Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Line 8 (Beijing Subway)
Line 8 of the Beijing Subway, is a rapid transit line in Beijing. It sits on the central axis of Beijing. Line 8's color is green; the line consists of two discontinuous line segments. The northern section is 28.5 km, with 19 stations. The southern section is 16.4 km, with 12 stations. Starting fare of RMB 3.00 that increases according to the distance fare scheme introduced in December 2014. The first south-bound train departs from Zhuxinzhuang at 5:10am; the first north-bound train departs from National Art Museum at 5:27am. The last south-bound train leaves Zhuxinzhuang at 10:05pm; the last north-bound train leaves National Art Museum at 11:05pm. The first south-bound train departs from Zhushikou at 5:50am; the first north-bound train departs from Yinghai at 5:15am. The last south-bound train leaves Zhushikou at 11:35pm; the last north-bound train leaves Yinghai at 11:00pm. In the north, Line 8 begins at Zhuxinzhuang on the Changping Line and heads east to Huilongguan Residential Area and south through the Line 13 arc at Huoying, to the Olympic Green station on Line 15.
The line enters the Line 10 loop at Beitucheng and the Line 2 loop at Guloudajie before reaching Nanluoguxiang on Line 6, to National Art Museum. Apart from the Zhuxinzhuang station and an 1.7 km section of elevated track leading therefrom, the entire line runs underground. The south section of Line 8, from Zhushikou to Yinghai, is 16.4 km and includes 2.06 km elevated section. Demao station and Yinghai station are elevated, all other stations are underground; the line consists of two discontinuous line segments. North section: Zhuxinzhuang to National Art Museum. South section: Zhushikou to Yinghai. Line 8 has been built in several phases. Line 8 was planned as the subway line; the first section of Line 8 to be built was the four-station segment from Beitucheng to South Gate of Forest Park, 4.35 km in length, that serves the Olympic Green. This section was included in Beijing's bid for the 2008 Summer Olympics, awarded to the city in 2001. Beijing's subway planners considered building a subway extension line off of Line 13 or Line 5 to serve the Olympic Green but chose to build Line 8 as a branch off of Line 10.
Construction began in 2004. With other Olympic venues under construction, Phase I of Line 8 was built using the cut-and-cover method to reduce the difficulty of construction; the Olympic Branch Line, as Line 8 Phase I was known, entered into operation together with Line 10 on July 19, 2008. It serves the Olympic Green, located due north of the city centre, during the 2008 Summer Olympics; the Phase I only included 4 stations. Access was restricted to riders with an Olympic Register Card or a ticket to an event at the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games on the day of the event. In early October 2008, the line was opened to the public. On December 8, 2007, while Phase I of Line 8 was still under construction, work began on Phase II to extend Line 8 in both directions along the city's north-south central axis. In Phase II was estimated to cost ¥10.1 billion and was scheduled to be completed by 2012. The northern extension to Huilongguan Dongdajie, 10.7 km in length with 6 stations, extended Line 8 from the South Gate of Forest Park to Huilongguan Dongdajie in Changping District beyond the Line 13 arc.
Land clearing for Phase II began in December 2007. Tunnel boring machines began work on October 16, 2009. In the fall of 2011, the entire Line 8 shut down and the entire line including the Phase II northern extension reopened on December 31, 2011; the Lincuiqiao station, just west of the Olympic Forest Park, was planned as an emergency stop, but was added at the behest of nearby residents and their municipal people's congress representative, Tian Yuan, who argued that the 5.1 km gap between South Gate of Forest Park and Yongtaizhuang made subway access inconvenient for residents along Lincui Road. Lincuiqiao was added as a station to Phase II plans in December 2008; the southern extension to Guloudajie, 3.28 km in length, opened on December 30, 2012. Travel time from Huilongguan to the Second Ring Road was reduced by a half-hour. Daily ridership reached 203,000 in March 2013. On December 28, 2013, Line 8 reached 26.614 km in length with the opening of the Changping-Line 8 Connector and the southern extension to Nanluoguxiang.
The Changping-Line 8 Connector known as the Changba Connector Line or Changba Connector, is a 6.3-kilometre-long extension of Line 8 from Huilongguan Dongdajie to Zhuxinzhuang on the Changping Line. The Changba Connector contains three stations: Pingxifu and Zhuxinzhuang, and it forms the northern-most section of Line 8. The Changba Connector was designed to alleviate passenger traffic on Line 13 by allowing Changping Line riders heading to destinations in eastern Beijing to switch to Line 8 at Zhuxingzhuang instead of transferring to Line 13 at Xi'erqi; the connector was built from April 2011 to September 2013 and entered operation at the end of 2013. South of Guloudajie, Line 8 was extended a further 2.16 km through Shichahai station to Nanluoguxiang station on December 28, 2013. The one-station extension from Nanluoguxiang to National Art Museum was opened on 30 December 2018. In Phase III & IV, Line 8 will be extended further south from the National Art Museum through Qianmen and Yongdingmen to beyond the southern 5th Ring Road.
The line will veer to the east of the central axis to avoid passing under the Forbidden City and Tian'anmen Square, before returning to the
Line 14 (Beijing Subway)
Line 14 of the Beijing Subway is a rapid transit rail line in the south and east of Beijing. The line is operated by the Beijing MTR Corporation Limited; the line consists of two discontinuous line segments. The West section is 11.03 km in length with 7 stations, the East section is 28.56 km in length with 21 stations. The West section stations from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju on the southwest corner of the Line 10 loop, opened on May 5, 2013. An infill station on west section, Qilizhuang station opened on February 15, 2014. For the East section: The stations from Shangezhuang to Jintailu opened on December 28, 2014, and the stations from Jintailu to Beijing South Railway Station, opened on December 26, 2015. Chaoyang Park station opened on 31 December 2016. Pingleyuan station opened on 30 December 2017. Hongmiao and Taoranqiao in the East section are not yet operational; the Middle section from Xiju to Beijing South Railway Station is under construction. When the full line is completed, it will run across the southern and eastern fringes of urban Beijing from Zhangguozhuang west of the Yongding River in the southwest corner of the city to Shangezhuang in the northeast corner.
When completed, Line 14 will be 47.7 km in length and have 36 stations. Line 14 is the first metro line in Beijing to use high-capacity wide-body A-Type trains; these trains were designed in nine months by Changchun Railway Vehicles Co. Ltd. and there are now 38 six-car A-Type trains operating on Line 14. These trains entered revenue service 15 months after contract award; the line consists of two discontinuous line segments. West section: Zhangguozhuang to Xiju. East section: Beijing South railway station to Shangezhuang; the precise route of Line 14 has been revised several times after construction began. The line is designed to follow an inverted-L shaped route running from the southwestern corner of urban Beijing in Fengtai District to the northeastern corner in Chaoyang District; the west section and east section of Line 14 are operated separately, while the middle section is still under construction. In the west section, Line 14 begins at Zhangguozhuang on Yuanboyuan South Road, west of the Yongding River.
The line enters the 5th Ring Road. Going east on Fengtai South Road, Line 14 passes by the Fengtai Sports Center, enters the 4th Ring Road and continues eastward on Fengtai Road to Xiju on the Line 10 loop; the middle section continues on Lize Road inside the 3rd Ring Road and meets Line 4 at the Beijing South Railway Station. The east section runs east from Beijing South railway station, it crosses Line 5 at Puhuangyu and follows the Pufang Road through the Fangzhuang residential neighborhood. It leaves the 3rd Ring Road at Shilihe and continues eastward until it abruptly turns north at Xidawang Road, it runs north, between the eastern 3rd and 4th Ring Roads. After passing the Beijing University of Technology, the line crosses Line 7 at Jiulongshan and Line 1 at Dawanglu. Further north, the Xidawang Road turns into Jintai Road; the line runs north through Chaoyang Park. Upon leaving the 4th Ring Road, Line 14 enters the vast Wangjing sub-district; the line bisects Wangjing from south to north on Guangshun South and North Streets and intersects with Line 15 at the heart of Wangjing.
After leaving Wangjing, the line terminates at Shangezhuang. Sept. 23, 2008: Construction of Line 14 set to begin by the end of 2008. Nov. 6, 2009: Commencement of construction deferred. 7, 2010: Commencement of construction set to begin in 2010. Apr. 29, 2010: Construction begins. May 5, 2013: The West section, from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju opens. February 15, 2014: An infill station on west section, Qilizhuang Station opens. December 28, 2014: The 1st part of east section, from Shangezhuang Station to Jintailu Station opens. December 26, 2015: The 2nd part of east section, from Jintailu Station to Beijing South Railway Station, opens. December 31, 2016: An infill station on East section, Chaoyang Park station opens. December 30, 2017: An infill station on East section, Pingleyuan station opens; the proposed final routing of Line 14 headed near Marco Polo Bridge. However, residents of Dujiakan and nearby Wanpingcheng wanted the subway to be routed south and terminating in their neighborhoods instead.
Wanpingcheng residents argued that the neighborhood's more than 60,000 residents as well as a sculpture park, a war memorial, Wanping Fortress and many other attractions need better public transport options. In addition roads going through Dujiakan are congested with traffic; the terrain and railways going through the area have made it difficult to construct new roads to the surrounding areas. The end of 2008, residents gathered thousands of signatures; the Planning Commission explained that building a subway to Wanpingcheng is more difficult, Line 14 will run via Zhangyi Village as planned. Wanpingcheng will be served by Line 16 which started construction in 2013. By the end of 2009, Tiantongyuan and Wangjing residents disputed the proposed alignment of Line 14's northern portion. Tiantongyuan is a large residential area within Beijing's northern Changping District. Tiantongyuan is dependent on Beiyuan road, Anli Road and Subway Line 5. Both roads and the Metro line suffer from congestion; the existing Line 5 is over capacity.
The Tiantongyuan online community launched a petit
Public bus service in Beijing is the among the most extensive used and affordable form of public transportation in urban and suburban districts of the city. In 2015, the entire network consisted of 876 routes with a fleet of 24,347 buses and trolleybuses carried 3.98 billion passengers annually. Trolleybuses run on over 29 routes including 6, 38, 42, 65, 101-112, 114-118, 124, 128, 301, BRT 1-3. Many of these trolleybus routes are located inside the Third Ring Road but some, such as 301 and BRT 1-3, do extend as far out as the Fifth Ring Road. Since 2013, In an effort to reduce urban air pollution, Beijing has been converting regular bus routes to trolleybus routes by installing overhead power lines on several corridors. Public bus service in the city began in 1921. Today there are two operators; the city's primary public bus operator, the state-owned Beijing Public Transport Holdings, Ltd. operates most routes and the Beijing Xianglong Bus Co. Ltd. an independent operator, provides service on 32 "Yuntong" bus routes.
The bus fare of both companies begin at RMB2.00 and are subject to a 50 percent discount when purchased with the mass transit IC card, which lowers the cost of most bus rides in the city center to ¥1.00. Beijing Airport Buses provide separate service to the city's two airports. Under the new fare scheme implemented on December 28, 2014, bus fares cost RMB2.00 for the first 10 km and ¥1.00 for each additional 5 km. Yikatong card users are entitled to a 50% discount and students enjoy a 75% discount. Prior to the fare hike, bus fares were as low as ¥1 and the Yikatong discount was 60%. Riders carrying bulky luggage that take up the space of another passenger will have to purchase a second bus fare. A child below the height of 1.2 m rides for free. Bearers of Retired Cadres' Honorary Certificates and blind individuals can ride public buses for free. On buses with a ticket clerk on board, the clerk can give exact change; the ticket clerk will ask riders deboarding the bus to show the paper ticket they had purchased, their bus pass or swipe their discount card.
On bus routes designated as having no ticket clerks, riders must pay exact fare in cash, show the driver their bus pass, or swipe a discount card when they board and deboard the bus. Riders paying with the Yikatong metrocard receive 50% discount off the cash fare. Hence, with a Yikatong card, the starting becomes ¥1.00 per ride. Riders with the student metro card enjoy 70% discount off the cash fare. Riders must swipe twice, both on boarding and deboarding the bus, so the trip distance can be calculated; until the introduction of the Yikatong metrocard in 2006, Beijing Bus Passes were a popular choice for discounted bus fare. Bus passes are available for seven days, 15 days; the Yikatong has a lower per ride cost. The Yikatong card can be purchased or have value added at any Beijing Subway station or at any of 89 bus stops around the city. Service on most bus lines begins between 5:00 and 6:00 and end between 20:00 and 23:00; the 夜-series night bus lines begin service at 23:20 and run until between 4:30 and 5:00.
Bus stops are marked with route signs that indicate the name of the stop, route number, hours of operation, fare schedule and each stop on the route. Bus route signs are only in Chinese. On buses with two doors, the front door is used for the back door for deboarding. On articulated buses and tri-axle buses with three doors, the middle door is used for entry and the front and rear doors for deboarding. BPT's buses use fare schedule. Other character designations in line numbers: Suffix 快, which means "fast", indicates express service. For example, Bus 345 is a regular bus. Bus 345快 is an express bus that makes fewer stops. Suffixes 内, meaning "inner", 外 meaning "outer" refer to the direction of loop route buses. Inner loop buses run in a clock-wise direction. Outer loop buses run in a counterclockwise direction. For example, Bus 300内 goes clock-wise around the 3rd Ring Road while Bus 300外 goes counterclock-wise. Suffix 支, meaning "branch", indicates a branch route. Prefix 临, meaning "temporary", indicates a temporary route.
The BPT provides inquiry services via both the 96166 telephone helpline. As of August 17, 2013, free wi-fi service is available on 5,823 buses on 248 bus routes inside the Third Ring Road. By December 2, 2014, about 12,000 buses had been outfitted with free Wi-Fi service. Beijing has four bus rapid transit lines intended to compliment its extensive subway system and a fifth one under construction on Guangqu Road; the four lines radiate from the central city in each cardinal direction. Line BRT 1 is one of China's first BRT lines; the line heads south from Qianmen to Demaozhuang in the south and is about 16 km long with 17 stations. It runs on bus lanes in the center of the road. All stations on the line are island platforms so specially designed buses with doors on the left are used on the line, it is the only route to use left-door buses. In 2009, it had an average daily ridership of 150,000 passengers. In 2015, the line was upgraded to use trolleybuses. Line BRT 2 connects Chaoyangmen to Yangzha in the east.
The line has 20 stations. In 2017, the line was upgraded to use trolleybuses. Line BRT 3 connects Andingmen to Hongfuyuanxiaoqu West in the north; the line is 22
The Beijing Subway is the rapid transit system of Beijing Municipality, consists of 22 lines including 20 conventional track metro lines, one maglev line and one light rail line. The rail network extends 636.8 km across 12 urban and suburban districts of Beijing, has 391 stations. By route length in operation, the Beijing Subway is the second longest subway system in the world after the Shanghai Metro. With 3.8484 billion trips delivered in 2018, an average of 10.544 million trips per day, the Beijing Subway is the world's busiest metro system. Single-day ridership set a record of 13.487 million on July 14, 2018. The Beijing Subway is the oldest metro system in mainland China. Before the system underwent rapid expansion since 2002, the subway had only two lines; the existing network still cannot adequately meet the city's mass transit needs. Beijing Subway's extensive expansion plans call for 998.5 km of lines serving a projected 18.5 million trips every day by 2021. The most recent expansion came into effect on December 30, 2018 with the opening of the western extension of Line 6 and the southern section of Line 8.
At the start of 2019, there are 252.3 km of subway under construction in Beijing. There will be 6 automated lines at the level of GoA4, including the Yanfang line, in operation, 5 lines under construction, using domestically developed communications-based train control systems; the Beijing Subway switched from a fixed-fare to a distance-based fare schedule for all lines except the Airport Express on December 28, 2014. Fares start at ¥3 for a trip up to 6 km in distance, with ¥1 added for the next 6 km, for every 10 km thereafter until the trip distance reaches 32 km, for every 20 km beyond the first 32 km. For example, a 40 km trip would cost ¥7; the Airport Express costs ¥25 per ride. Children below 1.3 metres in height ride for free. Senior citizens over the age of 65, individuals with physical disabilities, retired revolutionary cadres and army veterans, wounded in action, military personnel and People's Armed Police can ride the subway for free. Riders can look up fares by checking fare schedules posted in stations, calling the subway hotline 96165, going to the Beijing Subway website, or using the subway's smartphone app.
Passengers must insert the ticket or scan the card at the gate both before entering and exiting the station. The subway's fare collection gates accept the Yikatong fare card. Passengers can purchase tickets and add credit to Yikatong card at ticket counters or vending machines in every station; the Yikatong known as Beijing Municipal Administration & Communication Card, is an integrated circuit card that stores credit for the subway and suburban buses and e-money for other purchases. The Yikatong card itself must be purchased at the ticket counter. To enter a station, the Yikatong card must have a minimum balance of ¥3.00. To prevent fraud, passengers are required to complete their journeys within four hours upon entering the subway. If the four-hour limit is exceeded, a surcharge of ¥3 is imposed; each Yikatong card is allowed to be overdrawn once. The overdrawn amount is deducted. Yikatong card users who spend more than ¥100 on subway fare in a calendar month will receive credits to their card the following month.
After reaching ¥100 of spending in one calendar month, 20% of any further spending up to ¥150 will be credited. When spending exceeds ¥150, 50% of any further spending up to ¥250 will be credited. Once expenditures exceed ¥400, further spending will not earn any more credits; the credits are designed to ease commuters' burdens of fare increases. Beginning in June 2017, single-journey tickets could be purchased via a phone app. A May 2018 upgrade allowed entrance via scanning a QR code from the same app. Prior to the December 28, 2014 fare increase, passengers paid a flat rate of RMB 2.00 for all lines except the Airport Express, which cost ¥25. The flat fare was the lowest among metro systems in China. Before the flat fare schedule was introduced on October 7, 2007, fares ranged from ¥3 to ¥7, depending on the line and number of transfers. Beijing Subway lines follow the checkerboard layout of the city. Most lines through the urban core run parallel or perpendicular to each other and intersect at right angles.
As of December 31, 2018, Lines 8 and 14 operated in two separate sections. Line 1, a straight east-west line underneath Chang'an Avenue, which bisects the city through Tiananmen Square. Line 1 connects major commercial centres, Wangfujing and the Beijing CBD. Line 2, the inner rectangular loop line traces the Ming-era inner city wall that once surrounded the inner city, stops at 11 of the wall's former gates, now busy intersections, as well as the Beijing Railway Station. Line 4, a north-south line running through the west of city centre with stops at the Summer Palace, Old Summer Palace and Renmin Universities, National Library, Beijing Zoo and Beijing South Railway Station. Line 5, a straight north-south line running through the east of the city centre, it passes the Temple of Yonghe Temple and the Temple of Heaven. Line 6, a nearly straight east-west line running parallel and to the north of Line 1, it passes through the city centre north of Beihai Park. Line 7, an east-west line running parallel and to the south of Line 1 and Batong line, from Beijing West railway station to Jiaohuachang.
Line 8, a north-south
Line 4 (Beijing Subway)
Line 4 of the Beijing Subway is a subway line in Beijing's mass transit network. It entered into operation on September 28, 2009, runs from north to south, parallel and to the west of Line 5, through Haidian and Fengtai Districts in the western half of the city, it runs from Anheqiao North in the north and ends at Gongyixiqiao in the south, but the 4-Daxing connected line runs all the way to Tiangongyuan in Daxing. All stations were underground except Anheqiao North, it is 28.2 km long with 24 stations. Riding on this line starts from a fare of RMB 3.00 depending on the distance traveled. Line 4's color is teal. Line 4 and Daxing line operate as a single line. Two different routes are ran during the day: 1. A full line connecting both Line 4 and Daxing line. 2. A shorter line that ends at Xingong station, the first station of Daxing line. Combined, the Line 4/Daxing Corridor carries an average of 1.24 million passengers every day. The first south-bound trains departs from Anheqiao North at 5:00 AM.
The first northbound train departs from Gongyixiqiao at 5:10 AM. The last northbound train leaves Anheqiao North at 10:45 PM; the last southbound train leaves Gongyixiqiao at 11:10 PM. Each train completes the entire journey in 48 minutes. In the north, Line 4 begins in Anheqiao, just beyond the Summer Palace, heads south past the Old Summer Palace, through the university district and Zhongguancun, Beijing's high-tech silicon village, before turning east at the National Library of China and passing the Beijing Zoo en route to Xizhimen. After entering the 2nd Ring Road at Xizhimen, Line 4 resumes southwards at Xinjiekou and traverses the old city through Xisi, Xuanwumen and Taoranting Park, it passes the city's high-speed rail link at the Beijing South railway station before reaching the terminus at Gongyixiqiao. Construction began 2004 but delays have pushed back the opening date by two years to September 28, 2009. Anheqiao North — Xingong Anheqiao North — Tiangongyuan The following is the list of stations, from north to south: Plans for Line 4 date back to the 1950s when Beijing's first subway line was still under construction.
It was planned to run from the Summer Palace, east towards Xizhimen, southeast to Zhongshan Park, terminating at the Beijing Stadium, which near today's Tiantandongmen Station. The section between Summer Palace to Xizhimen was built as planned. However, construction only formally started in 2004. On December 3, 2004 Hong Kong's MTR Corporation, Beijing Infrastructure Investment Co. Ltd. and Beijing Capital Group Co. Ltd. signed the Beijing Metro Line 4, construction, operation principle of cooperation agreement, making Line 4 the Mainland China's first rail transit line financed using a public-private partnership framework. Subsequently, on November 8, 2005, a joint venture among the 3 companies was established; the Hong Kong MTRC will invest 735 million RMB to the construction of Line 4 and in return have the right to operate Line 4 for 30 years. On February 11, 2009, the construction of Line 4 is nearing completion with all tunnels bored. In March 6, four subway trains begin testing while Hong Kong's Chief Executive, Donald Tsang, visited the project.
On September 28, 2009, Beijing Subway Line 4 is opened for trial operation. Bringing the number of subway lines in Beijing to 9. On December 30, 2010, the Daxing line started trial operation, with direct service into Line 4. Creating a 35 station 50 km long line. In 2008, planners in Haidian District have proposed extending the line to the north by 8 km with four additional stations; the planned stations have been identified as Baiwangshan, Aerospace City West, Yongfeng. However, by June 2010, Line 4's northern extension was cancelled and replaced by the northern extension of Line 16 which opened in 2016. Unlike the other lines of the Beijing Subway, which are state-owned and operated, Line 4 was built and is managed by the Beijing MTR Corp. Ltd. a three-way joint-venture among the Hong Kong MTR Corporation, the Beijing Capital Group, the Beijing Infrastructure Investment Co.. The Hong Kong MTR, which operates the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway, the state-owned BCG each holds a 49% stake in the venture and the BIIC has 2%.
The JV is responsible for 30% of the investment capital to build Line 4 to finance the purchase of electrical and mechanical equipment, while the Beijing Municipal Government provided the remaining 70%, to cover civil engineering and track work costs. The Beijing government has awarded the JV a concession to manage Line 4 for 30 years; the PPP JV model was designed to introduce private capital as well as advanced metro management methods to the growing Beijing Subway. Among the most visible differences in management of Line 4 is a ban on food and beverage consumption inside Line 4 trains and stations. Beijing MTR Corp. Ltd official site
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle