The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
An apiary is a location where beehives of honey bees are kept. Apiaries can be rural or urban depending on the honey production operation. Furthermore, an apiary may refer to a hobbyist's hives or those used for commercial or educational usage, it can be a wall-less, roofed structure, similar to a gazebo which houses hives. Apiaries have been found in ancient Egypt prior to 2422 BCE where hives were constructed from moulded mud. Throughout history apiaries and bees have been kept for honey and pollination purposes all across the globe. Due to the definition of apiary as a location where hives are kept its history can be traced as far back as that of beekeeping itself. For more information on the history of beekeeping see the history and origins portions of the beekeeping article. First known usage of the word was in 1654; the base of the word comes from the Latin word "apis" meaning "bee", leading to "apiarium" or "beehouse" and "apiary"Beekeepers may be referred to as "apiarists" or "ones who tend apiaries."
By definition an apiary is a location. Many types of hives make up apiaries. In cases of urban beekeeping hives are located on high ground which requires less space than hives located at lesser altitudes. To direct the bees' path of flight in populous urban areas, concentrated bee populations could pose an issue. Beekeepers construct tall fences to direct the bees' flight higher and widen their search for food. Apiaries are situated on high ground in order to avoid moisture collection, though within proximity of a consistent water source—whether natural or man-made—to ensure the bees' access. Additionally, ample nectar supplies for the bees as well as large amounts of sun are considered, they are situated close to orchards and public gardens, which require frequent pollination to develop a positive feedback loop between the bees and their food sources. This economizes on the bees' pollination and the plants' supply of nectar. An apiary may have hive management objectives other than honey production, including queen rearing and mating.
In the northern hemisphere and south facing locations with full morning sun are preferred. In hot climates, shade may have to be artificially provided if trees are not present. Other factors include air and water drainage and accessibility by truck, distance from phobic people, protection from vandalism. In the USA there are beekeepers — from hobbyists to commercial — in every state; the most lucrative areas for American honey production are Florida, Texas and the Upper Midwest. For paid pollination, the main areas are California, the Pacific Northwest, the Great Lakes States, the Northeast. Rules and regulations by local ordinances and zoning laws affect apiaries. In recent years US honey production has dropped and the states import 16% of the world's honey. Internationally, the largest honey producing exporters are China and Mexico; as in the United States the location of apiaries varies internationally depending on available resources and the operational need. For more information on nation-specific beekeeping see their respective articles, such as the Beekeeping in Nepal article.
Apiary size refers not only to the spacial size of the apiary, but to the number of bee families and bees by weight. With ample space there is no limit to the number of hives or bee families which can be housed in an apiary; the larger the number of hives held in an apiary the higher the yield of honey relative to resources resulting in apiaries growing with time and experience. Additionally a higher number of hives within an apiary can increase the quality of the honey produced. Depending on the nectar and pollen sources in a given area, the maximum number of hives that can be placed in one apiary can vary. If too many hives are placed into an apiary, the hives compete with each other for scarce resources; this can lead to lower honey, flower pollen and bee bread yields, as well as higher transmission of disease and robbing. The size of an apiary is determined by not only the resources available but by the variety of honey being cultivated, with more complex types cultivated in smaller productions.
For more specific details on varieties see the classification portion of the honey article. The purpose of the apiary affects size: apiaries are kept by commercial and local honey producers, as well as by universities, research facilities, local organizations. Many such organizations provide educational opportunities; this results in varying sizes of apiaries depending on usage characteristics. The maximum size of a permanent apiary or bee yard may depend on the type of bee as well; some honey bee species or races fly farther than others. A circle around an apiary with a three-mile foraging radius covers 28 square miles. A good rule of thumb is to have no more than 25–35 hives in a permanent apiary, although migrating beekeepers may temporarily place one hundred hives into a location with a good nectar flow. Apiaries may decline due to a scarcity of resources; this is an issue in urban areas where there maybe a limited amount of resources for bees and a large number of hives may be affected. Apiaries may suffer from a wide variety of infestations.
Throughout history apiaries and bees have been kept for honey and pollination purposes all across the globe. Due to the definition of apiary as a location where hives are kept its history can be traced as far ba
St. Paul's Bay
Saint Paul's Bay is a town in the Northern Region of Malta, sixteen kilometres northwest of the capital Valletta. Saint Paul's Bay is the largest town in the Northern Region and the seat of the Northern Regional Committee along with being the most populous town in Malta, its name refers to the shipwreck of Saint Paul as documented in the Acts of the Apostles on St. Paul's Islands near St Paul's Bay, on his voyage from Caesarea to Rome, which laid the foundations of Christianity on the island. Burmarrad, Qawra, Buġibba and San Martin, as well as part of Bidnija and Mistra, form part of St. Paul's Bay Local Council; the area of the locality is 14.47 km2. The population in 2018 was 23,112; this goes up to about 60,000 between June and September with Maltese residents and tourists lodging in hotels in Buġibba and Qawra. Heading north is its headland and St Paul's Island. Going west and crossing the island towards Ġnejna Bay and Golden Bay is the scenic Wardija Ridge. Archaeological remains have been found in the limits of St. Paul's Bay, which go back to around 4000 BC.
Among the remains there are the megalithic temples of Xemxija. In addition, cart Ruts were found on the Wardija Ridge at Busewdien, while Punic tombs and other Bronze Age remains were found. During the Roman period, St. Paul's Bay became an important harbour. Remains of a Roman road and beehives, have been found at Xemxija, while Roman anchors were found on the seabed. By the late Middle Ages, St. Paul's Bay was abandoned since the area was unsafe due to corsair raids; the local militia maintained several watch posts in the area. One of these, known as Ta' Tabibu farmhouse, still survives today and is considered to be the oldest building in St. Paul's Bay. A building of a church was noted at the arrival of the Order of St John in 1530. A number of fortifications were built in the area during the rule of the Order of Saint John; the first of these was the Wignacourt Tower, built in 1610, now the oldest surviving watchtower in Malta. Qawra Tower was built by Grand Master Lascaris in 1638. In 1715, batteries were built around these two towers, while two batteries and a redoubt were built in other parts of the St. Paul's Bay coastline.
Of these, only Arrias Battery survives today, since Dellia Battery and Perellos Redoubt were demolished in the 20th century. The bay was one of the landing places during the French invasion of Malta in June 1798. After the Maltese uprising against the French, St. Paul's Bay became the main harbour of Malta since the Grand Harbour and Marsamxett were still under French control. In the 19th century, several villas were built in St. Paul's Bay; these were requisitioned by the British military in World War II and the bay became a rest camp. After the Italian armistice of 1943, 76 ships of the Regia Marina were anchored at St. Paul's Bay after surrendering to the British. After the war, the area began to be further developed. Today, St. Paul's Bay, Qawra, Buġibba and Burmarrad form a large cluster of buildings; the area is a popular entertainment spot. Dawret San Pawl Triq Għajn Tuffieħa Triq Parades Triq San Pawl Triq il-Mosta Dawret il-Gżejjer Triq il-Bajja Triq Bordino Triq l-Erba' Mwieżeb Triq il-Korp tal-Pijunieri Triq il-Kaħli Triq il-Knisja Triq il-Mosta Triq il-Plajja ta' Bognor Triq ir-Rebbiegħa Triq Sir Luigi Preziosi Triq Sant' Antnin Triq Toni Bajada Triq Burmarrad Triq il-Wardija Triq il-Witja Triq Toni Camilleri Dawret il-Gżejjer Dawret il-Qawra Triq Cassarino Triq Għawdex Triq il-Ħalel Triq il-Wileġ Triq J. F. Kennedy Triq is-Salina or Triq it-Trunċiera Triq it-Turisti Telgħa tal-Mistra Telgħa tax-Xemxija Xatt il-Pwales
Simar Nature Reserve is a nature reserve in Pwales Valley, in Xemxija, St Paul's Bay. An artificial wetland habitat was created in the 1990s by BirdLife Malta volunteers in an area of abandoned marsh-land; the reserve lies within the Is-Simar Special Protection Area, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance since 1996, a protected bird sanctuary since 2006 and a Site of Community Importance since March 2008. Chadwick Lakes Buskett Gardens
Northern Region, Malta
The Northern Region is one of five regions of Malta. The region includes the northwestern part of the main island of Malta; the region borders the Central and Southern Regions, is close to Gozo Region. It was created by the Act No. XVI of 2009 out of part of Malta Majjistral. Northern Region includes the entire Northern District and parts of the Northern Harbour District and Western Districts. Northern Region includes 12 local councils: Dingli - include the areas of Buskett and Dingli Cliffs Għargħur - include the area of Xwieki Mdina Mellieħa - include the areas of Ċirkewwa, Armier Bay, Għadira, Golden Bay, Santa Maria Estate, Paradise Bay, Anchor Bay, Ta' Pennellu, Mġiebaħ, Selmun Palace and Selmunett. Mġarr - include the areas of Żebbiegħ, Ġnejna Bay, Binġemma, Ta' Mrejnu, Għajn Tuffieħa, Lippija, Fomm ir-Riħ, Abatija and Mselliet. Mosta - include the areas of Bidnija,Blata l-Għolja, Santa Margarita, Tarġa Gap, Ta' Żokkrija and Ta' Mlit Mtarfa Naxxar - include the areas of Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq, Magħtab, Birguma, Sgħajtar, San Pawl tat-Tarġa and Simblija Pembroke - include the areas of St. Andrew's, St. Patrick's and White Rocks Rabat - include the areas of Baħrija, Tal-Virtù, Mtaħleb, Kunċizzjoni, Bieb ir-Ruwa and Għar Barka St. Paul's Bay - include the areas of Burmarrad, Buġibba, Xemxija, Pwales, San Martin and San Pawl Milqi Swieqi - include the areas of Madliena, Ibraġ, Victoria Gardens and High RidgeHamletsBaħar iċ-Ċagħaq Baħrija Burmarrad Madliena Tal-Virtù The current Northern Regional Committee is made up of
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg; the Hospitallers arose in the early 11th century, at the time of the great monastic reformation, as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in the Muristan district of Jerusalem, dedicated to John the Baptist and founded around 1023 by Gerard Thom to provide care for sick, poor or injured pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. Some scholars, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thom's order and its hospital. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a military religious order under its own Papal charter, charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the knights operated from Rhodes, over which they were sovereign, from Malta, where they administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily.
The Hospitallers were the smallest group to colonise parts of the Americas: they acquired four Caribbean islands in the mid-17th century, which they turned over to France in the 1660s. The knights were weakened in the Protestant Reformation, when rich commanderies of the order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant and separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remaining separate to this day, although ecumenical relations between the descendant chivalric orders are amicable; the order was disestablished in England, Denmark, as well as in some other parts of northern Europe, it was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798, following which it became dispersed throughout Europe. In 603, Pope Gregory I commissioned the Ravennate Abbot Probus, Gregory's emissary at the Lombard court, to build a hospital in Jerusalem to treat and care for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 800, Emperor Charlemagne added a library to it. About 200 years in 1005, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings in Jerusalem.
In 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist, took in Christian pilgrims travelling to visit the Christian holy sites, it was served by the Order of Saint Benedict. The monastic hospitaller order was founded following the First Crusade by Gerard Thom, whose role as founder was confirmed by the papal bull Pie Postulatio Voluntatis issued by Pope Paschal II in 1113. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. Under his successor, Raymond du Puy, the original hospice was expanded to an infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem; the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order soon extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort, which soon grew into a substantial force. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its charitable character.
Raymond du Puy, who succeeded Gerard as Master of the Hospital in 1118, organised a militia from the order's members, dividing the order into three ranks: knights, men at arms, chaplains. Raymond offered the service of his armed troops to Baldwin II of Jerusalem, the order from this time participated in the crusades as a military order, in particular distinguishing itself in the Siege of Ascalon of 1153. In 1130, Pope Innocent II gave the order a silver cross in a field of red; the Hospitallers and the Knights Templar became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185; the statutes of Roger de Moulins deal only with the service of the sick. In the latter a marked distinction is made between secular knights, externs to the order, who served only for a time, the professed knights, attached to the order by a perpetual vow, who alone enjoyed the same spiritual privileges as the other religious.
The order numbered three distinct classes of membership: the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service. In 1248 Pope Innocent IV approved a standard military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn during battle. Instead of a closed cape over their armour, they wore a red surcoat with a white cross emblazoned on it. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars and the Hospitallers. At the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area; the two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers and Margat in Syria. The property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies; as early as the late 12th century the order had begun to achieve recognition in the Kingdom of England and Duchy of Normandy.
As a result, buildings such as St John's Jerusalem and the Knights Gate, Quenington i
Għajn Tuffieħa forms part of the Manikata village in Malta, part of Mellieħa. Close to Għajn Tuffieħa, three bays are located with popular beaches among tourists; the beaches are separated by natural rock formations and therefore each has its own characteristics. Golden Bay is one of the few sand beaches on the north-west coast of Malta, it was known as Military Bay. The white beach slopes allowing swimmers to walk into the sea. In summer months, there are lifeguards on duty. Golden Bay is the most popular tourist beach of the Manikata region. Several beach clubs and a large hotel are located on the beach; the Ghajn Tuffieha International Scout Campsite is located nearby offering an all-year-round camping experience for everyone. A bus terminus and car park are located at Golden Bay. Għajn Tuffieħa Bay is a red beach a short distance south of Golden Bay, it is quieter than Golden Bay and visited by the Maltese themselves, as well as tourist visitors. In order to reach this beach one needs to descend a hill on a staircase of 200 steps.
On top of the cliffs west of Għajn Tuffieħa bay, there is an old defense tower built in 1637. It is one of the seven towers built by Grand Master Giovanni Paolo Lascaris, of the Knights Hospitaller. There are 13 of these guard houses on the island of Malta. Għajn Tuffieħa has Singita Miracle Beach, at the foot of the access staircase. To the south of Għajn Tuffieħa Bay is the first part of Ġnejna Bay; this beach can only be reached by first going through Għajn Tuffieħa Bay climbing up a hill and making a descend along some rather steep paths between the rocks. The beach and the small stone promontory of this part of Ġnejna Bay is used as a clothing optional beach as well as a long-time gay-friendly area; this part of the bay is hidden from the main part of Ġnejna Bay. Further south, the main part of Ġnejna Bay is reached by road via Mgarr, it offers a mixture of rocks and pebbles. Boathouses are carved into the rocks on the south side of Ġnejna Bay. Watersports are prominent recreation in Ġnejna Bay, but its earlier history as a fisherman's bay has not vanished.
Pictures of Golden Bay on Maltavista.net Pictures of Għajn Tuffieħa Bay on Maltavista.net Pictures of Gnejna Bay on Maltavista.net Tips for visiting Golden Bay on MaltaUncovered.com Tips for visiting Għajn Tuffieħa Bay on MaltaUncovered.com Golden Bay Malta - Bus routes and information about the beaches and surrounding area