Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a language with topic-prominent organization. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants, Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan, aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters. There are many characters that are identical between the two systems, in English, the governments of China and Hong Kong use Putonghua, Putonghua Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, and Mandarin, while those of Taiwan and Malaysia, use Mandarin. The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history and it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese.
For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or common tongue/speech, was different from the Guoyu. The former was a prestige variety, while the latter was the legal standard. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, which is close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called the speech of the modern man. The use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai, prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the term for Standard Chinese. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca, Huayu, or language of the Chinese nation, originally simply meant Chinese language, and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name Huayu to refer to Mandarin and it incorporates the notion that Mandarin is usually not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live.
The term Mandarin is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire, in English, Mandarin may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name Modern Standard Mandarin is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the language from other northern. Chinese has long had considerable variation, hence prestige dialects have always existed. Confucius, for example, used yǎyán rather than colloquial regional dialects, rime books, which were written since the Northern and Southern dynasties, may have reflected one or more systems of standard pronunciation during those times
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese, because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones, the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop. Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, the capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects very influential. Some form of Mandarin has served as a lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a form based on the Beijing dialect. Standard Chinese is the language of the Peoples Republic of China and Taiwan.
It is one of the most frequently used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally, the English word mandarin originally meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were often mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties, when Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it Mandarin, from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or language of the officials. In everyday English, Mandarin refers to Standard Chinese, which is called simply Chinese. Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and it is the official spoken language of the Peoples Republic of China, the official language of the Republic of China, and one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name Chinese.
Chinese speakers refer to the standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines. Linguists use the term Mandarin to refer to the group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China. The alternative term Běifānghuà, or Northern dialects, is used less and less among Chinese linguists, by extension, the term Old Mandarin or Early Mandarin is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of Mandarin in a broader sense, the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven groups of dialects have been recognized
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Anshun is a prefecture-level city of Guizhou province, near the location of Huangguoshu Waterfall, the tallest in China. Within the borders of its prefecture there are such as The Long Gong Dragon Caves. As of 2010, it had a population of 2,297,339, the city proper had a population of 765,313. The city is known for its aerospace industry, Anshun has a long history dating back to the Western Han dynasty around 200 B. C. There are two kinds of culture which existed in Chinese history and Yelang. The Tianlong Tunbao town is close to Anshun city, Tunbao is a town with a long history which includes eight small areas. Each one is connected with each other since it was a war place from the period of Ming Dynasty. The culture of Tunbao is unique and traditional, the traditional clothes are special which are designed respectively from head to foot. Second, ‘Nuo’ is a kind of drama which is originated in Tunbao, the performers wear masks and hold the stage property for performing. The plots of drama are all from the legends of history, local stone architectures are representative for long history of Tunbao.
Close to Anshun there is a lake called Yelang. It is named after the famous Yeland Emperor, Yelang Emperor was the largest minority tribe in southeast of China in Western Han Dynasty. It existed for about 300 years since the Warring States, during accession of Emperor Cheng of Han, the last king of Yelang Emperor was killed. Yelang Emperor died out from on, but the off-springs of Yelang Emperor are still alive now, according to historical records, Yelang Emperor was located along Zangke River, which is now called Beipan River and Nanpan River. Bamboo Worship, Cow Totem and dogfight are the national culture signals of Yelang Emperor. Anshuns administrative area spans latitude 25° 21−26°38 N and longitude 105° 13−106°34 E, within the prefecture, the elevation ranges from 1,102 to 1,694 metres. Anshun has a humid subtropical climate bordering on a subtropical highland climate, tempered by its rather high altitude and having frequent rain. Winters are short and damp, while summers are very warm, the monthly 24-hour mean temperature ranges from 4.3 °C in January to 22.0 °C in July, and the annual mean is 14.1 °C
Autonomous regions of China
An autonomous region is a first-level administrative subdivision of China. Like Chinese provinces, a region has its own local government. An autonomous region is a minority entity which has a population of a particular minority ethnic group. The Inner Mongolia autonomous region was established in 1947, Xinjiang was made autonomous in 1955, Guangxi and Ningxia in 1958, and Tibet in 1965. The designation of Guangxi and Ningxia as Zhuang and Hui autonomous areas, was protested by the local Han Chinese. Although Mongols made up less than a percentage of Inner Mongolia. Note, In the Third Largest Ethnic Group column is the group given in brackets, after the names of the autonomous regions. Administrative divisions of China Provinces of China Special administrative regions of China Autonomous prefectures of China
Special administrative regions of China
Article 31 reads, The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National Peoples Congress in the light of the specific conditions. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the United Nations, and their Basic laws, there is additionally the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, which is however not established according to Article 31 of the Constitution. Generally, two SARs does not constitute the part of Mainland China by both Chinese and SAR authorities and it was envisioned as the model for the eventual reunification with Taiwan and other islands, where the Republic of China has resided since 1949. Special administrative regions should not be confused with special economic zones, Special administrative regions should be distinguished from the constituent countries system in the United Kingdom or Kingdom of the Netherlands.
There are currently two special administrative regions established according to Article 31 of the Chinese Constitution, for the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, please see the section below. The two special regions of Hong Kong and Macau each have a codified constitution called Basic Law. The law provides the regions with a degree of autonomy, a separate political system. Currently, the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for all affairs except those regarding diplomatic relations, however, in some diplomatic talks involving a SAR, the SAR concerned may choose to send officials to be part of the Chinese delegation. The Government of Hong Kong has established Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices in few countries as well as Greater China Region, HKETOs serve as a quasi-interests section in favor of Hong Kong. For regions with no HKETOs, Chinese diplomatic missions take charge of protecting Hong Kong-related interest, some countries which have a diplomatic relation with central Chinese government maintain Consulate-General in Hong Kong.
The Peoples Liberation Army is garrisoned in both SARs, PRC authorities have said the PLA will not be allowed to interfere with the local affairs of Hong Kong and Macau, and must abide by its laws. In 1988, scholar Chen Fang of the Academy of Military Science even tried to propose the One military, the PLA does not participate in the governance of the SAR but the SAR may request them for civil-military participation, in times of emergency such as natural disasters. Defence is the responsibility of the PRC government, a 1996 draft PRC law banned Peoples Liberation Army-run businesses in HK, but loopholes allow them to operate while the profits are ploughed back into the military. There are many PLA-run corporations in Hong Kong, the PLA have sizable land-holdings in Hong Kong worth billions of dollars. Each of the SARs issues passports on its own to its permanent residents who are concurrently Chinese citizens, due to their colonial past, many inhabitants of the SARs hold some form of non-Chinese nationality.
However, SAR residents who are Chinese descent have always considered as Chinese citizens by the PRC authorities. However, such travel documents cannot be used to travel to mainland China, master nationality rule applies so the holder may not enjoy consular protection while in mainland China
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. The area was first organized as a region of a Chinese empire under the Tang. During the Mongolian Yuan dynasty, the character 矩 was changed to the more refined 貴, the region formally became a province in 1413, with an eponymous capital also called Guizhou but now known as Guiyang. From around 1046 BCE to the emergence of the Qin Dynasty, during the Warring States period, the Chinese state of Chu conquered the area, and control passed to the Dian Kingdom. During the Three Kingdoms period, parts of Guizhou were governed by the Shu Han state based in Sichuan, followed by Cao Wei, during the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang Dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou and married native women. Their descendants are known as Lǎohànrén, in contrast to new Chinese who populated Guizhou at times and they still speak an archaic dialect. Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from soldiers in garrisons who married these pre-Chinese women.
It was during the following Ming Dynasty, which was again led by Han Chinese. The Ming established many garrisons in Guizhou from which to pacify the Yao and Miao minorities during the Miao Rebellions, chinese-style agriculture flourished with the expertise of farmers from Sichuan and its surrounding provinces into Guizhou. Wu Sangui was responsible for the ousting the Ming in Guizhou, after the Second Opium War, criminal triads set up shop in Guangxi and Guizhou to sell British opium. For a time, Taiping Rebels took control of Guizhou, Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and their children were brought up as Miao. More unsuccessful Miao rebellions occurred during the Qing, in 1735, from 1795–1806, after the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following Chinese Civil War, the Communists took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March. While the province was ruled by the Guomindang warlord Wang Jialie. As the Second Sino-Japanese War pushed Chinas Nationalist Government to its southwest base of Chongqing, after the Chinese economic reform began in 1978, geographical factors led Guizhou to become the poorest province in China, with a GDP growth average of 9 percent from 1978–1993.
Guizhou is a province, although its higher altitudes are in the west. It lies at the end of the Yungui Plateau. Guizhou has a humid climate. Its annual average temperature is roughly 10 to 20 °C, with January temperatures ranging from 1 to 10 °C, like in Chinas other southwest provinces, rural areas of Guizhou suffered severe drought during spring 2010