District 1, Ho Chi Minh City
District 1 is the central urban district of Ho Chi Minh City, the largest city in Vietnam. With a total area of 7.7211 km2 the district has a population of 204,899 people as of 2010. The district is divided into 10 small subsets which are called wards. District 1 contains most of the city's administrative offices and large buildings. District 1 is the busiest district in the city with the highest living standards. Đồng Khởi street and Nguyễn Huệ boulevard in District 1 are the city's two main commercial centers. Đồng Khởi street is an area in high demand for real estate, hitting a record price of $50,000 per square meter in 2007. District 1 and the other seven districts of Ho Chi Minh City were founded on May 27, 1959. Before 1975, the first district only had four small subsets which were Trần Quang Khải, Tự Đức, Bến Nghé, Hòa Bình and the second district had seven different wards which were Cầu Kho, Cầu Ông Lãnh, Huyện Sĩ, Nguyễn Cư Trinh, Nguyễn Cảnh Chân, Bùi Viện, Bến Thành. In May, 1976, the first and second district were combined into the District 1 of today.
District 1 is subdivided into ten wards, namely Bến Nghé, Bến Thành, Cô Giang, Cầu Kho, Cầu Ông Lãnh, Đa Kao, Nguyễn Thái Bình, Nguyễn Cư Trinh, Phạm Ngũ Lão, Tân Định. Each ward has its own People's Committee, subordinate to the People's Committee of District 1. District 1 has a population of 204,899 people over the total of 7,162,864 in Ho Chi Minh City, the largest city in Vietnam; the total area of the district is about 7.7211 km2. The District's density is 26,538 inhabitants per square kilometre high compared to Ho Chi Minh City 3,419/km2 and Vietnam's 259/km2 respective densities. District 1 is located towards the center of Ho Chi Minh City; the district area is divided into Bình Thạnh District and Phú Nhuận District with the Thị Nghè canal as a border, District 3 - Hai Bà Trưng street and Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai street as a northern border, District 2 in the east with Sai Gon River as the border, District 5 to the west with Nguyễn Văn Cừ street as the border, District 4 to the south, with the Bến Nghé canal as a border.
When Saigon was governed by South Vietnam, Air Vietnam's head office was located in District 1. District 1 is considered the financial center of Vietnam, it is home to the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange and Vietnamese headquarters of international banks such as HSBC, ANZ, Standard Chartered, Citi, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of China, Maybank. District 1 known as the best spot for shopping in Vietnam, with a high concentration of shopping centres and luxury brands. Ho Chi Minh City is Vietnam's biggest and busiest city, with a large population of immigrants from around the world living and working there; because District 1 is the city's central district, many foreign consulates are located there. Many of the best public schools in the city are located in District 1. Vietnam's system of private schools is new and is still in the developing stage. Kindergarten: University: Many grade A office towers are located in District 1, HCMC. Buildings such as the Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica, the Saigon Opera House, the Central Post Office, the City Hall, Phạm Ngũ Lão Street, the former Republic of Vietnam President's Reunification Palace, Hotel Majestic, Rex Hotel are some of the most famous historical sights in District 1.
Besides these places, most streets in District 1 built and designed since 1946 were completed by the French. Most of the buildings constructed since the French colonial era are still standing, with most having been renovated; the Bitexco Financial Tower is the tallest building in the city as of the beginning of 2016, a symbol of modernity mixed with cultural influences. In addition, the Bui Vien and Nguyen Hue districts are interesting places for visitors. From A To Z Experience Ho Chi Minh City District 1
People's Army of Vietnam
The People's Army of Vietnam known as the Vietnamese People's Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Defence Force, Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army; the military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng added in yellow at the top left. During the French Indochina War, the PAVN was referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army; this allowed writers, the U. S. military, the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong.
However, both groups worked under the same command structure. The Viet Cong was considered a branch of the VPA by the North Vietnamese. In 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history, it is recognized as one of the most battle-hardened and best trained militaries in Asia. The first historical record of Vietnamese military history dates back on the era of Hồng Bàng, the first recorded state in ancient Vietnam to have assembled military force. Since military plays a crucial role on developing Vietnamese history due to its turbulent history of wars against China, Cambodia and Thailand; the Southern expansion of Vietnam resulted with the destruction of Champa as an independent nation to a level that it didn't exist anymore. In most of its history, the Royal Vietnamese Armed Forces was regarded to be one of the most professional, battle-hardened and trained armies in Southeast Asia as well as Asia in a large extent.
The PAVN was first conceived in September 1944 at the first Revolutionary Party Military Conference as "armed propaganda brigades" to educate and mobilise the Vietnamese to create a main force to drive the French colonial and Japanese occupiers from Vietnam. Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades and the Armed Propaganda Unit for National Liberation came into existence on 22 December 1944; the first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, fourteen breech-loading flintlocks. The United States' OSS agents, led by Archimedes Patti –, sometimes referred as the founding father of the PAVN due to his role, had provided ammunitions as well as logistic intelligence and equipments and they had helped training these soldiers, become the vital backbone of the Vietnamese military to fight the Japanese occupiers as well as the future wars; the group was renamed the "Vietnam Liberation Army" in May 1945.
In September, the army was again renamed the "Vietnam National Defence Army". At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers. In 1950, it became the People's Army of Vietnam. Võ Nguyên Giáp went on to become the first full general of the VPA on 28 May 1948, famous for leading the PAVN in victory over French forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and being in overall command against U. S. backed South Vietnam at the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd'Capital' Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division well known as the Pioneer Division, was formed from the 88th Tu Vu Regiment and the 102nd Capital Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment. At that time, the 308th Division was backed by the 11th Battalion that became the main force of the 312th Division. In late 1951, after launching three campaigns against three French strongpoints in the Red River Delta, the PAVN refocused on building up its ground forces further, with five new divisions, each of 10–15,000 men, created: the 304th Glory Division at Thanh Hóa, the 312th Victory Division in Vinh Phuc, the 316th Bong Lau Division in the northwest border region, the 320th Delta Division in the north Red River Delta, the 325th Binh Tri Thien Division in Binh Tri Thien province.
In 1951, the first artillery Division, the 351st Division was formed, before Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, for the first time in history, it was equipped by 24 captured 105mm US howitzers supplied by the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The first six divisions became known as Iron' divisions. In 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Vietminh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd, 350th in the north of the DRV, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos. In 1957, the theatres of the war with the French were reorganis
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Phú Nhuận District
Phú Nhuận is one of the nineteen urban districts in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. It is densely populated, with 180,100 inhabitants in an area of just 4.88 km2. The Phu Nhuan District is sometimes considered the Center of Ho Chi Minh City due to its central location from all of the surrounding districts; as of 2003 the district had a population of 181,243. The district covers an area of 5 km². There are 15 wards in Phu Nhuan District: Ward 1, Ward 2, Ward 3, Ward 4, Ward 5, Ward 7, Ward 8, Ward 9, Ward 10, Ward 11, Ward 12, Ward 13, Ward 14, Ward 15, Ward 17. Phu Nhuan is an up and coming area, gaining popularity for young Vietnamese professionals; this district is famous for its secret cafes. There are a number of cafes in vintage styles. Chua Quan The Am - Famous Pagoda List of Restaurants and Cafes in the Phu Nhuan District Map of the Phu Nhuan District'Phu Nhuan Drama Center' Pictures of the Phu Nhuan District
District 2, Ho Chi Minh City
District 2, in which the new urban area of Thu Thiem is located, is an urban district of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. As of 2010, the district had a population of 140,621, a total area of 50 km²; the district has 11 phường, or wards: An Lợi Đông An Khánh An Phú Bình An Bình Khánh Bình Trưng Đông Bình Trưng Tây Cát Lái Thảo Điền Thủ Thiêm Thạnh Mỹ Lợi In the past, District 2 was one of the poorest parts of Ho Chi Minh City due to the separation by the Saigon River from the city center. However, it is now the one of the prioritized area for investment by the government of Ho Chi Minh City; the completion of Thu Thiem Bridge in 2008 and Thu Thiem Tunnel in 2011 were expected to support the development of the Thủ Thiêm New Urban Area. Thu Thiem Tunnel joins the central area of Ho Chi Minh City; the other connection of District 2 to the central city area is the Thu Thiem Bridge, which connects District 2 and Bình Thạnh District. The transportation to District 2 will be much easier when the metro, whose route passes through District 2, comes into use.
This will be the first metro in Vietnam, it will help Ho Chi Minh City to catch up with other developed cities in the world. The Vietnamese government is seeking to build a new district for wealthy citizens as well as a new economic center. Thanh Nien and Tuổi Trẻ, two newspapers in Vietnam, describe that the new District 2 will be as modern as Singapore and Hong Kong. Less prosperous agricultural workers of District 2 have been forced to move in slum clearance measures. Thatched houses will be replaced by multi-story house and villas. A few single-family homes will be constructed for those with large incomes. A large number of citizens would go on living in high-grade apartment blocks; each block contains swimming pools, tennis courts, shopping malls, other necessary services. There will be kindergartens, elementary schools, high schools, but there will be no university, as all the universities are being moved to Thu Duc district to form the University Village, another plan of the city government.
Beside the residential area will trade zone with modern skyscrapers. District 2 Thảo Điền ward, has a large portion of Ho Chi Minh City's expatriate community, as such has a large number of restaurants and shops selling European foods the high street Xuan Thuy. Traffic has become a major problem in District 2 due to its proximity to several international schools and many residents who travel by private vehicle. District 2 is home to many international schools because of the high number of foreign residents, because of its proximity to District 1. Below is a list of schools that are in this area: International School Ho Chi Minh City, 28 Vo Truong Toan Street, District 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam British International School Vietnam has the An Phu Primary and An Phu Secondary campuses Australian International School, Vietnam, 264 Mai Chi Tho Road, District 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam EUROPEAN International School Ho Chi Minh City Deutsche Schule HCMC – The International German School EtonHouse International Pre-School Franchise - An Phu, Somerset Vista, 628c Hanoi Highway, An Phu ward, District 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Đông Nam Bộ is a region in Vietnam. This region includes Ho Chi Minh City; the two southern provinces Ninh Thuận and Bình Thuận are sometimes seen as part of the Southeast region. This region is the most economically developed region in Vietnam. In 2006, this region contributed 148,000 billion VND out of 251,000 billion VND to the state budget; this region is the most urbanized in the country with more than 50% people living in urban areas. Southeast - 6 provinces: Bình Phước, Tây Ninh, Bình Dương, Đồng Nai, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu and Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh City is the largest city of Vietnam, with a population of more than 7.2 million. Bien Hoa is an industrial city, it is part of the Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area. Vũng Tàu is the hub as well as being a tourist destination. Tây Ninh Town, where Caodaism was born. Thủ Dầu Một, an industrial city, it is a part of Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area Đồng Xoài Town, the capital of Bình Phước Province. Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the largest airport in Vietnam, with the passenger traffic of 8.5 million in 2006 but it will be replaced by a larger newly constructed airport, Long Thanh International Airport after 2010.
Lien Khuong Airport is an important airport in this area. Saigon Port and several deep-water ports in Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu are the busiest ports in the country. National 1A and National Road 51, TransAsia Highway are the principal roads in this region
Army of the Republic of Vietnam
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam known as the South Vietnamese army, were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975. It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties during the Vietnam War; the ARVN began as a post-colonial army trained and affiliated with the United States and had engaged in conflict since its inception. Several dramatic changes occurred throughout its lifetime from a'blocking-force' to a more modern conventional force using helicopter deployment in combat. During the U. S. intervention, the role of the ARVN was marginalised to a defensive role with an incomplete modernisation, transformed again most notably following Vietnamization as it was up-geared and reconstructed to fulfil the role of the departing U. S. forces. By 1974, it had become much more effective with foremost counterinsurgency expert and Nixon adviser Robert Thompson noting that Regular Forces were well-trained and second only to U. S. and IDF forces in the free world and with General Creighton Abrams remarking that 70% of units were on par with the U.
S. Army. However, the withdrawal of American forces through Vietnamization meant the armed forces could not fulfil all the aims of the program and had become dependent on U. S. equipment, given it was meant to fulfill the departing role of the United States. At its peak, an estimated 1 in 9 citizens of South Vietnam were enlisted and it had become the fourth-largest army in the world composed of Regular Forces and more voluntary Regional Militias and Village-level militias. Unique in serving a dual military-civilian administrative purpose in direct competition with the Viet Cong political and armed wing, the PLAF; the ARVN had in addition became a component of political power and notably suffered from continual issues of political loyalty appointments, corruption in leadership, factional in-fighting and occasional open conflict between itself. After the fall of Saigon to the North Vietnamese army, the ARVN was dissolved. While some high-ranking officers had fled the country to the United States or elsewhere, thousands of former ARVN officers were sent to reeducation camps by the communist government of the new, unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Five ARVN generals commit suicide on Black April to avoid captured by PAVN/VC. On March 8, 1949, after the Élysée Accords the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by the Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại, the Vietnamese National Army was soon created; the VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including but not limited to the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Atlas and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA became a modern army modelled after the Expeditionary Corps, it included infantry, signals, armored cavalry, airforce, navy and a national military academy. By 1953 troopers as well as officers were all Vietnamese, the latter having been trained in Ecoles des Cadres such as Da Lat, including Chief of Staff General Nguyễn Văn Hinh, a French Union airforce veteran. After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam and Cambodia.
In 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên. On October 26, 1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who formally established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on December 30, 1955; the air force was known as the Vietnamese Air Force. Early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front, formed to oppose the Diệm administration; the United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid the ARVN in combating the insurgents. A major campaign, developed by Ngô Đình Nhu and resurrected under another name was the "Strategic Hamlet Program", regarded as unsuccessful by Western media because it was "inhumane" to move villagers from the countryside to fortified villages. ARVN leaders and President Diệm were criticized by the foreign press when the troops were used to crush armed anti-government religious groups like the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo as well as to raid Buddhist temples, which according to Diệm, were harboring NLF guerrillas.
The most notorious of these attacks occurred on the night of August 21, 1963, during the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids conducted by the Special Forces, which caused a death toll estimated to range into the hundreds. In 1963 Ngô Đình Diệm was killed in a coup d'état carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, but he was only the first in a succession of ARVN generals to assume the presidency of South Vietnam. During these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant, they were plagued by continuing problems of severe corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was critical of the ARVN, it continued to be US-armed and funded. Although the American news media has portrayed the Vietnam War as a American and North Vietnamese conflict, the ARVN carried the brunt of the fight before and after large-scale American involvement, participated in many major operations with American troops.