Edith Wharton was an American novelist, short story writer and designer. Wharton drew upon her insider's knowledge of the upper class New York "aristocracy" to realistically portray the lives and morals of the Gilded Age, she was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Literature in 1921. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1996. Edith Wharton was born Edith Newbold Jones on January 24, 1862 to George Frederic Jones and Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander at their brownstone at 14 West Twenty-third Street in New York City. To her friends and family she was known as "Pussy Jones." She had two older brothers, Frederic Rhinelander, sixteen, Henry Edward, twelve. She was baptized Easter Sunday, at Grace Church. Wharton's paternal family, the Joneses, were a wealthy and prominent family having made their money in real estate; the saying "keeping up with the Joneses" is said to refer to her father's family. She was related to the Rensselaers, the most prestigious of the old patroon families, who had received land grants from the former Dutch government of New York and New Jersey.
Her father's first cousin was Caroline Schermerhorn Astor. She had a lifelong friendship with her niece, the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand of Reef Point in Bar Harbor, Maine. Fort Stevens in New York was named for Wharton's maternal great-grandfather, Ebenezer Stevens, a Revolutionary War hero and General. Wharton was born during the Civil War. From 1866 to 1872, the Jones family visited France, Italy and Spain. During her travels, the young Edith became fluent in French and Italian. At the age of nine, she suffered from typhoid fever, which nearly killed her, while the family was at a spa in the Black Forest. After the family returned to the United States in 1872, they spent their winters in New York and their summers in Newport, Rhode Island. While in Europe, she was educated by governesses, she rejected the standards of fashion and etiquette that were expected of young girls at the time, which were intended to allow women to marry well and to be put on display at balls and parties. She considered these fashions oppressive.
Edith wanted more education than she received, so she read from her father's library and from the libraries of her father's friends. Her mother forbade her to read novels until she was married, Edith obeyed this command. Wharton early age; when her family moved to Europe and she was just four or five she started what she called "making up." She invented stories for her family and would walk with an open book, turn the pages as if reading and improvise a story. Wharton began writing poetry and fiction as a young girl, attempted to write her first novel at age eleven, her mother's criticism quashed her ambition and she turned to poetry. At age 15, her first published work appeared, a translation of a German poem "Was die Steine Erzählen" by Heinrich Karl Brugsch, for which she was paid $50, her family did not want her name to appear in print, since writing was not considered a proper occupation for a society woman of her time. The poem was published under the name of a friend's father, E. A. Washburn, a cousin of Ralph Waldo Emerson who supported women's education.
In 1877, at the age of 15, she secretly wrote a 30,000 word novella "Fast and Loose." In 1878 her father arranged for a collection of two dozen original poems and five translations, Verses, to be published. Wharton published a poem under a pseudonym in the New York World in 1879. In 1880 she had five poems published anonymously in the Atlantic Monthly, an important literary magazine. Despite these early successes, she was not encouraged by her family or her social circle, though she continued to write, she did not publish anything more until her poem "The Last Giustiniani" was published in Scribner's Magazine in October 1889. Between 1880 and 1890 Wharton put her writing aside to perform as socialite. Wharton keenly observed the social changes happening around her which would appear in her writing. Wharton came out as a debutante to society in 1879. Wharton was allowed to bare her shoulders and wear her hair up for the first time at a December dance given by a wealthy socialite, Anna Morton. Wharton began a courtship with the son of a wealthy businessman.
Wharton's family did not approve of Stevens. In the middle of Wharton's debutante season, the Jones family returned to Europe in 1881 for Wharton's father's health. Wharton's father, George Frederic Jones, died in Cannes in 1882 of a stroke. Stevens was with the Wharton family in Europe during this time. Wharton and her mother returned to the United States and Wharton continued her courtship with Stevens announcing their engagement in August 1882; the month the two were to marry, the engagement abruptly ended. Wharton's mother, Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander, moved back to Paris in 1883 and lived there until her death in 1901. Wharton married in 1885 and began to build upon three interests--American houses and Italy. On April 29, 1885, at age 23, Wharton married Edward Robbins Wharton, 12 years her senior, at the Trinity Chapel Complex. From a well-established Boston family, he was a sportsman and a gentleman of the same social class and shared her love of travel; the Whartons set up house at Pencraig Cottage in Newport.
They bought and moved to Land's End on the other side of Newport in 1893 for $80,000. Wharton decorated Land's End with the help of designer Ogden Cod
The 13 Clocks
The 13 Clocks is a fantasy tale written by James Thurber and illustrator Marc Simont in 1950, while he was completing one of his other novels. It is written in a unique cadenced style, in which a mysterious prince must complete a impossible task to free a maiden from the clutches of an evil duke, it invokes many fairy tale motifs. The story is noted for Thurber's constant, complex wordplay, his use of an continuous internal meter, with occasional hidden rhymes — akin to blank verse, but with no line breaks to advertise the structure. Other fantasy books by Thurber, such as Many Moons, The Wonderful O, The White Deer contained hints of this unusual prose form, but here it becomes a universal feature of the text, to the point where it is possible to predict the word order for a given phrase by looking at the pattern of emphasis in the preceding phrase. By the time he wrote this book, Thurber was blind, so he could not draw cartoons for the book, as he had done with The White Deer five years earlier.
He enlisted his friend Marc Simont to illustrate the original edition. The Golux is said to wear an "indescribable hat". Thurber made Simont describe all his illustrations, was satisfied when Simont was unable to describe the hat; when it was reissued by Puffin Books, it was illustrated by Ronald Searle. The book has been reprinted by The New York Review Children's Collection, with original illustrations by Marc Simont and an introduction by Neil Gaiman; the evil Duke of Coffin Castle lives with his good and beautiful niece, the princess Saralinda, in a castle so cold that all the clocks have frozen at ten minutes to five. Several suitors have tried to court the Princess, but the Duke's policy is to test their eligibility by assigning them impossible tasks, in some cases killing them when they fail to complete the tasks or for other arbitrary reasons. A few days before Saralinda's twenty-first birthday, Prince Zorn of Zorna arrives in the town disguised as a minstrel named Xingu. After meeting an enigmatic character known as the Golux, who declares his intention to help Zorn rescue the Princess, Zorn deliberately gets himself arrested and imprisoned in order to infiltrate the castle.
At "Xingu"'s interrogation by the Duke, the Duke, who thanks to his spies has been aware of Zorn's identity all along, announces his decision to allow Zorn to court Saralinda. The Duke gives Zorn the task of finding a thousand jewels. However, to prevent Zorn from traveling to his father's kingdom, getting the jewels there and returning, the Duke only allows him 99 hours to complete the task. To complicate things further, the Duke commands that when Zorn returns, the thirteen irrevocably frozen clocks in the castle must all be striking five. Zorn and the Golux travel to the home of Hagga, a woman, given the ability to weep jewels, only to be made to weep so much that she is no longer able to cry. After a journey of two days, they arrive at her hut and find that she is still able to weep jewels, but Hagga informs them that the magic gift that let her weep jewels was amended, so whereas "the jewels of sorrow shall last beyond all measure", the jewels of laughter shall give "little pleasure": jewels from the tears of happiness will turn back into tears a fortnight later.
The Golux and Zorn try to make her weep from laughter, but this results in jewels of little or no value. As the realization that they have failed sets in, Hagga begins to laugh inexplicably until she cries, producing an abundance of precious jewels; the Golux counts out a thousand, they return to the castle after thanking her. At the castle with less than an hour to go, the Duke reveals to his servant/spy Hark that he had kidnapped Saralinda as a child and that she is not his niece. Under the conditions of a spell cast on the Duke as he fled with the Princess, the Duke may not marry Saralinda until she is twenty-one. Hark tells the Duke that Zorn was called Xingu while he was posing as a minstrel, therefore he is the man specified in the spell. Hark hears footsteps coming from the upper floor; the furious Duke realizes that Zorn and the Golux have somehow gotten into the castle and orders out his guards. While they are chasing and fighting Zorn through the castle, the Golux and the Princess sneak throughout the castle to each of the thirteen clocks, using Saralinda's warmth to start them once more.
The Duke and Hark return to the black oak room via the castle's secret passages to find Prince Zorn and the Golux waiting for them. Presented with the thousand jewels and the sound of the thirteen clocks striking, the Duke is forced to admit defeat. Zorn and the Princess depart by ship, first to the kingdom of Yarrow and on to the Prince's homeland of Zorna. A fortnight while the Duke is gloating over his jewels, they melt back into Hagga's tears; the angry Duke is confronted by a nightmarish creature called the Todal, "sent to punish for having done less evil than should." Faced with his failure and the loss of his jewels, the wrathful Duke dares the Todal to attack. The story ends with Hark entering an empty room to find the Duke's sword on the floor and a puddle of tears dripping from the table. Boucher and McComas praised the book as "magically adorned with touches of modern humor, hints of dark Jacobean terror, gleams of pure poetry.". The USA's
Xingu peoples are indigenous peoples of Brazil living near the Xingu River. They have many cultural similarities despite their different ethnologies. Xingu people represent fifteen tribes and all four of Brazil's indigenous language groups, but they share similar belief systems and ceremonies; the Upper Xingu region was populated prior to European and African contact. Densely populated settlements developed from 1200 to 1600 CE. Ancient roads and bridges linked communities that were surrounded by ditches or moats; the villages featured circular plazas. Archaeologists have unearthed 19 villages so far. Kuikuro oral history says European slavers arrived in the Xingu region around 1750. Xinuguano population was estimated in the tens of thousands but was reduced by diseases and slavery by Europeans. In the centuries since the penetration of the Europeans into South America, the Xingu fled from different regions to escape modernization and cultural assimilation. Nonetheless settlers made it up as far as the upper run of the Rio Xingu.
By the end of the 19th century, about 3,000 natives lived at the Alto Xingu, where their current political status has kept them protected against European intruders. By the mid twentieth century this number had been reduced by foreign epidemic diseases such as flu, measles and malaria to less than 1,000. Only an estimated 500 Xingu peoples were alive in the 1950s; the Brazilian Villas-Bôas brothers visited the area beginning in 1946, pushed for the creation of the Parque Indígena do Xingu established in 1961. Their story is told in Xingu; the number of Xingu living there in 32 settlements has risen again to over 3000 inhabitants, half of them younger than 15 years. The Xingu living in this region have social systems, despite different languages, they consist of the following peoples: the Aweti, Kamaiurá, Kayapó, Matipu, Nahukuá, Suyá, Trumai and Yawalapiti. Stenzel, Kris & Bruna Franchetto. 2017. On this and other worlds: Voices from Amazonia. Berlin: Language Science Press. ISBN 978-3-96110-018-7 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.892102.
Open Access. The Indians of the Xingu: Cultural Homogenization in the Amazon Rainforest A Report on the Xingu Peoples and the Land A Xingu case study, the Rainforest Action Network Xingu, on Povos indigenous no Brasil
The Xingu River is a 1,640 km river in north Brazil. It is a southeast tributary of the Amazon River and one of the largest clearwater rivers in the Amazon basin, accounting for about 5% of its water; the first Indigenous Park in Brazil was created in the river basin by the Brazilian government in the early 1960s. This park marks the first indigenous territory recognized by the Brazilian government and it was the world's largest indigenous preserve on the date of its creation. Fourteen tribes live within Xingu Indigenous Park, surviving on natural resources and extracting from the river most of what they need for food and water; the Brazilian government is building the Belo Monte Dam, which will be the world's third-largest hydroelectric dam, on the Lower Xingu. Construction of this dam is under legal challenge by environment and indigenous groups, who assert the dam would have negative environmental and social impacts along with reducing the flow by up to 80% along a 100 km stretch known as the Volta Grande.
The river flow in this stretch is complex and includes major sections of rapids. More than 450 fish species have been documented in the Xingu River Basin and it is estimated that the total is around 600 fish species, including many endemics. At least 193 fish species living in rapids are known from the lower Xingu, at least 26 of these are endemic. From 2008 to 2018 alone, 24 new fish species have been described from the river. Many species are threatened by the dam, which will alter the flow in the Volta Grande rapids. In the Upper Xingu region was a self-organized pre-Columbian anthropogenic landscape, including deposits of fertile agricultural terra preta, black soil in Portuguese, with a network of roads and polities each of which covered about 250 square kilometers. Near the source of Xingu River is Culuene River, a 600 km tributary; the name is the title of a humorous Edith Wharton short story from 1911. "Xingu" is the title of a song on a 1999 album by Ozric Tentacles. The river is honoured in the album Aguas da Amazonia.
A beer produced near the river is sold in the international market under the name "Xingu". In the novel Relic by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child, the Xingu River is the location of the doomed Whittlesey/Maxwell expedition responsible for discovering evidence of the lost Kothoga tribe and their savage god Mbwun, it is the name of a 2011 Brazilian movie, directed by famous Brazilian film-maker Cao Hamburger. The movie tells the story of the Villas-Bôas brothers 1943 expedition to the region, which led to the creation of the indigenous reserve twenty years later. Percy Fawcett Aloysius Pendergast Xingu National Park Xingu peoples Cowell, Adrian. 1973. The Tribe that Hides from Man; the Bodely Head, London. Original text from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Heinsdijk and Ricardo Lemos Fróes. Description of Forest-Types on "Terra Firme" between the Rio Tapajós and the Rio Xingú in the Amazon Valley. 1956. Sipes, Ernest "Brazilian Indians: what FUNAI Won't Tell YOU". 2002. Brazilian Indians: What FUNAI Won't Tell You Xingu on IMDb
Xingu is a 2011 Brazilian drama film directed by Cao Hamburger and scripted by him, Elena Soárez and Anna Muylaert. Starring João Miguel, Felipe Camargo and Caio Blat, the film tells the Villas-Bôas brothers trajectory from the moment in which they joined the Roncador-Xingu expedition, part of the Westward March of Getúlio Vargas, in 1943, it was shot in Tocantins, Xingu National Park, in the Greater São Paulo. The film was exhibited at the 8th Amazonas Film Festival; the official premiere took place on April 6, 2012. The film was watched by about 370,000 spectators and has raised more than four million reals in box office. A television adaptation in four episodes was aired on Rede Globo between 25 and December 28, 2012; the story takes place in the 1940s when the Villas-Bôas brothers—Claudio and Orlando —start an exploratory expedition into the Xingu River. They make contact with the local tribes, learn to live in the rainforest, persuade a reluctant government to found the Xingu National Park.
João Miguel as Claudio Villas Boas Felipe Camargo as Orlando Villas Boas Caio Blat as Leonardo Villas Boas Maiarim Kaiabi as Prepori Awakari Tumã Kaiabi as Pionim Adana Kambeba as Kaiulu Tapaié Waurá as Izaquiri Totomai Yawalapiti as Guerreiro Kalapalo Maria Flor as Marina Augusto Madeira as Noel Nutels Fábio Lago as Bamburra Jury Award for Best Cinematography - 2012 Prêmio Contigo Cinema 3rd place Panorama Audience Award for Fiction Film - 2012 Berlin International Film Festival Official website Official blog Xingu on IMDb Xingu at AllMovie Xingu at Rotten Tomatoes
Embraer EMB 121 Xingu
The Embraer EMB 121 Xingu is a twin-turboprop fixed-wing aircraft built by the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer, Embraer. The design is based on the EMB 110 Bandeirante, using its wing and engine design merged with an all-new fuselage; the EMB 121 first flew on 10 October 1976. A modified form of the EMB 121, the EMB 121A1 Xingu II, was introduced on 4 September 1981 with a more powerful engine, increased seating and a larger fuel capacity. Before production ceased in August 1987, Embraer had produced 106 EMB 121 aircraft, 51 of which were exported to countries outside Brazil; the French Air Force is the largest operator with 23 aircraft still in service. EMB 121A Xingu I Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-28 EMB 121A1 Xingu II Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-135 EMB 121B Xingu III Projected stretched development, not proceeded with, to have been powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-42 engines. EMB 123 Tapajós planned version with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-45 VU-9 Brazilian Air Force designation BrazilBrazilian Air ForceFranceFrench Air Force French Navy Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1984-85General characteristics Crew: 1/2 Capacity: 9 or 770 kg with 1 pilot Length: 12.25 m Wingspan: 14.05 m Height: 4.84 m Wing area: 27.5 m2 Aspect ratio: 7.18 Empty weight: 3,710 kg equipped Max takeoff weight: 5,670 kg Fuel capacity: 1,308 kg Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-135 turboprop engines, 559 kW each Propellers: 4-bladed Hartzell HC-B4TN-3C/T9212B, 2.36 m diameter constant-speed metal propeller with auto-feathering and full reverse-pitchPerformance Maximum speed: 467 km/h.
Aircraft Recognition Guide. New York City: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-713721-4. Michell, Simon. Jane's Civil and Military Aircraft Updates 1994-95. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK:Jane's Information Group, 1994. ISBN 0-7106-1208-7. Media related to Embraer EMB 121 Xingu at Wikimedia Commons
Xingu Indigenous Park
The Xingu Indigenous Park is an indigenous territory of Brazil, first created in 1961 as a national park in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Its official purposes are to protect the environment and the several tribes of Xingu indigenous peoples in the area; the Xingu Indigenous Park is in the north east of the state of Mato Grosso, in the south of the Amazon biome. It covers 2,642,003 hectares, with savannah and drier semi-deciduous forests in the south transitioning to Amazon rain forest in the north. There is a rainy season from November to April; the headwaters of the Xingu River are in the south of the park. The area covered by the park was defined in 1961 and covers parts of the municipalities of Canarana, Paranatinga, São Félix do Araguaia, São José do Xingu, Gaúcha do Norte, Feliz Natal, Querência, União do Sul, Nova Ubiratã and Marcelândia in the state of Mato Grosso; the national park was created after a campaign by the Villas-Bôas brothers for protection of the region. An account of the exploration of this area by the Villas-Bôas brothers and their efforts to protect the region is documented in the film Xingu.
The idea of creating a park originated with a round table organized by the vice president of Brazil in 1952, at which a much larger park was proposed. However, the state of Mato Grosso began granting land within the proposed area to colonizing companies, so the park that came into existence by decree 50.455 of 14 April 1961 was only a quarter of the proposed size. Adjustments were made on 31 July 1961, 6 August 1968 and 13 July 1971; the final demarcation of the perimeter was made in 1978. The area was given the designation of "National Park" to cover the dual purpose of protecting the environment and the indigenous people, is subject to both the indigenous agency and the environmental agency. In 1967 the term "National Park" was replaced by "Indigenous Park" to reflect the primary goal of protecting the social diversity of the indigenous people; the park began to suffer from the incursion of hunters in the 1980s. By the late 1990s livestock farms to the north east of the park were starting to reach the park, as was deforestation to the west of the park.
The effects of human activity outside the park were starting to pollute the waters of the park. The park remains as an island of forest threatened by activity outside its perimeter; the tribes occupying territories within the boundaries of the park are the Kamayurá, Yudjá, Mehinako, Yawalapiti, Kalapalo, Matipu, Nahukwá, Suyá and Trumai, population figures as of 2002. The Xingu area is of interest because it was a destination for early-20th century exploration by Europeans, among whom British Captain Percy Harrison Fawcett was the most notable, he sought a city which Europeans had heard rumor of since their early 16th-century colonial contact, he disappeared in the jungle in 1925. David Grann wrote an article about his exploration, followed by an expanded book, The Lost City of Z on the same subject and with the same title, it documents those early explorations. It explores archeological evidence found since the late 20th century of large-scale indigenous civilizations that pre-date Spanish and Portuguese contacts and colonization.
Interview with Orlando Villas Boas on the history of the park Maps of Xingu National Park