Belarus the Republic of Belarus known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested, its major economic sectors are manufacturing. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian People's Republic, conquered by Soviet Russia; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921.
Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939, when some lands of the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into it after the Soviet invasion of Poland, were finalized after World War II. During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources; the republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR; the parliament of the republic proclaimed the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the country's first president since 1994. Belarus has been labeled "Europe's last dictatorship" by some Western journalists, on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of government. Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy.
Elections under Lukashenko's rule have been criticized as unfair. Belarus is the last country in Europe using the death penalty. Belarus's Democracy Index rating is the lowest in Europe, the country is labelled as "not free" by Freedom House, as "repressed" in the Index of Economic Freedom, is rated as by far the worst country for press freedom in Europe in the 2013–14 Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Belarus 157th out of 180 nations. In 2000, Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation. Over 70% of Belarus's population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Russian; the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The second-most widespread religion, Roman Catholicism, has a much smaller following.
Belarus is a member of the United Nations since its founding, the Commonwealth of Independent States, CSTO, EEU, the Non-Aligned Movement. Belarus has shown no aspirations for joining the European Union but maintains a bilateral relationship with the organisation, participates in two EU projects: the Eastern Partnership and the Baku Initiative; the name Belarus is related with the term Belaya Rus', i.e. White Rus'. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus'. An ethno-religious theory suggests that the name used to describe the part of old Ruthenian lands within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, populated by Slavs, Christianized early, as opposed to Black Ruthenia, predominantly inhabited by pagan Balts. An alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population. A third theory suggests that the old Rus' lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as "White Rus'"; the name Rus is conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, thus Belarus is referred to as White Russia or White Ruthenia.
The name first appeared in Latin medieval literature. In some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is called "White Russia" to this day; the Latin term "Alba Russia" was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming "Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo." The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the late-16th century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey, known for his close contacts with the Russian Royal Court. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used "White Rus" to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the term Belorussia first rose in the days of the Russian Empire, the Russian Tsar was styled "the Tsar of All the Russias"
A magnetometer or magnetic sensor is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location. A compass is a simple type of magnetometer, one that measures the direction of an ambient magnetic field; the first magnetometer capable of measuring the absolute magnetic intensity was invented by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1833 and notable developments in the 19th century included the Hall effect, still used. Magnetometers are used for measuring the Earth's magnetic field and in geophysical surveys to detect magnetic anomalies of various types, they are used in the military to detect submarines. Some countries, such as the United States and Australia, classify the more sensitive magnetometers as military technology, control their distribution. Magnetometers can be used as metal detectors: they can detect only magnetic metals, but can detect such metals at a much larger depth than conventional metal detectors.
In recent years, magnetometers have been miniaturized to the extent that they can be incorporated in integrated circuits at low cost and are finding increasing use as miniaturized compasses. Magnetic fields are vector quantities characterized by both direction; the strength of a magnetic field is measured in units of tesla in the SI units, in gauss in the cgs system of units. 10,000 gauss are equal to one tesla. Measurements of the Earth's magnetic field are quoted in units of nanotesla called a gamma; the Earth's magnetic field can vary from 20,000 to 80,000 nT depending on location, fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field are on the order of 100 nT, magnetic field variations due to magnetic anomalies can be in the picotesla range. Gaussmeters and teslameters are magnetometers that measure in units of gauss or tesla, respectively. In some contexts, magnetometer is the term used for an instrument that measures fields of less than 1 millitesla and gaussmeter is used for those measuring greater than 1 mT.
There are two basic types of magnetometer measurement. Vector magnetometers measure the vector components of a magnetic field. Total field magnetometers or scalar magnetometers measure the magnitude of the vector magnetic field. Magnetometers used to study the Earth's magnetic field may express the vector components of the field in terms of declination and the inclination. Absolute magnetometers measure the absolute magnitude or vector magnetic field, using an internal calibration or known physical constants of the magnetic sensor. Relative magnetometers measure magnitude or vector magnetic field relative to a fixed but uncalibrated baseline. Called variometers, relative magnetometers are used to measure variations in magnetic field. Magnetometers may be classified by their situation or intended use. Stationary magnetometers are installed to a fixed position and measurements are taken while the magnetometer is stationary. Portable or mobile magnetometers are meant to be used while in motion and may be manually carried or transported in a moving vehicle.
Laboratory magnetometers are used to measure the magnetic field of materials placed within them and are stationary. Survey magnetometers are used to measure magnetic fields in geomagnetic surveys; the performance and capabilities of magnetometers are described through their technical specifications. Major specifications include; the inverse is the cycle time in seconds per reading. Sample rate is important in mobile magnetometers. Bandwidth or bandpass characterizes. For magnetometers with no onboard signal processing, bandwidth is determined by the Nyquist limit set by sample rate. Modern magnetometers may perform averaging over sequential samples. Achieving a lower noise in exchange for lower bandwidth. Resolution is the smallest change in a magnetic field. A magnetometer should have a resolution a good deal smaller than the smallest change one wishes to observe. Quantization error is caused by recording roundoff and truncation of digital expressions of the data. Absolute error is the difference between the readings of a magnetometer true magnetic field.
Drift is the change in absolute error over time. Thermal stability is the dependence of the measurement on temperature, it is given as a temperature coefficient in units of nT per degree Celsius. Noise is the random fluctuations generated by electronics. Noise is given in units of n T / H z. Sensitivity is the larger of the resolution. Heading error is the change in the measurement due to a change in orientation of the instrument in a constant magnetic field; the dead zone is the angular region of magnetometer orientation in which the instrument produces poor or no measurements. All optically pumped, proton-free precession, Overhauser magnetometers experience some dead zone effects. Gradient tolerance is the ability of a ma
Mobile operating system
A mobile operating system is an operating system for phones, smartwatches, or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are'mobile', the operating systems used on them are not considered mobile ones, as they were designed for desktop computers that did not have or need specific mobile features; this distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses. Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 86.2 percent running Android and 12.9 percent running iOS. Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Windows, in general smartphone use outnumber desktop use. Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities contain two mobile operating systems – the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware.
Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device. Mobile operating systems have majority use since 2017, thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority used kind of OS. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority applies on some days in regions such as United States and United Kingdom. 9294029091 Mobile operating system milestones mirror the development of mobile phones and smartphones: 1973–1993 – Mobile phones use embedded systems to control operation. 1993 – Apple launch Newton OS running on their Newton series of portable computers. 1994 – The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, has a touchscreen, PDA features. 1996 – Palm Pilot 1000 personal digital assistant is introduced with the Palm OS mobile operating system. 1998 – Symbian Ltd. has developed Symbian OS. Symbian was used by many major mobile phone brands, above all by Nokia.
1999 – Nokia S40 Platform is introduced along with the Nokia 7110. 2000 – Symbian becomes the first modern mobile OS on a smartphone with the launch of the Ericsson R380. 2001 – The Kyocera 6035 is the first smartphone with Palm OS. 2002 Microsoft's first Windows CE smartphones are introduced. BlackBerry releases its first smartphone. 2005 – Nokia introduces Maemo OS on the first Internet tablet N770. 2007 Apple iPhone with iOS is introduced as an iPod, "mobile phone" and "Internet communicator". Open Handset Alliance formed by Google, HTC, Dell, Motorola, Samsung, LG, etc. 2008 – OHA releases Android 1.0 with the HTC Dream as the first Android phone. 2009 Palm introduces webOS with the Palm Pre. By 2012, webOS devices were discontinued. Samsung announces the Bada OS with the introduction of the Samsung S8500. November – Windows Phone OS phones are released but are not compatible with the prior Windows Mobile OS. July – MeeGo, a mobile Linux distribution, combining Maemo and Moblin, is introduced with the Nokia N9, a collaboration of Nokia and Linux Foundation.
September Apple releases iOS 9. Google releases Android 6.0 "Marshmallow". October – On October 26, BlackBerry announced that there are no plans to release new APIs and software development kits for BlackBerry 10, future updates would focus on security and privacy enhancements only. November – Microsoft releases Windows 10 Mobile. February – Microsoft released Windows 10 Mobile Anniversary Update. June – Apple announced iOS 10. August – Google posted the Fuchsia source code on GitHub. August – Google released Android 7.0 "Nougat". September – Apple released iOS 10. November – Tizen released Tizen 3.0. November – BlackBerry released BlackBerry 10.3.3. April – Samsung offic
4K resolution called 4K, refers to a horizontal display resolution of 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160; the 4K television market share increased as prices fell during 2014 and 2015. By 2020, more than half of U. S. households are expected to have 4K-capable TVs, a much faster adoption rate than that of Full HD. The term "4K" is generic and refers to any resolution with a horizontal pixel count of 4,000. Several different 4K resolutions have been standardized by various organizations. In 2005, Digital Cinema Initiatives, a prominent standards organization in the cinema industry, published the Digital Cinema System Specification; this specification establishes standardized 2K and 4K container formats for digital cinema production, with resolutions of 2048 × 1080 and 4096 × 2160 respectively. The resolution of the video content inside follows the SMPTE 428-1 standard, which establishes the following resolutions for a 4K distribution: 4096 × 2160 3996 × 2160 4096 × 1716 2K distributions can have a frame rate of either 24 or 48 FPS, while 4K distributions must have a frame rate of 24 FPS.
Some articles claim that the terms "2K" and "4K" were coined by DCI and refer to the 2K and 4K formats defined in the DCI standard. However, usage of these terms in the cinema industry predates the publication of the DCI standard, they are understood as casual terms for any resolution 2000 or 4000 pixels in width, rather than names for specific resolutions. In 2007, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers published SMPTE ST 2036-1, which defines parameters for two UHDTV systems called UHDTV1 and UHDTV2; the standard defines the following characteristics for these systems: A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or 7680 × 4320 Square pixels, for an overall image aspect ratio of 16∶9 A framerate of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94, 60, 100, 119.88, or 120 Hz with progressive scan RGB, Y′CBCR 4:4:4, 4:2:2, or 4:2:0 pixel encoding 10 bpc or 12 bpc color depth Colorimetry characteristics as defined in the standard, including color primaries, quantization parameters, the electro-optical transfer function.
These are the same characteristics standardized in ITU-R BT.2020. UHDTV1 systems are permitted to use BT.709 color primaries up to 60 Hz. In 2012, the International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector published Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020 known as the Ultra High Definition Television standard. This standard adopts the same image parameters defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1. Although the UHDTV standard does not define any official names for the formats it defines, ITU uses the terms "4K", "4K UHD", or "4K UHDTV" to refer to the 3840 × 2160 system in public announcements and press releases. In some of ITU's other standards documents, the terms "UHDTV1" and "UHDTV2" are used as shorthand. In October 2012, the Consumer Electronics Association announced their definition of the term Ultra High-Definition for use with marketing consumer display devices. CEA defines an Ultra HD product as a TV, monitor, or projector with the following characteristics: A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or larger An aspect ratio of 1.77∶1 or wider Support for color depth of 8 bpc or higher At least one HDMI input capable of supporting 3840 × 2160 at 24, 30, 60 Hz progressive scan, HDCP 2.2 Capable of processing images according to the color space defined in ITU-R BT.709 Capable of upscaling HD content The CEA definition does allow manufacturers to use other terms—such as 4K—alongside the Ultra HD logo.
Since the resolution in CEA's definition is only a minimum requirement, displays with higher resolutions such as 4096 × 2160 or 5120 × 2880 qualify as "Ultra HD" displays, provided they meet the other requirements. Some 4K resolutions, like 3840 × 2160, are casually referred to as 2160p; this name follows from the previous naming convention used by HDTV and SDTV formats, which refer to a format by the number of pixels/lines along the vertical axis rather than the horizontal pixel count. The term "2160p" could be applied to any format with a height of 2160 pixels, but it is most used in reference to the 4K UHDTV resolution of 3840 × 2160 due to its association with the well-known 720p and 1080p HDTV formats. Although 3840 × 2160 is both a 4K resolution and a 2160p resolution, these terms cannot always be used interchangeably since not all 4K resolutions are 2160 pixels tall, not all 2160p resolutions are ≈4000 pixels wide. However, some companies have begun using the term "4K" to describe devices with support for a 2160p resolution if it is not close to 4000 pixels wide.
For example, many "4K" dash cams only support a resolution of 2880 × 2160. Samsung released a 5120 × 2160 TV, but marketed it as a "4K" TV despite its 5K-class resolution. YouTube and the television industry have adopted 3840 × 2160 as their 4K standard; as of 2014, 4K content from major broadcasters remains limited. On April 11, 2013, Bulb TV created by Canadian serial entrepreneur Evan Kosiner became the first broadcaster to provide a 4K linear channel an
Wi-Fi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that complete after many years of testing the 802.11 committee interoperability certification testing. Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include, among others and laptops, video game consoles and tablets, smart TVs, digital audio players, digital cameras and drones. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a wireless access point; such an access point has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points. Different versions of Wi-Fi exist, with radio bands and speeds. Wi-Fi most uses the 2.4 gigahertz UHF and 5 gigahertz SHF ISM radio bands. Each channel can be time-shared by multiple networks.
These wavelengths work best for line-of-sight. Many common materials absorb or reflect them, which further restricts range, but can tend to help minimise interference between different networks in crowded environments. At close range, some versions of Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware, can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbit/s. Anyone within range with a wireless network interface controller can attempt to access a network. Wi-Fi Protected Access is a family of technologies created to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for personal and enterprise networks. Security features of WPA have included stronger protections and new security practices as the security landscape has changed over time. In 1971, ALOHAnet connected the Hawaiian Islands with a UHF wireless packet network. ALOHAnet and the ALOHA protocol were early forerunners to Ethernet, the IEEE 802.11 protocols, respectively. A 1985 ruling by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use.
These frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference. In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems, under the name WaveLAN. The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle". Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal; the first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, this proved to be popular. In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold.
Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $1 billion for infringements on CSIRO patents; this led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention, though this has been the subject of some controversy. CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012 with global firms in the United States required to pay the CSIRO licensing rights estimated to be worth an additional $1 billion in royalties. In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia; the name Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999, was coined by the brand-consulting firm Interbrand. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired Interbrand to create a name, "a little catchier than'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'." Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", has stated that Interbrand invented Wi-Fi as a pun on the word hi-fi, a term for high-quality audio technology.
Interbrand created the Wi-Fi logo. The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interoperability; the Wi-Fi Alliance used the advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created. While inspired by the term hi-fi, the name was never "Wireless Fidelity"; the Wi-Fi Alliance was called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publications. Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mobile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G, LTE; the name is sometimes written as WiFi, Wifi, or wifi, but these are not approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance. IEEE is a separate, but related organization and their website has stated "WiFi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity". To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller; the combination of computer and interface controllers is called a station.
A service set is the set of all the devices associated with a particular Wi-Fi network. The service set can be local, extended or mesh; each service set has an associated identifier, the 32-byte Service Set Identifier, which identifies the partic
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit