RayForce is a vertical space shooter style game by Taito released for the Taito F3 arcade hardware in 1994, ported to the Sega Saturn in 1995, Microsoft Windows in 1997, iOS in 2012 and Android in 2017. Due to trademark problems, when the home version was released in Japan it was renamed Layer Section; when Acclaim published the Saturn version for the North American and European markets, it was renamed Galactic Attack. The game was titled Gunlock in European arcades. In the distant future, human governments, across the planet Earth, construct a massive supercomputer, named "Con-Human"; the purpose of this computer is to govern the planet's environmental systems, verifying proper nutrients and care is provided to ensure the culture of humans and animal alike. However, disaster strikes when, after a cloned human's mind is linked with the system, Con-Human becomes sentient and insane, it begins to induce calamities across the planet, constructing corrupt clones of existing organisms, destroying its human masters and exterminating the nature it was intended to protect intending to replace everything with what Con-Human considers improved versions of themselves.
After prolonged war, Con-Human has succeeded in exterminating 99.8% of humankind, with the remnants fleeing to space colonies. Meanwhile, Con-Human remakes the interior of Earth; as a result, Earth, as humanity knew it, has utterly ceased to exist, transformed into a planet-sized mobile fortress, in fact Con-Human's body. Con-Human intends to use the transformed Earth to seek out and destroy the colonies, erasing all remaining traces of old life from the universe and leaving only the new life that it created. Now, taking the full-scale offensive, mankind develops powerful ships, one of them the RVA-818 X-LAY starfighter, to fight the oppressive machine by destroying the now-infected Earth entirely; the player is provided with a ship called the RVA-818 X-LAY, outfitted with two weapons: a primary weapon that fires straight lasers and increases in power when the player accumulates power-ups, a secondary lock-on laser launcher, which can be increased in power, that can target up to eight enemies at once by moving the targeting reticle.
This weapon is used to attack enemies that appear on a lower plane than that of your craft, which are inaccessible to the player's primary weapon. During play, the screen predominantly scrolls vertically, but there is some horizontal leeway as is common in games of this genre; the Saturn version of the game received mixed reviews, with critics caught between its high quality design and its antiquated gameplay and stylistics. Rad Automatic of Sega Saturn Magazine stated that the game is fun but outdated in terms of both graphics and gameplay, though he did praise the absence of slowdown and the authentic arcade feel of the tate mode. A reviewer for Maximum commented that the game falls into the retro genre without offering the nostalgia value found in most such releases, further criticized that the tate mode "isn't practical in execution." While he acknowledged the game is fun, he noted it was being released alongside a host of top-quality Saturn titles, concluded, "Come on - be honest now - is this the sort of game you coughed up £300 to play with your high-tech next generation gaming system?
Playable it may be, but it's not worth buying." A Next Generation critic agreed that Galactic Attack is dated and would appeal only to die-hard shooter fans, but nonetheless took the time to explain why shooter fans would enjoy it more than most games in the genre: "Aside from the fact that Galactic Attack is a super-fast action game, there is a definite feeling of quality development and several elements of smart game techniques that are displayed with this title. The best part about Galactic Attack, however, is that it offers everything a good space shooter should without any problems that may have shown up on a 16-bit system trying to do the same... which means no slow down when a load of sprites are on the screen at once." GamePro gave the game a positive review, saying it "features gorgeous, space-themed backgrounds and a rockin' soundtrack. Although your ship is nothing to write home about, the enemies fly at you fast and furiously, giving your eyes a treat and your thumbs a workout.
Resounding explosions, crisp voice-overs, sharp laser blasts round out this quality game." This game was released on Taito Memories in Japan, as well as Xbox and PC versions of Taito Legends 2, but these releases all run in upscanned 640x448 resolution, which results in slight flickering, no scanlines and blurrier image compared to the arcade and Sega Saturn versions. "tate mode" is not supported, resulting in the game appearing in the middle of the horizontally oriented screen, with two black bars on the right and left side. Taito worked on a sequel named R-Gear. A prequel, RayCrisis, was released in 1998; the X-LAY appears as a downloadable ship for Taito's Dariusburst: Chronicle Saviours for PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita, PC. www.users.globalnet.co.uk/- Review of RayForce Gamebank page Cyberfront page Layer Section page List of Ray games
Space Invaders is a 1978 arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado. It was manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, licensed in the United States by the Midway division of Bally. Within the shooter genre, Space Invaders was the first fixed shooter and set the template for the shoot'em up genre; the goal is to defeat wave after wave of descending aliens with a horizontally moving laser to earn as many points as possible. Space Invaders was an immediate commercial success. Adjusted for inflation, the many versions of the game are estimated to have grossed over $13 billion in total revenue as of 2016, making it the highest-grossing video game of all time. Space Invaders is considered one of the most influential video games of all time, it helped expand the video game industry from a novelty to a global industry, ushered in the golden age of arcade video games. It was the inspiration for numerous video games and game designers across different genres, has been ported and re-released in various forms.
The 1980 Atari VCS version quadrupled sales of the VCS, thereby becoming the first killer app for video game consoles. More broadly, the pixelated enemy alien has become a pop culture icon representing video games as a whole. Designer Nishikado drew inspiration from games like 1976's ball-bouncing game Breakout and the 1975 shooter game Gun Fight, as well as science fiction narratives such as The War of the Worlds, Space Battleship Yamato, Star Wars. To complete development of the game, he had to design custom development tools. Space Invaders is a fixed shooter in which the player controls a laser cannon by moving it horizontally across the bottom of the screen and firing at descending aliens; the aim is to defeat five rows of eleven aliens—although some versions feature different numbers—that move horizontally back and forth across the screen as they advance toward the bottom of the screen. The player's laser cannon is protected by several stationary defense bunkers—the number varies by version—that are destroyed from the top and bottom by blasts from either the aliens or the player.
The player earns points by shooting it with the laser cannon. As more aliens are defeated, the aliens' movement and the game's music both speed up. Defeating all the aliens on-screen brings another wave, more difficult, a loop which can continue endlessly. A special "mystery ship" will move across the top of the screen and award bonus points if destroyed; the aliens attempt to destroy the player's cannon by firing at it while they approach the bottom of the screen. If they reach the bottom, the alien invasion is declared successful and the game ends tragically; the game will end if all the player's cannons are destroyed by the enemies. Space Invaders was created by Japanese designer Tomohiro Nishikado, who spent a year designing the game and developing the necessary hardware to produce it; the game's inspiration is reported to have come from varying sources, including an adaptation of the mechanical game Space Monsters released by Taito in 1972, a dream about Japanese school children who are waiting for Santa Claus when they are attacked by invading aliens.
Nishikado himself has cited Atari's arcade game Breakout as his inspiration. He aimed to create a shooting game that featured the same sense of achievement from completing stages and destroying targets, but with more complex graphics; the game has altered game mechanics. Rather than bounce a ball to attack static objects, players are given the ability to fire projectiles at moving enemies. Early enemy designs for the game included tanks, combat planes, battleships. Nishikado, was not satisfied with the enemy movements. Humans would have been easier to simulate. After the release of the 1974 anime Space Battleship Yamato in Japan, seeing a magazine feature about Star Wars, he thought of using a space theme. Nishikado drew inspiration for the aliens from a novel by H. G. Wells, The War of the Worlds, created initial bitmap images after the octopus-like aliens. Other alien designs were modeled after crabs; the game was titled Space Monsters after a popular song in Japan at the time, "Monster", but was changed to Space Invaders by the designer's superiors.
Because microcomputers in Japan were not powerful enough at the time to perform the complex tasks involved in designing and programming Space Invaders, Nishikado had to design his own custom hardware and development tools for the game. He created the arcade board using the latest microprocessors from the United States; the game uses an Intel 8080 central processing unit, displays raster graphics on a CRT monitor, uses monaural sound hosted by a combination of analog circuitry and a Texas Instruments SN76477 sound chip. The adoption of a microprocessor was inspired by Gun Fight, Midway's microprocessor adaptation of Nishikado's earlier discrete logic game Western Gun, after the designer was impressed by the improved graphics and smoother animation of Midway's version. Despite the specially developed hardware, Nishikado was unable to program the game as he wanted—the Control Program board was not powerful enough to display the graphics in color or move the enemies faster—and he ended up considering the development of the game's hardware the most difficult part of the whole process.
While programming the game, Nishikado discovered that the processor was able to render the alien grap
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Scramble (video game)
Scramble is horizontally scrolling shooter released in arcades in 1981. It was developed by Konami, manufactured and distributed by Leijac in Japan and Stern in North America, it was the first side-scrolling shooter with multiple distinct levels. The game was a success, selling 15,136 video game arcade cabinets in the United States within five months, by August 4, 1981, becoming Stern's second best-selling game after Berzerk, its sequel, the more difficult Super Cobra, sold 12,337 cabinets in the U. S. in four months that same year, adding up to 27,473 U. S. cabinet sales for both, by October 1981. Scramble was not ported to any major contemporary consoles or computers, but there were releases for the Tomy Tutor and Vectrex as well as dedicated tabletop/handheld versions. Several unauthorized clones for the VIC-20 and Commodore 64 used the same name as the original; the player controls an aircraft, referred to in the game as a "Jet," and has to guide it across a scrolling terrain, battling obstacles along the way.
The ship is armed with bombs. The player must avoid colliding with the terrain and other enemies, while maintaining its limited fuel supply which diminishes over time. More fuel can be acquired by destroying fuel tanks in the game; the game is divided into six sections, each with a different style of terrain and different obstacles. There is no intermission between each section. Points are awarded based upon the number of seconds of being alive, on destroying enemies and fuel tanks. In the final section, the player must destroy a "base". Once this has been accomplished, a flag denoting a completed mission is posted at the bottom right of the screen; the game repeats by returning to the first section once more, with a slight increase in difficulty. Per second the jet is in play: 10 points Rockets: 50 points on ground, 80 in air UFO ships: 100 points Fuel tanks: 150 points Mystery targets: 100, 200, or 300 points Base at ends of levels: 800 pointsThe player is awarded an extra jet for scoring 10,000 points.
A dedicated Tomytronic version of Scramble was released in 1982. A second electronic tabletop version of Scramble was released the same year in the UK by Grandstand under licence from Japanese firm Epoch Co. who sold the game in Japan under the title Astro Command. Gameplay differs from the arcade version as no scenery is rendered and the ship has no need to refuel. A handheld compact LCD version known as "Pocket Scramble" was released the following year. Scramble was critically acclaimed. In its February 1982 issue and Video Games magazine said it "was the first arcade game to send you on a mission and earned a big following."The Vectrex version was reviewed in Video magazine where it was praised for its fidelity to the original arcade game and was described as the favorite among Vectrex titles they had reviewed. The game's overlays were singled out, with reviewers commenting that "when you're involved with a Vectrex game like Scramble, it's possible to forget that the program is in black-and-white."
David H. Ahl of Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games reported in 1983 that no test player was able to get past the fourth level of the Vectrex version. In 1982, Arcade Express gave the Tomytronic version of the game a score of 9 out of 10, describing it as an "engrossing" game that "rates as one of the year's best so far."Scramble made the list of Top 100 arcade games in the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition. According to the Nintendo Game Boy Advance Gradius Advance intro and the Gradius Breakdown DVD included with Gradius V, Scramble is considered the first in the Gradius series. However, the Gradius Collection guidebook issued a few years after by Konami, lists Scramble as part of their shooting history, the Gradius games are now listed separately. An updated version of Scramble is available in Konami Collector's Series: Arcade Advanced by inputting the Konami Code in the game's title screen; this version allows three different ships to be chosen: the Renegade, the Shori, the Gunslinger.
The only difference between the ships besides their appearance are the shots. The Renegade's shots are the same as in the original Scramble, the Shori has rapid-fire capabilities triggered by holding down the fire button, the Gunslinger's shots can pierce through enemies, meaning they can be used for multiple hits with a single shot. Scramble joined the Xbox Live Arcade library for the Xbox 360 on September 13, 2006. Scramble was made available on Microsoft's Game Room service on March 24, 2010. Scramble was re-released in 2005 for PlayStation 2 in Japan as part of the Oretachi Geasen Zoku Sono-series. Scramble was re-released in 2007 for Nintendo DS as part of Konami Classics Series: Arcade Hits; the Atari 8-bit family games Bellum are both Scramble clones. Skramble is a clone for the Commodore 64. Whirlybird Run is a TRS-80 Color Computer clone. In Stern Electronics, Inc. v. Kaufman, 669 F.2d 852, the Second Circuit held that Stern could copyright the images and sounds in the game, not just the source code that produced them.
Cosmic Avenger Vanguard Official Arcade Archives website Scramble at the Killer List of Videogames Scramble at the Arcade History database
The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family. The initial ST model, the 520ST, saw limited release in April–June 1985 and was available in July; the Atari ST is the first personal computer to come with a bitmapped color GUI, using a version of Digital Research's GEM released in February 1985. The 1040ST, released in 1986, is the first personal computer to ship with a megabyte of RAM in the base configuration and the first with a cost-per-kilobyte of less than US$1; the Atari ST is part of a mid-1980s generation of home computers that have 16 or 32-bit processors, 256 KB or more of RAM, mouse-controlled graphical user interfaces. This generation includes the Macintosh, Commodore Amiga, Apple IIGS, and, in certain markets, the Acorn Archimedes. "ST" stands for "Sixteen/Thirty-two", which refers to the Motorola 68000's 16-bit external bus and 32-bit internals. The ST was sold with the less expensive monochrome monitor; the system's two color graphics modes are only available on the former while the highest-resolution mode needs the monochrome monitor.
In some markets Germany, the machine gained a strong foothold as a small business machine for CAD and desktop publishing work. Thanks to its built-in MIDI ports, the ST enjoyed success for running music-sequencer software and as a controller of musical instruments among amateurs and well-known musicians alike; the ST was superseded by the Atari STE, Atari TT, Atari MEGA STE, Falcon computers. The Atari ST was born from the rivalry between home-computer makers Atari, Inc. and Commodore International. Jay Miner, one of the original designers for the custom chips found in the Atari 2600 and Atari 8-bit family, tried to convince Atari management to create a new chipset for a video game console and computer; when his idea was rejected, Miner left Atari to form a small think tank called Hi-Toro in 1982 and began designing the new "Lorraine" chipset. The company, renamed Amiga Corporation, was pretending to sell video game controllers to deceive competition while it developed a Lorraine-based computer.
Amiga ran out of capital to complete Lorraine's development, Atari, owned by Warner Communications, paid Amiga to continue development work. In return Atari received exclusive use of the Lorraine design for one year as a video game console. After one year Atari would have the right to add a keyboard and market the complete computer, designated the 1850XLD; as Atari was involved with Disney at the time, it was code-named "Mickey", the 256K memory expansion board was codenamed "Minnie". After leaving Commodore International in January 1984, Jack Tramiel formed Tramel Technology with his sons and other ex-Commodore employees and, in April, began planning a new computer; the company considered the National Semiconductor NS320xx microprocessor but was disappointed with its performance. This started the move to the 68000; the lead designer of the Atari ST was ex-Commodore employee Shiraz Shivji, who had worked on the Commodore 64's development. Atari in mid-1984 was losing about a million dollars per day.
Interested in Atari's overseas manufacturing and worldwide distribution network for his new computer, Tramiel negotiated with Warner in May and June 1984. He bought Atari's Consumer Division in July; as executives and engineers left Commodore to join Tramiel's new Atari Corporation, Commodore responded by filing lawsuits against four former engineers for theft of trade secrets. The Tramiels did not purchase the employee contracts when they bought the assets of Atari Inc. so one of their first acts was to interview Atari Inc. employees to decide whom to hire at what was a brand new company. This company was called TTL renamed to Atari Corp. At the time of the purchase of Atari Inc's assets, there were 900 employees remaining from a high point of 10,000. After the interviews 100 employees were hired to work at Atari Corp. At one point a custom sound processor called AMY was a planned component for the new ST computer design, but the chip needed more time to complete, so AMY was dropped in favor of an off-the-shelf Yamaha sound chip.
It was during this time in late July/early August that Leonard Tramiel discovered the original Amiga contract, which required Amiga Corporation to deliver the Lorraine chipset to Atari on June 30, 1984. Amiga Corp. had sought more monetary support from investors in spring 1984. Having heard rumors that Tramiel was negotiating to buy Atari, Amiga Corp. entered into discussions with Commodore. The discussions led to Commodore wanting to purchase Amiga Corporation outright, which Commodore believed would cancel any outstanding contracts, including Atari's. Instead of Amiga Corp. delivering Lorraine to Atari, Commodore delivered a check of $500,000 to Atari on Amiga's behalf, in effect returning the funds Atari invested into Amiga for the chipset. Tramiel countersued Amiga Corp. on August 13, 1984. He sought an injunction to bar Amiga from producing anything with its technology. At Commodore, the Amiga team was in limbo during the summer of 1984 because of the lawsuit. No word on the status of the chipset, the Lorraine computer, or the team's fate was known.
In the fall of 1984, Commodore informed the team that the Lorraine project was active again, the chipset was to be improved, the operating system developed, the hardware design completed. While Commodore announced the Amiga 1000 with the Lorraine chipset in July 1985, the delay gave Atari, with its ma
Rally-X is a driving game set in an overhead, scrolling maze, released in arcades by Namco, licensed in 1980 to Midway Manufacturing Co. for US manufacture and distribution in 1981. It was the first game with background music; the only contemporary home port was for MSX, released on March 30, 1984. The object of the game is to collect the flags scattered around the maze while avoiding collision with enemy cars. A radar shows the locations of the flags, but not maze walls; the player drives a blue car around a scrolling maze. The car automatically moves in whichever direction the joystick is pushed, but if it runs into a wall, it will turn and continue. In every round, ten flags are scattered around the maze; the player must collect all of them to move on to the next round. The flags increase in value as they are collected: the first is 100 points, the second is 200, the third is 300, so on. There are special flags — if the player collects one of them, the value earned from flags doubles for the rest of the round.
If the player dies, the next flag value is set back to 100 and the double bonus is lost. By collecting the special as the first flag with all 10 flags in one run, the maximum points the player can obtain from each round is 11000; the player will obtain a fuel bonus after the round is complete, it varies depending on how much fuel is remaining according to the fuel gauge. Several red cars chase the blue one around the maze, contact with any of them results in losing a life when hit; the number of these cars begins at three and increases in number throughout each normal round to eight. The first five appear at the bottom of the maze, the next three will appear at the top of the maze. However, the player has a smoke screen. If a red car runs into a cloud of smokescreen, it will be momentarily stunned; the amount of time stunned decreases with each level, but will still always cause the red car to chase the blue car using an alternate route. Using the smokescreen uses a small amount of fuel, using it more than once every 30 seconds will ensure that it runs out before the round finishes.
The car has a limited amount of fuel, consumed with time, though it is sufficient to last until all ten flags have been collected. When fuel runs out, the car moves slowly and the smoke screen no longer works, so it quickly falls victim to the red cars. If the player should clear any round without any fuel remaining, they will not receive a fuel bonus as a result. There are stationary rocks that the player must avoid; the rocks are randomly distributed throughout the maze, increasing in number. Unlike the cars and flags, their positions are not shown on the radar, so the player has to be careful for them; the rocks will kill the player on contact, so the player has to be careful not to get trapped between rocks and the red cars. If this happens there is no escape. On the third stage and every fourth stage after that, a bonus stage will start; the player must collect the red cars, are unable to move. If the player runs out of fuel, the red cars will start moving. If a player hits a red car or a rock, the challenging stage ends but the player will not lose a life.
Once the player has run out of lives, the game will be over. In 1980, Battlezone and Pac-Man were shown alongside Rally-X at a trade show sponsored by the Amusement Machine Operators of America, it was believed. Defender went on to sell more than 60,000 units — more than disproving these projections — and cemented its place in video game history. Meanwhile, Pac-Man went on to sell more than 350,000 worldwide arcade units, it became the highest-grossing video game of all time; the game's sequel, New Rally-X, offers a different color scheme and easier gameplay. A new flag called the "Lucky Flag" was added, which awards the player bonus points for the amount of fuel remaining when collected, after which the car is refueled, the round continues if there are still flags remaining. New Rally-X became more popular than the original game; the compilation arcade game Namco Classic Collection Vol. 2, includes a version of the game with enhanced graphics and gameplay called Rally-X Arrangement. Namco Museum Remix, released on October 23, 2007 for the Nintendo Wii features a revamped version of the game, known as Rally-X Remix, included in Namco Museum Megamix.
Another revamped sequel, Rally-X Rumble, was released on Apple's iOS platform on August 17, 2011. Rally-X was included in Namco Museum Volume 1 for the Sony PlayStation in 1995, Namco Museum 50th Anniversary in 2005, the Pac-Man's Arcade Party 30th Anniversary compilation arcade game in 2010. A carbon copy of this game was included in the compilation title Namco Classic Collection Vol. 2 in 1996. Rally-X was included as part of Microsoft Revenge of Arcade. Jakks Pacific ported Rally-X to its Namco Collection TV game. Golden age of video arcade games Rally-X at the Killer List of Videogames Rally-X at the Arcade History database
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo