Frederick Xavier Katzer was an Austrian-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the third bishop of the Diocese of Green Bay and the third Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee in Wisconsin. Born in Ebensee in Upper Austria, Katzer immigrated to Minnesota in 1864, he soon moved to Milwaukee where he studied at St. Francis Seminary and was ordained to the priesthood on December 21, 1866, he joined the seminary faculty and taught a variety of subjects, until transferring to Green Bay in 1875. Katzer was appointed Bishop of Green Bay on July 13, 1886 after Bishop Francis Krautbauer's death and served as Bishop until January 30, 1891. Katzer was appointed the third archbishop of Milwaukee, his nomination was opposed by some Irish Catholics, who felt a policy of "Germanization" of the archdiocese set in place by his predecessors should not be continued. This is reflected in the architecture of many of the city's early churches, including the historic Old St. Mary's Church and the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist.
During his tenure, Katzer was a strong supporter of Catholic schools. He lobbied for the repeal of the Bennett Law in 1890, which would have required all schools to teach in English and was perceived as an attack on immigrants and parochial schools; the Sisters of the Divine Savior made their home in Milwaukee at the urging of Katzer, during a visit to Pope Leo XIII in 1895. Katzer died in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin on July 23, 1903 at the age of 59, he is buried in a small cemetery on the grounds of St. Francis Seminary. Biography at the Archdiocese of Milwaukee Dictionary of Wisconsin History
Adam Joseph Maida is an American cardinal prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Detroit, from 1990 to 2009, was elevated to Cardinal in 1994. Cardinal Maida served as the bishop of the Diocese of Green Bay, from 1984 to 1990. Adam Maida was born in Pennsylvania, to Adam and Sophie Maida; the oldest of three children, he has two brothers and Daniel. His father immigrated from Poland at age 16, he and his brothers attended public schools in East Vandergrift since there were no local Catholic schools. Maida attended each Vandergrift High Scott Township High School for one year. During his sophomore year of high school, he decided to enter the priesthood and was sent to St. Mary's Preparatory in Orchard Lake Village, Michigan, he graduated from St. Mary's Preparatory in 1948, entered St. Mary's College in Orchard Lake Village. In 1950, he transferred to Saint Vincent College in Latrobe, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy in 1952, he received a Licentiate of Sacred Theology from St. Mary's University in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1956.
On May 26, 1956, Maida was ordained a priest by Bishop John Dearden at the Cathedral of St. Paul in Pittsburgh, his first assignment was as assistant pastor of St. Elizabeth of Hungary Church in Pleasant Hills, he served at Holy Innocents Church in Sheraden. In 1958, he was sent by Bishop Dearden to study at the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome, where he earned a Licentiate of Canon Law in 1960, he received his Juris Doctor from Duquesne University School of Law in 1964. S. Supreme Court. Maida served as general counsel of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. In 1968, he was elected president of the Canon Law Society of America, he served on a papal commission to draft a due process procedure giving the laity legal recourse within the Church, participated in the revision of the Code of Canon Law. He served as a member of the diocesan tribunal, assistant professor of theology at La Roche College, adjunct professor of law at Duquesne University Law School, he was chaplain of the St. Thomas More Society.
On November 8, 1983, Maida was appointed the ninth Bishop of Green Bay by Pope John Paul II. He received his episcopal consecration on January 25, 1984, from Archbishop Pio Laghi, with Bishops Aloysius Wycislo and Vincent Leonard serving as co-consecrators, at the Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier. During his tenure in Green Bay, Maida appointed the diocese's first female chancellor and first female parish director, he established a diocesan planning council and ministry formation program, initiated a diocesan census, implemented the RCIA process, raised $9 million through Lumen Christi education endowment campaign. In 1990, the Pope named Cardinal Edmund Szoka, Archbishop of Detroit, to serve as a Vatican official, subsequently chose Bishop Maida as his successor in Detroit as on April 28 of that year. Maida was installed as the fourth Archbishop of Detroit on June 12. On November 26, 1994, Pope John Paul II elevated Maida to the Sacred College of Cardinals as Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio.
In 2000, Maida was appointed the first superior of the Mission Sui Iuris of Cayman Islands. In April 2005, following the Pope's death, he traveled to the Vatican as a cardinal elector to participate in the conclave that selected Pope Benedict XVI. Maida is no longer eligible to vote in any future conclaves as he reached his 80th birthday on March 18, 2010. Maida is the ecclesiastic advisor to the Catholic Advisory Board for the Ave Maria Mutual Funds and is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Catholic University of America. In 2002, St. Gertrude School, part of the Diocese of Greensburg in Westmoreland County, was renamed Cardinal Maida Academy in Maida's honor; the school, which offers instruction from grades kindergarten through six, is near his hometown of East Vandergrift, Pennsylvania. On March 18, 2005, Maida submitted his retirement request to the Vatican; the Vatican asked Maida to remain archbishop until further notice. On June 8, 2006 Maida celebrated the 50th anniversary of his ordination to the priesthood.
On January 5, 2009, the Holy See announced acceptance of Maida's resignation and the appointment of Allen Henry Vigneron Bishop of Oakland, as his successor as Archbishop of Detroit. Vigneron was installed on January 28, 2009, at the Cathedral of the Most Blessed Sacrament in Detroit Cardinal Maida became apostolic administrator of the Archdiocese of Detroit and assisted incoming Archbishop Vigneron with the transition. Maida celebrated his final mass at the cathedral on January 25, 2009; this was held in celebration of the 25th anniversary of his consecration as a bishop. "Maida Card. Adam Joseph". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017. Biography from the Archdiocese of Detroit Cardinal Adam Maida, The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Detroit
Holy Cross Church and Convent
Holy Cross Church and Convent is a Roman Catholic church complex in Green Bay, with six structures built from 1862 to 1932 in various architectural styles. It is a church school; the complex was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 28, 2001 for its architectural significance. Holy Cross parish has roots going back to 1834, when Father Van den Broek established a chapel in the Bay Settlement area. Around 1852 Father Edward Daems bought land at the site of the current complex and the parish built a pine church building, which no longer exists. In 1862 the rectory was built next to the pine church. In 1868 a school was added. Surviving buildings include: The Holy Cross Church Rectory was built in 1862, a two-story cube with Italianate details, including a fine wooden bracketed cornice and a hipped roof. Walls are local limestone with quoins of cut stone. In 1900 a block of matching style and materials was added as a kitchen. Another one-story addition was added around 1950; the Old White Laundry is a simple one-story frame building built on a stone foundation.
The north-facing gable has an oculus window. The building is now used as a root cellar; the bathhouse/outhouse, built around 1880 just south of the laundry, is a one-story cube with Italianate details matching the rectory. It is wooden. Inside are two rooms; the front room was a washroom, the back a privy. The Sisters of St. Francis of the Holy Cross Convent consists of several sections. A frame convent was built in 1880. In 1916, a two-story red brick building was added to the south of the 1880 section, designed by Foeller and Berners of Green Bay with Neo-Gothic details, it has a corner turret, a center bay, a gable roof topped with a stone cross. In 1932 a three-story section was added to the north, designed by William E. Reynolds with Colonial Revival details. After a fire, in 1959 the original 1880 convent was replaced with a four-story brick section, joining the other two sections into a U-shaped floorplan; the Rectory Garage was built in brick and stone in Craftsman style. The current Holy Cross Church was built in 1931 to replace the original 1852 pine church.
It was designed by William E. Reynolds of Green Bay in Romanesque Revival style, with an exterior of brown brick; the main entrance is flanked by two square towers, with the left tower larger and holding the original 1852 bell. Inside, the nave has a barrel-vaulted ceiling supported by columns
Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay was established on March 3, 1868, by Pope Pius IX. It covers the city of Green Bay, as well as Brown, Door, Forest, Langlade, Marinette, Oconto, Shawano, Waupaca and Winnebago counties in Wisconsin, it is a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The earliest trace of the Catholic faith in the Green Bay area was in 1634. Jesuits followed Jean Nicolet to the area and started to spread the Gospel around the important rivers of the Green Bay area; this set a foundation for the creation of the Diocese of Green Bay, not formed until 1868. People of the area helped keep the faith. Father Claude-Jean Allouez, a Jesuit missionary, celebrated Mass with the Native Americans near the present site of Oconto on December 3, 1669, the feast of St. Francis Xavier. There he established St. Francis Xavier Mission; the mission was moved to Red Banks for a short time in 1671, to De Pere, where it remained until 1687, when it was burned. The missionaries continued working with the Fox and Winnebago tribes under the protection of the French in newly constructed Fort Francis until Fort Francis was destroyed in 1728.
Catholicism lay dormant in the area for a century. In 1825, a church school was constructed of the lumber taken from St. Francis Xavier Chapel, but was soon after burned; this church was inspired by the borough of Fort Howard, which continued to expand with the settlement of the Catholic French Canadians. This group had lived in the area since the eighteenth century; the next church to go up in the area was called St. John the Evangelist; this church is the longest surviving place of worship in Wisconsin today. In the early 19th century, St. John's church members spoke French, it became the mother church for all the churches in the Diocese of Green Bay. These churches included St. John Nepomucene in Little Chute, 1836. In the spring of 1868, Pope Pius IX created the Diocese of Green Bay. Although the area had many French-Canadian Catholics, their numbers shrank as new settlements were set up in other places and immigrants of other nationalities came to the area. Throughout the mid - to late-19th century immigrants poured in.
In Green Bay, the Germans established St. Mary in 1854. Peter and Paul in 1875. Intermarriage with non-French speakers and the growth of the English language in the area weakened the bonds of the ethnic churches; the Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier in Green Bay is the mother church of the Diocese of Green Bay. The National Shrine of Our Lady of Good Help, in Champion, the National Shrine of Saint Joseph, in De Pere, at Saint Norbert Abbey, Saint Joseph Oratory, in Green Bay, are located in the diocese. Joseph Melcher Francis Xavier Krautbauer Frederick F. X. Katzer, appointed Archbishop of Milwaukee Sebastian G. Messmer, appointed Archbishop of Milwaukee Joseph John Fox Paul Peter Rhode Stanislaus Vincent Bona Aloysius John Wycislo Adam Maida, appointed Archbishop of Detroit Robert Joseph Banks David Zubik, appointed Bishop of Pittsburgh David Laurin Ricken John Benjamin Grellinger Mark Francis Schmitt, appointed Bishop of Marquette Robert F. Morneau Frank Joseph Dewane, appointed Coadjutor Bishop and Bishop of Venice John Francis Doerfler, appointed Bishop of Marquette For a full list of Catholic Educational Institutions in the Green Bay Diocese, see the list of Schools.
Silver Lake College and St. Norbert College are both located within the Diocese; the Diocese oversees 6 high school and 56 primary schools located throughout the sixteen county region. List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States List of Roman Catholic dioceses List of Roman Catholic dioceses Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay Official Site
Francis Xavier Krautbauer
Francis Xavier Krautbauer was a German-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the second Bishop of the Diocese of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Born in Mappach, Bavaria, he received his early education in Regensburg, afterward studied theology in the Ducal Georgianum in Munich, he was ordained on June 16, 1850, for the Diocese of Buffalo, New York. Arrived in the United States in October of the same year. After a short residence in Buffalo, he was appointed in 1851 pastor of St. Peter's Church, where he erected schools for boys and girls. In 1859 Krautbauer went to Milwaukee to become spiritual director of the School Sisters of Notre Dame, at the same time attending the Church of Our Lady of the Angels, he remained in this post for over ten years, the mother house of the sisterhood was built under his direction. In 1873 Krautbauer was shipwrecked on Lake Michigan and narrowly escaped drowning. On February 12, 1875, Pope Pius IX appointed him Bishop of the Green Bay Diocese and he was consecrated bishop on June 29, 1875.
Bishop Krautbauer found the administration of his diocese a work of great difficulty, as his flock embraced people from every country in Europe. Some congregations were made up of English-speaking Roman Catholics, Frenchmen, Bohemians, Walloons and people of the First Nations, he devoted special attention to the work of education, in 1884 had 44 parochial schools, attended by 5,292 children. The number of churches increased from 92 to 126, the number of priests from 63 to 96. Under his bishopric the Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier in Green Bay was planned and erected between 1876 and 1881. Bishop Krautbauer died in Green Bay, he was buried under the floor of the cathedral. Roman Catholic Diocese of Buffalo Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k