Jiangxi is a province in the Peoples Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. The name Jiangxi derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, the short name for Jiangxi is 赣, for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is alternately called Ganpo Dadi which literally means the Great Land of Gan, Jiangxi is centered on the Gan River valley, which historically provided the main north-south transport route of south China. The corridor along the Gan River is one of the few easily traveled routes through the otherwise mountainous, as a result, Jiangxi has been strategically important throughout much of Chinas history. Jiangxi was outside the sphere of influence of early Chinese civilization during the Shang dynasty and it is likely that peoples collectively known as the Baiyue inhabited the region. During the Spring and Autumn period, the part of modern Jiangxi formed the western frontier of the state of Wu.
After Wu was conquered by the state of Yue in 473 BC, Chu subjugated Yue in 333 BC. In 223 BC, when Qin conquered Chu, majority of Jiangxi area was recorded to be put under Jiujiang Commandary situated in Shouchun, however the commandary was ineffective and ended shortly when Qin falls. It was named after the Yuzhang River, the name of Gan River. Gan has become the abbreviation of the province, in 201, eight counties were added to the original seven of Qin, and three more were established in years. Throughout most of the Han dynasty the commanderys eighteen counties covered most of the province of Jiangxi. The county seats of Nanchang, Yudu, Luling among others were located at the sites of major cities. Other counties, have moved or abolished in centuries. Under the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty, Yuzhang Commandery was assigned to Yangzhou Province, in 291 AD, during the Western Jin dynasty, Jiangxi became its own Zhou called Jiangzhou. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Jiangxi was under the control of the dynasties.
During the Sui dynasty, there were seven commanderies and twenty-four counties in Jiangxi, during the Tang dynasty, another commandery and fourteen counties were added. Commanderies were abolished, becoming zhou, circuits were established during the Tang dynasty as a new top-level administrative division. At first Jiangxi was part of the Jiangnan Circuit, in 733, this circuit was divided into western and eastern halves
The Maijishan Grottoes, formerly romanized as Maichishan, are a series of 194 caves cut in the side of the hill of Majishan in Tianshui, Gansu Province, northwest China. This example of rock cut architecture contains over 7,200 Buddhist sculptures, construction began in the Later Qin era. They were first properly explored in 1952-53 by a team of Chinese archeologists from Beijing, caves #1-50 are on the western cliff face, caves #51-191 on the eastern cliff face. They were photographed by Michael Sullivan and Dominique Darbois, who published the primary English-language work on the caves noted in the footnotes below. The mountain is formed of red sandstone. They are just one of the string of Buddhist grottoes that can be found in area of northwest China, lying more or less on the main routes connecting China. The earliest artistic influence came, from the northwest, during the Sung and Ming Dynasties, as the caves were renovated and repaired, the influences came from central and eastern China and the sculpture is more distinctly Chinese.
Cave shrines in China probably served two purposes, before Buddhism came to China, they may have used as local shrines to worship ones ancestors or various nature deities. With the coming of Buddhism to China, influenced by the tradition of cave shrines from India and Central Asia. The Northern Liang were Xiongnu, Maijishan was most likely started during this wave of religious enthusiasm. Sometime between 420 and 422 CE, a monk by the name of Tanhung arrived at Maijishan, one of the legends is that he had previously been living in Changan but had fled to Maijishan when the city was invaded by the Sung army. Within a few years he was joined by another monk, Xuangao. Both are recorded in a book entitled Memoirs of Eminent Monks and he died in 444 during a period of Buddhist persecution. Tanhung left Maijishan during this period and travelled south, to somewhere in Cochin China, how the original community was organized or looked, we dont know. The Wei Dynasty was good to Maijishan and the grottoes existence close to the Wei capital city of Loyang, the earliest dated inscription is from 502, and records the excavation of what is now identified as Cave 115.
Other inscriptions record the continued expansion of the grottoes, as works were dedicated by those with the means to do so. These Wei caves are simple and most follow the pattern of a seated Buddha flanked by bodhisattvas and other attendants. The most common Buddha is Amitābha, the principal Buddha of the Pure Land sect, Amitābha enables all who call upon him to be reborn into his heaven, the Pure Land
It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Homo habilis initially,2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000 BP. The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic, the date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers, due to their nature, surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as paleoliths. About 50,000 years ago, there was a increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record, the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Humankind gradually evolved from members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures, by c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe, by c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia, the term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek, παλαιός, old, and λίθος, stone, human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of anatomically modern humans as a distinct species. The Paleolithic Period coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time and this epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africas collision with Asia created the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean, climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation probably began before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas
Seven-Star Cave is an extensive limestone cave complex in Seven-Star Park, both of which are popular tourist attractions in the city of Guilin in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The park and caves name derive from the fact the main karst limestone peaks roughly resemble the stars of the Big Dipper constellation, the earliest exploration of Seven-Star Cave dates back to the Tang Dynasty, about 1,300 years ago. The cave has a temperature of about 20 Celsius. The maximum ceiling height inside is 27 metres, and the width is 49 metres. A concrete and stone tour path of approximately 1,000 metres runs through the cave between its entrance and exit points, artificial lighting for walkways and displays is staged throughout, including colored accents, and various formations have names such as A Natural Fresco and The Chessboard. During the Japanese invasion of China in World War II, Guilin residents took refuge in the cave complex, the tour cannot easily be walked independently of groups, since the lights inside the cave are closed behind the groups as they walk away.
Signs are posted in both Chinese and English and takes typically 30–60 minutes, like most parks in Guilin, the cave complex maintains an entrance fee, costing 30 RMB beyond the basic park entrance fee of 75 RMB. Seven Stars Park How caves are formed at Guilin
A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. In arid areas, wind erosion can be an important factor in rockhouse formation, erosion from moving water is seldom a significant factor. Many rock shelters are found under waterfalls, Rock shelter formation types Rock shelters are often important archaeologically. Because rock shelters form natural shelters from the weather, prehistoric humans often used them as living-places, and left behind debris, tools, in mountainous areas the shelters can be important for mountaineers. In western Connecticut and eastern New York, many shelters are known by the colloquialism leatherman caves. Sandstone can be used as shingles for roof tops when possible, the Cumberland stitchwort is an endangered species of plant which is found only in rock shelters in Kentucky and Tennessee. Gatecliff Rockshelter Kinlock Shelter Mesa Verde Overhang Roc-aux-Sorciers Shelter Rock Walnut Canyon
Taiji Cave is a karst cave located on Shilong Mountain in Guangde County, Xuancheng City, Anhui Province, Peoples Republic of China, where the provinces of Jiangsu and Anhui meet. Ming Dynasty writer and poet Feng Menglong described the cave as one of the Four Absolutes Under Heaven and it is considered a primary Place of Enlightenment by Taoists, similar to the Bodhimanda of Buddhism. The 200-million-year-old cave is divided into dry and wet layers representing the yin, in February 2004, the Chinese State Council included the cave on its fifth list of National Scenic Attractions. It is a 4A rated National Tourism Area, at 5.4 kilometres in length and covering a surface area of 140,000 square metres, Taiji Cave is the largest natural limestone cave in East China. The caves first chamber extends to 1,600 square metres and has a height of 5 to 10 metres, to date nineteen separate chambers have been opened to visitors. There are more than 160 features inside the cave, including the Ten Large Landscapes, by boat it is possible to explore the water-filled level of the cave where there are many unusual rock formations.
These interior features of the cave are largely based on their resemblance to other objects, some are individual rock formations, whilst others are groups. Outside the cave lies the Inkstone Lake, said to be the location where Song Dynasty politician and writer Fan Zhongyan washed his inkstone
Reed Flute Cave
The Reed Flute Cave is a landmark and tourist attraction in Guilin, China. It is a limestone cave with multicolored lighting and has been one of Guilin’s most interesting attractions for over 1200 years. It is over 180 million years old, the cave got its name from the type of reed growing outside, which can be made into flutes. Reed Flute Cave is filled with a number of stalactites, stalagmites. Inside, there are more than 70 inscriptions written in ink and these aged inscriptions tell us that it has been an attraction in Guilin since ancient times. It was rediscovered in the 1940s by a group of fleeing the Japanese troops. Nowadays, multicolored lighting artificially illuminates the cave
The Kizil Caves are a set of Buddhist rock-cut caves located near Kizil Township in Baicheng County, China. The site is located on the bank of the Muzat River 65 kilometres west of Kucha. This area was a hub of the Silk Road. The caves are said to be the earliest major Buddhist cave complex in China, the Kizil Caves complex is the largest of the ancient Buddhist cave sites that are associated with the ancient Tocharian kingdom of Kucha, as well as the largest in Xinjiang. Other cave sites in the Kucha region include the Kumtura Caves, there are 236 cave temples in Kizil, carved into the cliff stretching from east to west for a length of 2 km. Of these,135 are still relatively intact, the earliest caves are dated, based in part on radioactive carbon dating, to around the year 300. Most researchers believe that the caves were abandoned sometime around the beginning of the 8th century. Documents written in Tocharian languages were found in Kizil, and a few of the caves contain Tocharian inscriptions which give the names of a few rulers.
Many of the caves have a central pillar design whereby pilgrims may circumambulate around a column which is a representation of the stupa. A large vaulted chamber is located in front of the column, in the front chamber, a three-dimensional image of Buddha would have been housed in a large niche serving as the focus of the interior, none of these sculptures have survived at Kizil. The rear chamber may feature the scene in the form of a mural or large sculpture, and in some cases. There are three types of caves, square caves, caves with large image, and monastic cells. Around two-thirds of the caves are viharas which are living quarters and store-houses. In 1906, the German expedition team of Albert von Le Coq, while Grünwedel was primarily interested in copying the murals, von le Coq chose to remove many of the murals. Most of the fragments removed are now in Museum of Asian Art in Dahlem, other explorers removed some fragments of murals and may now be found in museums in Russia, Japan and United States.
According to a found in Kucha, the paintings in some of the caves were commissioned by a Tokharian king called Mendre with the advice of Anandavarman. The king ordered an Indian artist, and a Syrian artist, the neighbouring Khotanese kings Vijayavardhana and Murlimin assisted with the painting of another cave by sending artists to the site. A notable feature of the murals in Kizil is the use of blue pigments
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a part of the worlds human population. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, the emperor of China. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates from a single domestication 8, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River valley region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia, Rice was introduced to Europe through Western Asia, and to the Americas through European colonization. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally, in some areas such as the Far East or Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial.
The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and it has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long, the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade, the traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. The name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia. The Greek word is the source of all European words, the origin of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word அரிசி, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, and proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead.
The varieties of rice are typically classified as long-, medium-, the grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking, medium-grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for dishes, for risotto in Italy