China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
Landscape Arch is the longest of the many natural rock arches located in Arches National Park, United States. The arch is among many in the Devils Garden area in the north of the park. Landscape Arch was named by Frank Beckwith who explored the area in the winter of 1933–1934 as the leader of an Arches National Monument scientific expedition; the arch can be accessed by a 0.8 mi graded gravel trail. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society considers Landscape Arch the fifth longest natural arch in the world, after four arches in China; the span of Landscape Arch was measured at 290.1 feet, ±0.8 feet, in 2004. NABS measured the span of the shorter Kolob Arch in Zion National Park at 287 feet in 2006; the most recent recorded rockfall events occurred in the 1990s when one large slab fell in 1991 and two additional large rockfalls occurred in 1995. Since the rockfalls, the trail beneath the arch has been closed. List of longest natural arches Delicate Arch Durdle Door Wall Arch Xianren Bridge Natural Arch and Bridge Society article
Aloba Arch is the name of a natural arch located in Chad. Large natural arches are somewhat rare outside the southern and western regions of China and the Colorado Plateau of the southwest United States. Chad's Ennedi Plateau, located within the Sahara Desert in the northeast part of the country near Libya and Sudan has a geology similar to the Colorado Plateau and has produced a number of natural arches and similar landforms, although only Aloba can claim to be on the top ten list of longest arches in the world. Aloba Arch's span is considered to be the 8th longest known natural arch, the longest outside of China and Utah. Due in part to its location as well as being only recognized for its size, estimates based on photography yield an approximate span of 250 ft. Xianren Bridge in China has a span of 400 ft, the longest discovered and measured span to date. More striking than the span, however, is the sheer height of the arch. At 394 ft tall, it towers over the more famous Rainbow Bridge and is one of the tallest known arches in the world.
Fengshan County is a county of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Hechi City. Fengshan has one town and ten townships: Paoli Zhaiya Changzhou Qiaoyin Lintong Jinya Gengsha Zhongting Pingle Jiangzhou Fengshan County is located in the northwest of Guangxi; the county takes its name from the shape of the mountain range in this region, which resembles a phoenix spreading its wings. The county is situated on a variety of geological formations, including karst, a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks—including limestone and gypsum—and is characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage systems. Karst is a rare formation seen in only a few locations worldwide. Fengshan County lies on the eastern fringe of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the terrain follows a northwest to southeast direction. 70 % of the area, 1,738 square kilometres, is covered by arable land. The area has a subtropical monsoon climate with an average yearly temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. Fengshan County possesses mineral resources such as gold, sulphur and copper.
The pyrite reserves are estimated to be about 7,083 tons with an average grade of 17%. Fengshan has been described as the "kingdom of karst and the city of caves." There are more than 20 karst land formations such as huge caves, underground rivers, karst poljes, sinkholes. According to statistics, there are 50 caves with chambers having an area of more than 2000 square meters and 19 caves with chambers that have an area that exceeds 10,000 square meters; the largest caves are Mawangdong Cave and Gatundong Cave. Jiangzhou Underground Corridor consists of many smaller caves and underground rivers; the corridor is 37,939 km and has an average slope gradient of 9°. The cave was developed in the Permian Period. Jiangzhou Underground Corridor is rich in curly crystals, vast sparkling terraces, colossal stalactites and stalagmites, it has each having an area of between 4000-18500 square meters. Mawangdong Cave consists of three layers; the upper and middle layers are dry with a length and width of 7.7 km, 80 to 150 m and 30 to 160 m respectively.
The lower layer is an underground river channel. The cave's entrance is 130 m above the foothills and its mouth measures 94×138 m. A karst sinkhole known as a "Tiankeng" lies at the southern section of the cave, its mouth has a tri-corner shape with rounded corners measuring 225 m×180 m. The depth of this sinkhole is 320 m and an accumulation of collapsed rocks and clay lies at the bottom of the sinkhole; the vegetation there is verdurous. The cave is named "Mawangdong", which means "Horse King Cave", since the cave entrance resembles a horse's mouth; this cave is a neighbor to Sanmenhai Cave and the two are connected by an underground river. Xixili Cave has three layers; the two upper layers each have a chamber with an area of 6,900 m2, respectively. This cave contains flowstones, cave flags, hanging curtains, cave crystals. Jiangzhou Natural Bridge is a karst formation spanning around 94.5 m, ±11 m, connecting the two mountains. Its height is 64.5 m, with width of 18.5 -- 24 m. It is located about 2 km east of the township of Jiangzhou in Guangxi, about 30 km south of Fengshan.
In the name "Yuan-yang", the words yuan and yang stand for male and female Mandarin Ducks, respectively. In symbolic representations, Mandarin Ducks always appear as a male and female pair and are seen to represent fidelity; the Yuanyang Springs consist of two springs. Chemical analysis of their waters has shown; the springs are the same size. The surface pool is a rounded three-corner shape with a baseline of 21 meters and height of 30 meters. At certain times of the year, the water backflows; the term "Karst Fengcong" or karst peak cluster is a term created by Chinese scholars to classify karst by the hill or peak density. The term "Peak-cluster depression" describes the land form that combines peak-clusters and closed depressions, which are the two basic features of Fengcong; the beauty of Fengshan's sublime and precipitous valleys is created by towering, imposing peaks and low-lying depressions. Leng, Sidney. "Chinese official blames drunkeness for bribe-taking amid scandal over giant phoenix mural that led to his fall".
South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on November 30, 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Guangxi (. A province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of China's history; the current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in 226 AD. It was given provincial level status during the Yuan dynasty, but into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory; the abbreviation of the region is "桂", which comes from the name of the city of Guilin, the provincial capital during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The current capital is Nanning. "Guǎng" means "expanse" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. Guangxi and neighboring Guangdong mean "expanse west" and "expanse east". Together and Guangdong are called Loeng gwong. During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Xīlù and Guǎngnán Dōnglù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngxī Lù and Guǎngdōng Lù.
Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. In 214 BC, the Han Chinese general Zhao Tuo claimed most of southern China for Qin Shi Huang before the emperor's death; the ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establish a separate kingdom at Panyu known as Nanyue. Alternatively submissive to and independent of Han dynasty control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and sinicization under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" until its collapse in 111 BC during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty; the name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province of the Eastern Wu, who controlled southeastern China during the Three Kingdoms period. Guilin formed one of its commanderies. Under the Tang dynasty, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's kingdom of Nanzhao in Yunnan, which repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi was divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning.
After the collapse of the Southern Zhao, Liu Yan established the Southern Han in Xingwangfu. Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the Song dynasty in 971; the name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi Circuit. Harassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi in modern Vietnam, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people, his independent kingdom was short-lived and the tattooed Song general Di Qing returned Guangxi to China. The Yuan dynasty established control over Yunnan during its conquest of the Dali Kingdom in 1253 and eliminated the Southern Song following the Battle of Yamen in 1279. Rather than ruling Lingnan as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians established Guangxi as a proper province; the area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the Ming dynasty to employ the different local groups against one another.
At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the Yao in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported. During the Ming and Qing dynasty, parts of Guangxi were ruled by the powerful Cen clan; the Cen were recognized as tusi or local ruler by the Chinese emperors. The Qing dynasty left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed the Jintian Uprising in January 1851 and the Da Cheng Rebellion in April 1854; the execution of St. Auguste Chapdelaine by local officials in Guangxi provoked the Second Opium War in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although Louis Brière de l'Isle was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the Guangxi Army saw a great deal of action in the 1884 Sino-French War. Ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass on 23 March 1885. Following the Wuchang Uprising, Guangxi seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911.
The Qing governor, Shen Bingdan remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General Lu Rongting. General Lu's Old Guangxi clique overran Hunan and Guangdong as well and helped lead the National Protection War against Yuan Shikai's attempt to re-establish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with Sun Yat-sen led to defeat in the 1921 Guangdong -- Guangxi War. After a brief occupation by Chen Jiongming's Cantonese forces, Guangxi fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years until Li Zongren's Guangxi Pacification Army established the New Guangxi clique dominated by Li, Huang Shaohong, Bai Chongxi. Successful action in Hunan against Wu Peif