A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
Carotenoids called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi. Carotenoids give the characteristic color to carrots, corn and daffodils, as well as egg yolks, rutabagas and bananas. Carotenoids can be produced from fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms; the only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or it is produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. Carotenoids from the diet are stored in the fatty tissues of animals, carnivorous animals obtain the compounds from animal fat. There are over 1100 known carotenoids. All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms. In general, carotenoids absorb wavelengths ranging from 400–550 nanometers; this causes the compounds to be colored yellow, orange, or red. Carotenoids are the dominant pigment in autumn leaf coloration of about 15-30% of tree species, but many plant colors reds and purples, are due to other classes of chemicals.
Carotenoids serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis, they protect chlorophyll from photodamage. Carotenoids that contain unsubstituted beta-ionone rings have vitamin A activity, these and other carotenoids can act as antioxidants. In the eye, meso-zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin are present as macular pigments whose importance in visual function remains under clinical research in 2017; the basic building blocks of carotenoids are isopentenyl dimethylallyl diphosphate. These two isoprene isomers are used to create various compounds depending on the biological pathway used to synthesis the isomers. Plants are known to use two different pathways for IPP production: the cytosolic mevalonic acid pathway and the plastidic methylerythritol 4-phosphate. In animals, the production of cholesterol starts by creating IPP and DMAPP using the MVA. For carotenoid production plants use MEP to generate IPP and DMAPP; the MEP pathway results in a 5:1 mixture of IPP:DMAPP.
IPP and DMAPP undergo several reactions, resulting in the major carotenoid precursor, geranylgeranyl diphosphate. GGPP can be converted into carotenes or xanthophylls by undergoing a number of different steps within the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate, intermediates of photosynthesis, are converted to deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate using the catalyst DXP synthase. DXP reductoisomerase reduces and rearranges the molecules within DXP in the presence of NADPH, forming MEP. Next, MEP is converted to 4--2-C-methyl-D-erythritol in the presence of CTP via the enzyme MEP cytidylyltransferase. CDP-ME is converted, in the presence of ATP, to 2-phospho-4--2-C-methyl-D-erythritol; the conversion to CDP-ME2P is catalyzed by the enzyme CDP-ME kinase. Next, CDP-ME2P is converted to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate; this reaction occurs when MECDP synthase catalyzes the reaction and CMP is eliminated from the CDP-ME2P molecule. MECDP is converted to -4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate via HMBDP synthase in the presence of flavodoxin and NADPH.
HMBDP is reduced to NADPH by the enzyme HMBDP reductase. The last two steps involving HMBPD synthase and reductase can only occur in anaerobic environments. IPP is able to isomerize to DMAPP via IPP isomerase. Two GGPP molecules condense via phytoene synthase; the subsequent conversion into all-trans-lycopene depends on the organism. Bacteria and fungi employ the bacterial phytoene desaturase for the catalysis. Plants and cyanobacteria however utilize four enzymes for this process; the first of these enzymes is a plant-type phytoene desaturase which introduces two additional double bonds into 15-cis-phytoene by dehydrogenation and isomerizes two of its existing double bonds from trans to cis producing 9,15,9’-tri-cis-ζ-carotene. The central double bond of this tri-cis-ζ-carotene is isomerized by the zeta-carotene isomerase Z-ISO and the resulting 9,9'-di-cis-ζ-carotene is dehydrogenated again via a ζ-carotene desaturase; this again introduces two double bonds. CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase, is needed to convert the cis-lycopene into an all-trans lycopene in the presence of reduced FAD.
This all-trans lycopene is cyclized. There can be either a beta ring or an epsilon ring, each generated by a different enzyme. Alpha-carotene is produced when the all-trans lycopene first undergoes reaction with epsilon-LCY a second reaction with beta-LCY. Alpha- and beta-carotene are the most common carotenoids in the plant photosystems but they can still be further converted into xanthophylls by using beta-hydrolase and epsilon-hydrolase, leading to a variety of xanthophylls, it is believed that both DXS and DXR are rate-determining enzymes, allowing them to regulate carotenoid levels. This was discovered in an experiment where DXS and DXR were genetic
Shanxi merchants known as Jin merchants, refer to the group of merchants from Shanxi province, China. Jin is an abbreviated name of Shanxi. Though the history of noticeable Shanxi merchants can be dated back to as early as the Spring and Autumn Period, more than 2000 years ago, Shanxi merchants became prominent during the Ming and Qing dynasties, their dominant influence in Chinese commerce, within the nation and with neighboring Mongolia and Japan, lasted for more than 500 years. Shanxi merchants were among the earliest Chinese businessmen and their history could be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period. Southern Shanxi first came into commercial prominence due to its proximity to the political and cultural centers of ancient China. However, it was not until the Ming and Qing dynasties, that Shanxi merchants stood out among other Chinese merchant groups, built a strong and long-lasting commercial network and accumulated enormous wealth. At the beginning of Ming dynasty, the newly established government was in constant fight with the remnant of the expelled Mongolian armies, along the northern border.
In order to reduce the cost of logistics to transport food and other essential supplies to the military, the Ming government decided to grant salt sales license to those who deliver supplies for the frontier soldiers. The salt trade, as a high margin trade of essential goods, had been monopolized by the government to ensure enough tax, the distribution of salt sales licenses served as one of the main profit sources for the early Shanxi merchants. Shanxi is located in North China close to the Ming-Northern Yuan border, Yuncheng city in southern Shanxi has a large natural salt production lake, therefore the geographical proximity was conveniently exploited by these merchants. In Qing dynasty, merchants from central Shanxi basin, including Yuci, Taigu, etc pioneered the first private financial system, so-called draft banks or Piaohao and beyond China. By the end of the nineteenth century, thirty-two piaohao with 475 branches were in business covering most of China, the central Shanxi region became the de facto financial centres of Qing China.
During the Republic of China period, the Qing Shanxi merchants based on conventional draft banks and tea trade had fallen. The prominent example of Shanxi merchants during this time is H. H. Kung, influential in determining the economic policies of the Kuomintang-led Nationalist government. Shanxi merchants were active for more than five hundred years from early Ming dynasty, creating centuries-old prosperity, leaving significant business and culture legacies. Among the diverse businesses scope that Shanxi merchants had worked on, there are two main trades, one is the draft bank system, or Piaohao, serving as the main financial institutions, the other is the tea trade to Mongolia and Russia, in exchange of fur and European goods. All piaohao were organised as single proprietaries or partnerships, where the owners carried unlimited liability, they concentrated on interprovincial remittances, on conducting government services. From the time of the Taiping Rebellion, when transportation routes between the capital and the provinces were cut off, piaohao began involvement with the delivery of government tax revenue.
Piaohao grew by taking on a role in advancing funds and arranging foreign loans for provincial governments, issuing notes, running regional treasuries. To run a nationwide financial system, credibility was of paramount importance for the draft banks. There were numerous stories that Shanxi draft banks honored their bank notes after generations or major disasters. An honorary system to the highest degree was a main legacy of the Shanxi merchants, they employed joint ventures among families living in the same villages or towns, yet they avoided using direct relative in the business management, direct relative could only be owners together but not managers. This way they minimized the interference of personal bias based on kinship with professional business management, they were the first to separate the ownership and management of businesses, crucial for professional business development, such as draft bank financial systems. The professionalism of Shanxi Merchants was well-known, their professionalism was characterized by focus.
The families of Shanxi Merchants were different from wealthy families, who gained wealth through political privilege with key family members as bureaucrats in the court. A lot of Shanxi merchants tended to run businesses without ambition in politics. Although some of them did seek higher social status by joining the Chinese bureaucratic system, combined the business network and wealth with political power. China Central Television created an eight-part documentary about them in 2006; the enormous wealth accumulated from the international trade and the financial institutions had enabled the Shanxi merchants to build luxurious family residence. The houses and gardens built by them are culture and architecture heritages now, most of these buildings are scattered throughout the central Shanxi basin; the notable architecture complexes are: Wang Family Compound in Lingshi, the largest of the Shanxi Courtyard Houses. Qiao Family Compound in Qi County Qu Family Compound in Qi County Chang Family Compound in Yuci Cao Family Compound in Taigu The Kung Family Residence in Taigu, where the family of H. H. Kung used to live.
The Meng Family Courtyard in Taigu this private family compound was transformed to the Ming Hsien school, further incorporated as part of Shanxi Agricultural University. Sh
Bianjing Drum Tower
The Bianjing Drum Tower known as the Bianjing Pavilion and by its Chinese name as the Bianjing Lou, is a drum tower in Shangguan, the seat of Dai County, Xinzhou Prefecture, Shanxi, in the People's Republic of China. It is 39.3 meters high. Yanmen Pass was an important defensive choke point for medieval China; the nearest major town to its south was the seat of what is now Dai County known variously as Guangwu and Daizhou. The tower was constructed in Hongwu 7, for the purpose of military observation and signaling by means of drums; that original structure was destroyed by a fire in Chenghua 7. The present tower was built on the site of the first in Chenghua 12, it was further restored 4 times under the Qing, as well as in 1957, 1976, 1986 under the People's Republic. The more recent renovations dealt with water damage on the first floor; the Bianjing Drum Tower was named a Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage in 2001.
The present drum tower is 39.3 meters high. The stone base is about 40 meters long, 33 meters wide, 13 meters high; the wooden tower faces south. The traditional Chinese units of measurement are 5 in width, its two large placards read "First Tower of Yanmen" and "Audible in All Directions". The tower holds a local museum. One artifact is a 1.9-meter -tall stone lantern, carved into the shape of Mount Wutai in Dongzhang c. 720. Yanmen Pass Inner Great Wall & Ming Great Wall List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Shanxi "Yanmenguan Pass", Official site, China Unique Tour, 2016, Archived from the original on 2016-08-18CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown. Allen, Edward, "Border Politics in Ming Datong", Datong: A Historical Guide, Beijing: China Atomic Energy Press, pp. 251–324. Hua Chenlong. "Designs for the Restoration of Bianjing-lou", China Archaeology & Art Digest, Vol. 4, No. 1. Li Yuming. An Overview of Shanxi's Shanxi People's Publishing. & Lin Wei-cheng, Building a Sacred Mountain: The Buddhist Architecture of China's Mount Wutai, Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Datong: A Historical Guide, China through the Looking Glass, Beijing: China Atomic Energy Press, 2014. 《边靖楼》 at Baidu Baike 《边靖楼》 at Baike.com
Dazhai is a village and former commune of several hundred farmers in Xiyang County in eastern Shanxi province, chiefly known for Mao Zedong's directive, "Learn from Dazhai in agriculture", which set up Dazhai as the model for agricultural production throughout China during the 1960s and 1970s, amid the Cultural Revolution. Numerous newspaper and magazine stories and books as well as films were published nationwide about how hard and diligently the villagers of Dazhai had worked to build the village into one with not only well-managed fields and bountiful crops, but engineering marvels such as amazing reservoirs and grandiose aqueducts crossing deep valleys for irrigation. Under the leadership of Chen Yonggui, the villagers endeavored to tame the nature by turning the mountainous ridges and hills into productive fields and enhancing productivity in such an unfriendly environment. Miraculously, Dazhai indeed became a model for Chinese farmers to contribute grain to the state, they worked on their own on the principle of self-reliance, without any financial and technical support from the government.
A number of songs about Dazhai were popular for a while, the best-known being Dazhai Yakexi, about a Uyghur farmer telling how happy he was after he visited Dazhai. The song was adapted to a dance in which a Uyghur male sang while six ladies accompanied him with dances in the Uyghur traditional style. Both the singer and the dancers were in clothing typical of the Uyghur nationality, which the Han Chinese people found aesthetically appealing. Learn from Daqing in industry Mao Zedong Thought Potemkin village shanzhai China-dazhai.com - a comprehensive website about Dazhai Zhao, "Socio-spatial transformation in Mao's China: settlement planning and dwelling architecture revisited", Chapter 5: Dazhai, a rural settlement, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 2007 Posters of Chen Yonggui Soils and Sustainability: Tales from the Loess Plateau The Dazhai Spirit gets religion
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts and other dissolved minerals higher than most lakes. In some cases, salt lakes have a higher concentration of salt than sea water. An alkalic salt lake that has a high content of carbonate is sometimes termed a soda lake. Saline lake classification: subsaline 0.5–3 ‰ hyposaline 3–20 ‰ mesosaline 20–50 ‰ hypersaline greater than 50 ‰ Salt lakes form when the water flowing into the lake, containing salt or minerals, cannot leave because the lake is endorheic. The water evaporates, leaving behind any dissolved salts and thus increasing its salinity, making a salt lake an excellent place for salt production. High salinity will lead to a unique halophilic flora and fauna in the lake in question. If the amount of water flowing into a lake is less than the amount evaporated, the lake will disappear and leave a dry lake. Brine lakes consist of water that has reached salt saturation or near saturation, may be saturated with other materials.
Most brine lakes develop as a result of high evaporation rates in an arid climate with a lack of an outlet to the ocean. The high salt content in these bodies of water may come from minerals deposited from the surrounding land. Another source for the salt may be that the body of water was connected to the ocean. While the water evaporates from the lake, the salt remains; the body of water will become brine. Because of the density of brine, swimmers are more buoyant in brine than in fresh or ordinary salt water. Examples of such brine lakes are the Great Salt Lake. Bodies of brine may form on the ocean floor at cold seeps; these are sometimes called brine lakes, but are more referred to as brine pools. It is possible to observe waves on the surface of these bodies. Man-made bodies of brine are created for edible salt production; these can be referred to as brine ponds. Aral Sea Bakhtegan Lake Caspian Sea Dead Sea Don Juan Pond Great Salt Lake Laguna Verde Lake Assal Lake Bumbunga Lake Elton Lake Eyre Lake Gairdner Lake Hillier Lake Mackay Lake Natron Lake Paliastomi Lake Texoma Lake Torrens Lake Urmia Lake Van Lake Vanda Little Manitou Lake Lough Hyne Maharloo Lake Mono Lake Namtso Salton Sea Sambhar Salt Lake Sawa Lake Sutton Salt Lake List of bodies of water by salinity Media related to Salt lakes at Wikimedia Commons
Pagoda of Fogong Temple
The Sakyamuni Pagoda of Fogong Temple of Ying County, Shanxi province, China, is a wooden Chinese pagoda built in 1056, during the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty. The pagoda was built by Emperor Daozong of Liao at the site of his grandmother's family home; the pagoda, which has survived several large earthquakes throughout the centuries, reached a level of such fame within China that it was given the generic nickname of the "Muta". The pagoda stands on a 4 m tall stone platform, has a 10 m tall steeple, reaches a total height of 67.31 m tall. Although it is the oldest wooden pagoda in China, the oldest existent densely-eaved pagoda is the 6th century Songyue Pagoda and many much older stone pagodas exists in the entire North China Plain; the Pagoda of Fogong Temple was built 85 km south of the Liao Dynasty capital at Datong. The Gujin Tushu Jicheng encyclopedia published in 1725—written during the reigns of Kangxi and Yongzheng in the Qing—states that a different pagoda built between the years 936–943 stood at the site before the present one of 1056 was built.
The same statement appears in the Yingzhou xuzhi. The Yingzhou zhi —edited by Tian Hui during the reign of the Wanli Emperor of the Ming Dynasty—states that the pagoda was funded and erected in 1056 by a Buddhist monk named Tian. In compiling a record for Ying County, Tian Hui of the late Ming Dynasty researched the history of the pagoda and recorded the history of its repairs in his Zhongxiu Fogongsi ta zhi; the placard on the third story of the pagoda listed that periodic repairs were conducted in the years 1195 and 1471. While piecing together the history of the pagoda, Tian Hui never came across any information to suggest that the pagoda had a predecessor built from 936 to 943, as other texts suggest. In confirming the date of 1056 and not the years 936–943, Zhang Yuhuan writes in his Zhongguo gudai jianzhu jishu shi that the Wenwu Laboratory determined various wooden components from the second to fifth floors of the pagoda to be 930 to 980 years old. Other evidence to suggest the date includes the fact that the foster mother of Emperor Xingzong was a native of Yingzhou.
Xingzong's son Hongji was raised in Ying County due to his following of the Khitan custom of raising Yelu clan sons within the families of their mothers. Hongji was known as a devout Buddhist. Steinhardt writes "only something like the memory of an imperial youth might account for the construction of such a phenomenal building in such an out-of-the way place." The 1050s was a decade which marked the end of a Buddhist kalpa, which would signify the Pagoda of Fogong Temple as an "ultimate death shrine to the Buddha of the age," according to historian Nancy Steinhardt. This occurred at the same time in which Fujiwara no Yorimichi of Japan converted the Phoenix Hall of his father Fujiwara no Michinaga's residence at Byōdō-in into a temple meant to guide souls into the Buddhist afterlife; the pagoda was placed at the center of the temple grounds, which used to be called Baogong Temple until its name was changed to Fogong in 1315 during the Yuan Dynasty. Although the size of the temple grounds were described as being gigantic during the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, the temple began to decline during the Ming Dynasty.
The Yingzhou zhi records that there was a total of seven earthquakes between the years 1056 and 1103, yet the tower stood firm. In its entire history before the 20th century, the pagoda needed only ten minor repairs. However, considerable repairs were needed after Japanese soldiers shot more than two hundred rounds into the pagoda during the Second Sino-Japanese War. While repairing the pagoda in 1974, renovators found Liao Dynasty texts of Buddhist sutras and other documents; this major discovery included the 12 scroll Liao Tripitaka printed with movable type in 1003 in Yanjing, 35 scrolls of scriptures with block printed text the longest being 33.3 meters in length, 8 handwritten scrolls. This attests to the widespread technological use of movable type printing that developed within the neighboring Song Dynasty. In 1974 a Buddha tooth relic was discovered hidden in one of the Buddha statues on the fourth level of the Pagoda; the pagoda features fifty-four different kinds of bracket arms in its construction, the greatest amount for any Liao Dynasty structure.
Between each outer story of the pagoda is a mezzanine layer where the bracket arms are located on the exterior. From the exterior, the pagoda seems to have only five stories and two sets of rooftop eaves for the first story, yet the pagoda's interior reveals that it has nine stories in all; the four hidden stories can be indicated from the exterior by the pagoda's pingzuo. A ring of columns support the lowest outstretching eaved roof on the base floor, while the pagoda features interior support columns. A statue of the Buddha Sakyamuni sits prominently in the