Department. City Park is unusual in that it is a self-supporting public park, with most of its annual budget derived from self-generated revenue through user fees and donations. In the wake of the enormous damage inflicted upon the park due to Hurricane Katrina, the Louisiana Department of Culture and Tourism began to subsidize the park's operations. City Park holds the world's largest collection of mature live oak trees, some older than 600 years in age; the park was founded in 1854, making it the 48th oldest park in the country, established as the "City Park" in 1891.
The park was a location used for dueling. In the 1800s, men would defend their pride and honor by dueling each other under the oaks at what is now City Park but was a quiet spot secluded from the rest of the city. There were two "dueling oaks," but one was lost in a hurricane in 1949; some of the city's most notable figures who participated in duels in City Park include Bernard de Marigny, a nobleman and president of the Louisiana Senate in 1822-23. Many of the disputes between parties were either reconciled before the duel or after one party sustained a minor injury. Dueling deaths were reported, however. In 1805, Micajah Green Lewis, Gov. William C. C. Claiborne's private secretary and brother-in-law, was killed by a Claiborne opponent. By 1890, dueling was outlawed. New Orleans City Park lost 2,000 trees after Hurricane Katrina and the federal levee failures, but the Dueling Oak still stands where Dueling Oaks Drive meets Dreyfous Drive between the Sydney and Walda Besthoff Sculpture Garden and the New Orleans Museum of Art.
There’s a small sign in front of it. City Park was established in the mid-19th century on land fronting Metairie Road, along the remains of Bayou Metairie, a former distributary of the Mississippi River; the tract of land the Allard Plantation, became city property in 1850 through John McDonogh's will and was reserved for park purposes. In 1854, the 4th District Court pronounced the property a public park; the park extended 100 acres back from City Park Avenue, as swampland covered most of the landscape between Bayou Metairie and the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain. This area, to the north of the original park, was platted for streets by city planners, though none was realized. In 1891, the City Park Improvement Association is founded, the property was established as "City Park." The carousel mule-driven, opened in 1897, was updated to a mechanical carousel in 1906. The miniature train opened in 1898 and the original golf course was built in 1902. A racetrack opened February 11, 1905, but closed only 3 years in 1908.
In the first two decades of the 20th century, numerous improvements were undertaken by the City Park Improvement Association. The Peristyle was constructed in 1907 and the Isaac Delgado Museum of Art renamed the New Orleans Museum of Art, opened in 1911. Two years in 1913, the Casino building opened offering refreshments; the Casino building is occupied by Morning Call Cafe. The Popp Bandstand was constructed in 1917 and dedicated on July 4; the Irby swimming pool was built in 1924. City Park's governing board accomplished a number of large land acquisitions, such that the park assumed its current boundaries. In 1915, the Gen. Beauregard Equestrian Statue was erected at the entrance to City Park. On June 24, 2015, New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu acknowledged the impact of the June 2015 Charleston church shooting, called for the removal of several city memorials to Confederate slaveholders. On December 17, 2015, the New Orleans City Council voted 6-1 to remove the Gen. Beauregard statue, along with three other historical monuments.
In 1919, William McFadden built a mansion. In 1949, this mansion began to be used as Christian Brothers School, an all-boys middle school for grades 5-7, still remains a boys' school today. In 1927, the city extended the park by 900 acres, the first tennis courts were built in the following year. In 1928, John Phillip Sousa performed at the Popp bandstand; the park was expanded in the 1930s due to a $12 million grant from the Works Progress Administration. A master plan, by Bennett, Parsons & Frost of Chicago was commissioned to guide the development of the enlarged park. P. A; this included the installation of many sculptures by WPA artist Enrique Alférez, construction of buildings, bridges and much of the electrical and plumbing infrastructure that were still serving the park when Hurricane Katrina struck in 2005. A formal rose, the genesis of today's New Orleans Botanical Garden; the WPA planted Couterie Forest and constructed Popp Fountain, City Park Stadium, a second 18-hole golf course - home for many years to the New Orleans Open golf tournament - and a golf clubhouse, partially demolished to accommodate I-610.
Many events have taken place at Tad Gormley Stadium in City Park. Actress Dorothy Lamour from New Orleans traveled the country selling war bonds, in 1942, made a stop in her hometown to sell war
City Park Practice Track
The City Park Practice Track or City Park Track is a 400-meter polyurethane track located in City Park in New Orleans. It was built as the practice/auxiliary track for the 1992 U. S. Olympic Track & Field Trials for the 1992 Summer Olympics; the track, located adjacent to Tad Gormley Stadium, was renovated in 2006. It is used as the practice track for the college track and field teams at Loyola University New Orleans and Xavier University of Louisiana; the facility is used during track and field meets held at Tad Gormley Stadium. The track is the finish line for the Crescent City Fall Classic road race, it is the practice facility for the New Orleans Halfmoons rugby club. New Orleans City Park
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a