Jean-François Portaels or Jan Portaels was a Belgian painter of genre scenes, biblical stories, landscapes and orientalist subjects. He was a teacher and director of the Academy of Fine Arts of Ghent and the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, he is regarded as the founder of the Belgian Orientalist school. He was praised in his time as the premier painter of'everyday elegance and feminine grace'. Through his art and his leadership of the Académie Royale in Brussels he exerted an important influence on the next generation of Belgian artists, including his pupil Théo van Rysselberghe. Portaels was born in Vilvoorde, the son of a rich brewer, mayor of Vilvoorde; as he spent much of his time as a youngster drawing the scenes of his native town, his father sent him in 1836 to study at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. At the time the director was the painter François-Joseph Navez, a pupil of Jacques-Louis David. Portaels studied at the Academie under Navez with other brilliant students such as Charles de Groux and Joseph Stallaert.
Navez invited him to study in Navez' own studio, which enjoyed a great reputation at the time. Around 1841 Portaels went to Paris to continue his studies, he enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In his spare time, he studied the old masters in the Louvre and visited the Paris salons to seek inspiration from the new artistic trends in France. Orientalism was at the time coming into vogue; the exhibitions and salons of Paris showcased the acquired taste for the Orient. Portaels' artistic course was given a determining direction by this development. In Paris he became a pupil of Paul Delaroche, a prominent French painter of historical scenes. Upon his return to Belgium, he won in 1842 the Grand Prix de Rome, i.e. the first prize in the Belgian Prix de Rome. The financial reward connected to the prize allowed him to travel to Italy where he stayed in Venice and Rome, he continued to feel the pull of the Orient and travelled successively to Morocco, Egypt, Judea, Spain and Norway. In Hungary he spent quite some time to study the typical traits of the Romani people.
During his travels he was able to paint portraits of some prominent personalities such as the viceroy of Egypt. On his return to Belgium in 1847 Portaels was appointed Director of the Academy in Ghent to succeed Henri van der Haert who had died, he remained in this position for three years. In 1849 he married the daughter of his first teacher, Navez; the couple settled in Brussels in 1850. A son born in 1850 died soon after his birth. In 1851 he received the Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold; when Navez resigned from the Brussels Academy, Portaels was asked to replace him. He declined, because he deemed the conditions offered to him not to be acceptable and he preferred to maintain his independence. Eugène Simonis was appointed director in his stead. Portaels was admitted as a member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium in 1855. After his wife died in the same year, he moved in with his father-in-law Navez. From 1858 Portaels took over the private studio of Navez; this studio, referred to as'atelier libre' played an important role in the training of the next generation of Belgian painters.
In 1863 Portaels reconnected with the Brussels Academy as he accepted to teach its drawing and painting course. After he gave up this post in 1865 he dedicated more time to the education of young artists in his studio. Portaels was in demand as a portrait painter and received many orders from the Belgian state and religious institutions, including the frescoes decorating the old Chapel of the Brothers of Christian Doctrine for which he used the innovative water glass technique, he was commissioned in 1850 to provide the decoration of the external pediment of Saint Jacques-sur-Coudenberg, the church of the royal parish. This showed the high esteem, he became a familiar visitor of the Royal Palace since the time of the first king of Belgium Leopold I. In 1857, he attended the betrothal of Princess Charlotte; the following year, he was asked to paint portrait of the two princes and, in 1862, he served as a mentor to Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders. He acted as an art advisor for the latter and assisted him with the selection of art works for the decoration of his palace in Brussels.
After the accession to the Belgian throne of Leopold II in 1865 he served artistic advisor to the king and was admitted - like other Belgian artists such as the painter Ernest Slingeneyer and the sculptor Thomas Vinçotte - at the dinner table of the king. He taught art classes to Queen Marie-Henriette, his work was well represented in the royal collections. At the same time he portrayed many members of the Belgian aristocracy. In 1870 he started to travel again and spent his time in Morocco, he returned to Brussels in 1874. On 1 January 1878 he was appointed the director of the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts as the successor of Simonis. Which had so long been the object of his ambition. In 1881 he was made a Commander in the Order of Leopold, he died in Schaarbeek. Portaels was a prolific artist who practised many genres: history painting, Orientalist art, genre art and landscape painting. While his main focus was on Orientalist art and portraiture, he was in demand as a painter of biblical scenes and his works can still be found in many churches in Belgium such as in the Saint Jacques-sur-Coudenberg in Brussels and the Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Goede Hoop Church in Vilvoorde.
For the latter he painted a tryptich on the story o
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
The Sablon or Zavel is a neighbourhood and hill in the historic upper town of Brussels. At its heart are the twin squares of the larger Grand Sablon/Grote Zavel square in the northwest and the smaller Petit Sablon/Kleine Zavel square and garden in the southeast, divided by the Church of Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon; the Sablon lies near the Mont des Arts neighbourhood, lay not far outside the first city walls of Brussels. It was an unused open space, with areas of wetlands and sand, where a hermit made his home; the words sablon and zavel both mean a fine-grained sand, halfway between sand. The Saint John Hospital used the area as a cemetery in the thirteenth century, having run out of space in their own cemetery. In 1304, the hospital sold the land to the crossbowmen's guild, they built a small chapel on the site dedicated to Our Lady, completed in 1318, setting off the transformation of the area. The chapel became renowned and began to draw pilgrims and the pious when, in 1348, a woman brought to the chapel a miraculous statue of the Virgin Mary, stolen from Antwerp.
The statue of Mary was solemnly placed in the chapel and venerated as the patron of the guild. The guild promised to hold an annual procession, called an Ommegang, in which the statue was carried through Brussels; this Ommegang of Brussels developed into an important religious and civil event in the calendar of Brussels. In the fifteenth century, the neighbourhood began to enlarge substantially; the chapel was rebuilt as the larger and more elegant Church of Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon, still standing today. In 1470, Duke Charles the Bold charged a body with the creation of a street running from his nearby Coudenberg Palace to the church; the church became the site of the baptisms of princes. Governor Margaret of Austria made it the site of her religious devotions as well. In 1530, it saw the greatest July procession in its history; these symbols of royal favour would ensure the lasting prosperity of the Sablon area. The Wolweide area, corresponding loosely to the current rue aux Laines/Wolstraat, was an extension of the Sablon, stretching to the slopes of the Galgenberg, where the modern Palace of Justice now sits.
In the sixteenth century, the most prominent noblemen established themselves on the upper Sablon and on rue aux Laines. The Egmonts, the Culemborgs, the Brederodes and the Mansfelds were the first, the De Lannoys, the De Lalaings, the Thurn und Taxis, the Solres joined them; the result was that by the seventeenth century, the Sablon area had grown to become the most aristocratic and prosperous area in the city. The Egmont Palace on the Petit Sablon is still standing, gives the best indication of what the area was like at the height of its splendour. In 1566 the Culemborg mansion on rue des Petits Carmes/Karmelietenstraat was the site of the drafting of the Compromise of Nobles which led to the Dutch Revolt. To eliminate any trace of this seditious act against the king, the Duke of Alba razed the mansion to the ground in 1568; the proximity of the cemetery was an irritation to its aristocratic neighbours in 1554, but it would be another century and a half before the government of Brussels recognized that the situation had become unbearable.
They reported that corpses "were neglected and left in only half-covered graves, from which dogs had several times pulled parts off and run around in broad daylight with arms and legs in their mouths". It was therefore decided in 1704 to move the cemetery to the Marolles area; the Sablon neighbourhood was remodelled in the nineteenth century as rue de la Régence/Regentschapstraat was driven through the area, creating a Haussmann-style artery between the Royal Palace of Brussels and the new Palace of Justice. The new street skirted the church: all buildings adjacent to it were demolished starting in 1872, opening up new views of the church. Buildings not directly adjacent to the church were improved. From the 19th to early 20th centuries, the Grand Sablon became a renowned site for a sport called balle pelote, a sort of handball. Though the sport is no longer played much today, it enjoyed immense popularity at the time; the Kings of the Belgians would be seen among the spectators of a match. The social composition of the neighbourhood changed over the course of time.
In the 19th century, it was incrementally abandoned by the aristocracy in favour of newer, more chic neighbourhoods, such as the Leopold Quarter. In the 20th century, the Grand Sablon square was occupied by a more modest populace, characterized by small workshops and warehouses. At the end of the 1960s, the character of the area began to change yet again. Multiple antique stores moved following demolitions in the nearby Mont des Arts area. Bit by bit the Sablon became a desirable area once again, giving rise to the neologism "sablonisation", a local version of gentrification. A number of chocolatiers and confectioners have come to the area; the area is once again the heart of the Brussels upper class. The Grand Sablon square lies to the northwest of the church, it is in the shape of a long triangle, around 50m wide in the southeast, terminating in a point around 130m to the northwest. When Brussels residents refer to the'Sablon' without qualification, they are referri
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts
The Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts - École supérieure des Arts de la Ville de Bruxelles, in Dutch Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten van Brussel, is the Belgian art school, established in Brussels in the Kingdom of Belgium. It was founded in 1711. At the beginning housed in a single room in the city hall, in 1876 the school moved to a former convent and orphanage in the Rue du Midi, rehabilitated by the architect Pierre-Victor Jamaer, where the school still operates; the Bombardment of Brussels by French troops in 1695 was the most destructive event in the history of this town. After the reconstruction of the Grand Place in Brussels there was a turning point for the history of art in the Netherlands. In 1711 the City of Brussels gave. One room in the city hall was freed; the guilds of painting, sculpture and other art areas should have its own training center. On October 16 of the same year the establishment of a new school took place. Model was the Accademia del Designo to Florence. In 1752 they moved to the hostel d'Golden Head.
In 1762 the Duke Charles Alexander of Lorraine took over the school after a long crisis. Henceforth, their line was in his hands, his attention rested on the architecture. In 1768 Barnabé Guimord established the first architecture class. Through sales and issue of shares additional funds were made available. A year the school returned to the town hall. In 1795, the Academy was closed after the conquest of Brussels by the French revolutionary troops. In 1829 the school moved into the Granvelle Palace on. One year François-Joseph Navez became director. There was new life in the Académie, while the sculpture has been promoted, he expanded it. In 1832 it went to the basement of the left wing of the Industrial Palace. From 1835 til 1836 the plans of Navez were implemented. In 1836 it was awarded the privilege to wear "royale" as part of their name; the panel painting was declared to another important department. This was based on the old painting of the first golden age of Dutch painting. However, there was some time tensions at the Academy to the yet propagated Style of Neo-Classicism.
In addition to painting and sculpture architectural education became more important. Only they never achieved the status of a pioneering training facility. In 1876 the Academy moved to the school buildings in the Rue du Midi, it is the building of the former monastery Boogaard. The architect Pierre-Victor Jamaer was able to link the whole school in the limited space of the existing ensemble; the facade was redesigned by the architectural style of classicism. Till today this academy is here. From 5 January 1889 women were allowed to participate in a class for advanced students. At the end of the 19th century was the founding of the modern LUCA Campus Sint-Lukas Brussels a strong competition. Meanwhile, ARBA is one of the 16 art schools of the French Community of Belgium. Under the director Charles van der Stappen the doctrine came to this university to an greater prestige. Literature and photography were part of the training offer. In the European art scene around the turn of the century Brussels drew forth in addition to his training center in the shadow of Paris.
Since 1889 Brussels was the uncrowned capital of Art Nouveau in the architecture, which had its triumphal procession through Prof. Horta; the Academy managed the step to another center of the avant-garde in the panel painting. From the Academy and its students went influence on the development of Realism, the Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, Post Impressionism and the newly incipient Expressionism. Everything was precursor of Modern Art. In the year 1912 Victor Horta had made changes to the organisation of this school. A system of studios was created, as it was recommended by Paul Lambot. In 1936 the Royal Order was made to the formation of the separate Department of Architecture. In 1949 the rank of a small department for planning and urban development was established, too; the architectural studies got the rank of university education. In 1972, the Department of artistic humanities was established. At last in 1977 the Department of Architecture had acquired its autonomy. In 1977 the Institute Supérieur d'Architecture Victor Horta, named after the Art Nouveau architect and former director, was founded.
In 1980, the higher education of the second degree and new courses at the Academy of Fine Arts are presented. Today programs are offered for Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts in the fields of design and media and offered doctoral studies, too; the Academy has been an ESA with a university orientation. In addition, it is part of Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium RASAB, founded in 2001, it is responsible for the task of promoting activities of the affiliated members and organizations here and coordinate. - Her tasks include projects at home and abroad. Includes some of the most famous names in Belgian painting and architecture: James Ensor, René Magritte, Paul Delvaux, creator of The Smurfs, Kali Barnabé Guimard, architect Tilman-François Suys, architect François-Joseph Navez, Belgian neo-classical painter. Louis Gallait, painter Eugène Simonis, sculptor Jean-François Portaels, Belgian painter Charles van der Stappen, sculptor Jef Lambeaux, sculptor Jacques van Lalaing and painter Victor Horta, architect Paul Saintenoy, architect Alfred Bastien, sculptor Léon Devos, painterThe school is sometimes confused with the Royal