From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Xuecheng" redirects here. For the monk, see Xuecheng (monk).
1. Xuecheng (monk) – Xuecheng is a Buddhist monk, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference, and a popular blogger. He serves as abbot of Guanghua Temple, Famen Temple, in 2007 he was elected secretary general of the Buddhist Association of China, taking over the presidency of this organisation in 2015. He is the youngest monastic ever to ascend to the position, Xuecheng, named Fu Ruilin, was born as the eldest of three sons on October 3,1966, to a family of strong Buddhist culture in Luofeng village of Laidian Town, Xianyou County, Fujian Province. His grandmother was a Buddhist practitioner and later became a nun and his mother was a devoted Buddhist in addition. His father worked as an accountant and office clerk in the village, influenced by his mother and grandmother, at age 10, Xuecheng voluntarily became a vegetarian, and began to chant Buddhist scriptures at age of 12. In the evenings, he would chant and meditate until 9 p. m. before doing his homework for school and he began to cherish the idea of becoming a monk, but his parents disagreed at that time, and he had to obey. Xuecheng went to a school in Laidian Town, Xianyou County at the age of 8. From 1979 to 1982, he attended the Overseas Chinese Middle School in Xianyou County where he was an honorable student, during his free time, he frequently visited the nearby Wangsheng Temple. He felt a sense of affinity and familiarity whenever he was there and he especially liked the benevolent and peaceful countenance of the statues of Bodhisattvas. At that time in the village lived a lay Buddhist named Fu Jinfu. Dinghai and often brought Buddhist scriptures to Xuecheng, Xuecheng showed enormous interest in Buddhist classics. He loved to read biographies of eminent monks, in particular, Master Xuanzang, a great master of the Tang Dynasty. In 1982, at the age of just 16, Xuecheng started his monastic life and he soon received teachings from masters such as Ven. He completed his studies at the Buddhist Academy of China in 1991. Xuecheng asked to take refuge in the Three Jewels in 1981, in 1982 when he was in his third year of middle school with only one semester left until graduation, he asked for his parents permission to become a monk. His mother first took him to Dongshan Monastery, there a lay Buddhist named Liang Jinliang, the later Ven. Chide, suggested him to turn to a great Buddhist master, therefore, his mother and Fu Jinfu brought him to Ven. Master Yuanzhuo at Putian Guanghua Monastery, Xuecheng started his monastic life on the eighth day of the second month of the lunar calendar,1982Xuecheng (monk) – Xuecheng
2. Zaozhuang – Zaozhuang is a prefecture-level city in the south of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. The second smallest prefecture-level city in the province, only bigger than Laiwu, it borders Jining to the west and north, Linyi to the east, and the province of Jiangsu to the south. Its population is 3,729,140 at the 2010 census whom 899,753 in the area made of Shizhong and Yicheng districts. The prefecture-level city of Zaozhuang administers 6 county-level divisions, including 5 districts and 1 county-level city, beijing-Shanghai High Speed Railway and Beijing-shanghai railway locates Zaozhuang and zaozhuang west station, and zaolin railway is on operation from May 15,2016 connecting with yanri railway. Beijing Fuzhou highway also cross the region north to south. Micius, Warring States era philosopher and thinker Zaozhuang CityZaozhuang – Zaozhuang 枣庄市
3. Shandong – Shandong is a coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China, and is part of the East China region. Shandongs Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, and was established as the center of Confucianism. Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name Shandong mean mountain and east, Shandong could hence be translated literally as east of the mountains and refers to the provinces location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a power of its era. Lu, however, became renowned for being the home of Confucius, the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong which is 鲁. English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung, the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, and extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were eventually sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, at this time, Shandong was home to two major states, the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius, the state was, however, comparatively small, and eventually succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi was, on the hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Linzi, Jimo and Ju, the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE. The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong, Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south, during the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun, Shandong stayed with the Northern Dynasties for the rest of this period. The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, and the Tang dynasty presided over the golden age of ChinaShandong – A Song -era monument to a legendary native of Shandong, the Yellow Emperor, at his supposed birthplace
4. Provinces of China – Provinces, formally provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, the Peoples Republic of China claims sovereignty over the territory administered by the Republic of China, claiming most of it as its Taiwan Province. The ROC also administers some offshore islands which form Fujian Province and these were part of an originally unified Fujian province, which since the stalemate of the Chinese Civil War in 1949 has been divided between the PRC and ROC. Note that every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, the committee secretary is in effective charge of the province, rather than the nominal governor of the provincial government. The government of each province is nominally led by a provincial committee. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province, second-in-command is the governor of the provincial government, the Peoples Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as Taiwan Province. The territory is controlled by the Republic of China, a municipality or direct-controlled municipality is a higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their status is higher than that of common provinces. The governor of each region is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group. A special administrative region is an autonomous and self-governing subnational subject of the Peoples Republic of China that is directly under the Central Peoples Government. Each SAR has an executive as head of the region. The regions government is not fully independent, as policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government. Notes,1, as of 20102, per km23, km24, Abbreviation in the parentheses is informal 5, Since founding in 1949, however, the PRC has never controlled Taiwan. Taiwan currently administers Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, the subject of whether or not Taiwan is part of China is often debated, with no clear conclusion. The Ming Dynasty kept the system set up by the Yuan Dynasty, however. By the time of the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644 there were 18 provinces, in addition, there was a zongdu, a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces. Outer regions of China were not divided into provinces, military leaders or generals oversaw Manchuria, Xinjiang, and Mongolia, while vice-dutong and civilian leaders headed the leagues, a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans supervised the administration of Tibet, in 1884 Xinjiang became a province, in 1907 Fengtian, Jilin, and Heilongjiang were made provinces as wellProvinces of China – Map comparing administrative divisions as drawn by the PRC and ROC.
5. Jinan – Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994, Jinan is often called the Spring City for its famous 72 artesian springs. Its population was 7,067,900 in 2014 with a population of 4,693,700. The modern-day name Jinan literally means south of the Ji and refers to the old Ji River that had flowed to the north of the city until the middle of the 19th century. The Ji River disappeared in 1852 when the Yellow River changed its course northwards, the current pronunciation of the character Ji with the third tone was established in the late 1970s. Prior to this, it was pronounced with the fourth tone, older texts spell the name as Tsinan or Chi-nan. During the times of the Zhou dynasty, the city of Lixia was the settlement in the area. The name Lixia refers to the location of Jinan at the foot of Mount Li, today, Lixia is the name of one of the citys districts. Marco Polo gives a description of Jinan under the name Chingli or Chinangli. 19th and early 20th century texts frequently give the name of the city as Tsinan Fu where the additional Fu comes from the dated Chinese term for a provincial capital. Jinan is also referred to by the nickname City of Springs, because of the artesian springs in the urban city centre. The area of present-day Jinan has been inhabited for more than 4000 years, the Neolithic Longshan Culture was first discovered at the Chéngzǐyá site to the east of Jinan in 1928. One of the features of the Longshan Culture are the intricate wheel-made pottery pieces it produced. Most renowned is the black pottery with wall thicknesses that can go below 1 millimeter. During the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, the area of Jinan was split between two states, the state of Lu in the west and the state of Qi in the east. In 685 BCE, the state of Qi started to build the Great Wall of Qi across Changqing county, portions of the wall still remain today and are accessible as open air museums. Biǎn Què, according to the legend the earliest Chinese physician, Zou Yan, a native of Zhangqiu City, developed the concepts of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements. Joseph Needham, a British sinologist, describes Zou as The real founder of all Chinese scientific thought, during the times of the Han dynasty, Jinan was the capital of the Kingdom of Jibei and evolved into the cultural and economic hub of the regionJinan – Clockwise from top: Jinan's Skyline, Quancheng Square, Daming Lake, Furong Street, and Five Dragon Pool
6. Qingdao – Qingdao is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China. It is the largest city in its province, administered at the sub-provincial level, Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities. As of 2014 Qingdao had a population of 9,046,200 with a population of 6,188,100. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, qīng in Chinese means cyan or greenish-blue, while dǎo means island. Qingdao is a seaport, naval base, and industrial centre. The worlds longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district. It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China, in 2007, Qingdao was named as among Chinas top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. In 2009, Qingdao was named Chinas most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness, jiāoào, former name during the Qing dynasty. Qindao, additional modern name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the coastline, Tsingtao, Postal romanization Tsingtau, German name during the concession period, written in German romanization of Chinese. Jiaozhou, a name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay. Kiaochow, Kiauchau, Kiautschou, romanizations of Jiaozhou, human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years. The Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou, Longshan, in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the town of Jimo was established, which was then the second largest one in the Shandong region. The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiaoao when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891, in 1891, the Qing government decided to make coastal Tsingtao a defense base against naval attack and began to improve Qingdaos existing fortifications. German naval officials observed and reported on this Chinese activity during a survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops seized and occupied the fortification, China conceded the area to Germany the following year, and the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English, the so-called Marktstrasse was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, and the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers. Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the further eastQingdao – Clockwise from top left: Qingdao skyline, St. Michael's Cathedral, Qingdao harbour by night, a temple at the base of Mount Lao, and May Fourth Square
7. Shinan District – Shinan District is an urban district of Qingdao, Shandong. It has an area of 30.01 square kilometres and had approximately 527,000 inhabitants as of 2007, Shinan is located in coastal hilled terrain, and has a temperate monsoon climate. Common features include moderate temperatures, moist air, abundant rainfall and it is notable for its early 20th-century German architecture, unusual in Chinese cities. In the mid-19th century the European powers forcibly opened China to foreign trade, Germany acquired the Kiautschou Bay concession from China in 1898, and substantially developed a fishing village they spelled Tsingtao. The area built by the Germans falls into the part of Qingdao known today as Shinan District, Shinan is a center for political, business and finance activities, and is home to investment from an increasing number of Fortune 500 companies. To facilitate urban planning, it is divided into a number of areas, including a port and logistics area, tourism area, software/IT area, high-end retail area, Shinan is home to the Qingdao International Sailing Centre, a world-class sailing marina constructed for the 2008 Summer Olympics. It hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Sailing competitions and it has also hosted a leg of the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race each year since 2005. After Chinas defeat in the First Opium War, the country was opened to foreign trade by a number of treaties collectively referred to as the Unequal Treaties. Following the Treaty of Nanjing, the British established the first treaty ports, following Chinas concession to the British Empire, other foreign powers including France, the United States, Portugal, Germany, Japan, and Russia won concessions as well. Foreigners, who were centered in foreign sections of the cities, foreign clubs, racecourses, and churches were established in major treaty ports. Some of these areas were directly leased by foreign powers, such as the concessions in China. In the early 1890s, the German Empire had been considering occupying Jiaozhou Bay for building its first naval base in East Asia in order to expand into the interior of Shandong. In 1891 the Qing government decided to make Qingdao defensible against naval attack, German naval officials observed and reported on this Chinese activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. In November 1897, the German Navy seized Jiaozhou Bay under the pretext of ensuring that reparations were paid for the murder of two German Catholic missionaries in the province, the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the further east. The buildings were built in a European style and this area is what later became Shinan District. The territory reverted to Chinese control in 1922, the Japanese reoccupied Qingdao in January 1938 after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese WarShinan District – Shinan District as seen from the harbor
8. Laoshan District – Laoshan District is an urban district of Qingdao, Shandong. It has an area of 858 square kilometres and had approximately 379,500 inhabitants as of 2010 and it is home to Mount Lao, which gave the district its name. Laoshan District is located in the south of the Shandong Peninsula, facing the Yellow Sea in the east and it covers 858 km2 with 103.7 km2 of coastline. The mountain ranges of Laoshan cover most of the part of the district. The district belongs to north temperature zone, with a temperate climate. There is neither intense heat in summer nor severe cold in winter, most of the district is highland with the average altitude of 55m and surface water of 3m. There is abundant high quality ground water, in fact, Laoshan mineral water is renowned and sold China-wide. Natural resources are abundant, with granite being the prevalent mineral in the area, Laoshan District is home to several Hi-tech industries, tourism and a large service-based industry. In terms of Hi-Tech, the focus is laid on IT, Software, Marine Biological Pharmacy, emphasis has been put on sustainable development and green technology, taking advantage of the still-intact mountain forests and the seaside. The Qingdao International Convention And Exhibition Center with an area of 250,000 m2 is currently remains the largest venue for exhibition and convention purposes in Shandong province. It was put into use in April,2001 and ever since has marked a rapid development phase of Qingdao exhibition and convention economy. Tourism is also essential to the district, with a variety of recreational, ecological, seaside sight-seeing tourism facilities including the Polar Ocean World. The main tourist attraction within the district is Mount Lao itself, with about 176,000 tourists visiting during the 2012 Golden Week. Other tourist destinations include the Qingdao Museum （青岛市博物馆）, Haier Museum, Qingdao Grand Theatre, Laoshan District is home to over 65 schools and institutions of higher education. Peoples Government of Laoshan District, Qingdao City websiteLaoshan District – Laoshan District Government
9. Chengyang District – Chengyang is a district of Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples Republic of China. It has an area of 553.2 square kilometres and around 740,000 inhabitants, the district is located at the northern outskirts of Qingdao City proper. Qingdao Liuting Airport is located near the area of the district. Chengyang includes mountainous areas and plains and features sizable agriculture, Qingdao Airlines has its headquarters in the district. Malvern College Qingdao is located in this districtChengyang District – Rice fields in Chengyang
10. Prefecture-level city – Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities generally have the rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities, a prefectural level city is a city and prefecture that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. The larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres, prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, and other such sub-divisions. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its urban area. The first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983, over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures, the process is still ongoing. Most provinces are composed entirely or nearly entirely of prefectural level cities, shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities. There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city, Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. Thus, Bloomington, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, which is distinct from, and enclosed by, in China, however, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose counties or other cities, on a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may also be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States and this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources. For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, and attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town, Shawan, because it is too small, and Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, and is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled Leshan. A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are generally reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the relatively unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, furthermore, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the area of Huangshi, and had a map of Huangshi, and a table of its population by districtPrefecture-level city – A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" (黄石市区) rather than simply " Huangshi " (黄石). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located already within Huangshi prefectural level city (immediately upon entering its Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the Huangshi main urban area.
11. Zibo – Zibo is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, China. It borders the capital of Jinan to the west, Laiwu and Taian to the southwest, Linyi to the south, Weifang to the east, Dongying to the northeast. Located in the centre of Shandong, Zibo is an important transportation hub, Zibo governs 5 districts and each of these districts has a distinct downtown area of its own. The T-shaped city has an area of 5,938 km2, including the counties of Huantai, Gaoqing. Zibo was the centre of the ancient State of Qi, whose capital Linzi was the most populous city in the east about 3000 years ago, Zibo is the birthplace of ancient football Cuju, which according to FIFA, was the earliest form of the sport. Pu Songling, a writer of the Qing Dynasty, is one of the most famous people from Zibo. As the birthplace of Qi culture along with its abundance in natural resources, manufacturing holds an important place of the citys economy, in particular ceramics manufacturing. Other key industries include the industry, pharmaceuticals, metallurgy, construction materials, machinery. High and new-technology industries, such as new materials, fine chemicals, electronics and information, in 2009, the city received the award of Best 10 Harmonious Cities that enjoy Sustainable Development in China. Zibo is considered as one of the birthplaces of the Han Chinese, the remains of three major Neolithic cultures in ancient China, Beixin culture, Dawenkou culture, and Longshan culture have been found in Zibo. Zibo was once the capital of the ancient State of Qi, the most prosperous state during the Spring and Autumn, the culture and education undertakings were rather developed in Qi. Both poetry and music were at a high level, Linzi remained its capital for as long as 638 years, and was the biggest city in East Asia. As the birthplace of the Qi Culture, Zibo has many scenic spots. All of them exemplify the past prosperity of the Qi State, the ancient city of Qi was one of the first places that was assigned to be a cultural relics site in China so it has been protected from demolition ever since. As such, it is rich in relics and historical sites and is referred to as the Underground Museum. Zibo made significant contributions to the formation and prosperity of the Silk Road, Zibo was one of the biggest suppliers of silk products. Zhoucun, one of the townships in Zibo, was considered one of the four dry ports during that period alongside Foshan, Jingdezhen, the major trade streets such as Dajie, Sishijie, Yinzijie are well preserved to this date. In 2004, FIFA President Sepp Blatter visited Zibo to celebrate FIFAs 100th year anniversary, FIFA has since then recognized the city as the birthplace of footballZibo – Views of Liuquan Square in downtown Zichuan District
12. Zichuan District – The Zichuan District is one of eight divisions within the city of Zibo in the Chinese province of Shandong. As the largest district of Zibo, it is composed of an urban zone of over 23 square kilometers and 17 towns that administer vast rural areas up to nearly 1,000 square kilometers. Initially founded in Han Dynasty, which dates back to 1,800 years ago, Zichuan has become an important industrial center not only in Zibo, the downtown area has an estimated population of 20,000 while the total population of Zichuan District is over 670,000. South in Zichuan are twisting mountains which belong to part of the range of Shandong Hills, during the first years of West Han Dynasty, Zichuan was set up with its Panyang as its first name as a county. Panyang means south of River Pan, Zichuan City was once a stone-walled city with four big gates in the Ming Dynasty and extended to its present scale mainly in the recent decades. Zichuan is also a name connected to river, zi is a might river miles away to the west, and Chuan is river in Chinese. After thousands of years slow development relying on agriculture, Zichuan had undergone an economic breakthrough since the discovery of its coal resource, the years when China was under colonial invasion a century ago the 1800s, it was the German who start dig coals first. Following the foundation of new China, or the Peoples Republic of China, in 1956, under the jurisdiction of Zichuan City, four street offices are set to take charge of the citizens daily affairs such as education, sanitation and community services. Usually, the city is divided into areas, Nanguan, Beiguan, Dongguan, Xiguan, Hongshan, Chengnan, Huangjiapu. Well-known landmarks of Zichuan City include Middle Streets, Liuquan Square, Lake Liuxian, Zichuan Garments Town, Liaozhai Town, Zichuan has a typical economic structure of heavily industrialized zones. In 2008, Proportion of the first industry, the second industry, total GDP the year is 25.85 billion Yuan. The large concentration of architectural ceramics of Zichuan make 60% of the output of Zibos ceramics industry. They also count for 30% of the GDP in Zichuan, Zichuan also boasts for Zichuan Garments Town-one of Chinas biggest cloths markets. An annual Domestic trading expo of quite large scale is held within the market, the cost living of Zichuan and the whole Zibo area is among the lowest in East China-the most prosperous region in China. Housing costs are still on a level along of the development of the economy. Housing prices of it is the third or fourth-highest of the five districts in ZiboZichuan District – Liuquan Square located in downtown Zichuan
13. Dongying – Dongying, a prefecture-level city, lies on the northern coast of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. At the 2010 census,2,035,338 people resided within its area of 7,923.26 km2 and 998,968 in the built-up area made up of Dongying district. Dongying is home to the Shengli Oilfield which after the Daqing oilfield is the second largest oilfield in China, the city was established in 1983, as a base for developing the Yellow River Delta and Chinas second largest oilfield, Shengli Field. The oilfield was discovered in 1964 near a village called Dongying. Dongying is located on the banks of the Yellow River Delta of Northern Shandong Province, the citys 350 km coastline borders Laizhou Bay and Bohai Bay to the east and north respectively. Dongying has a monsoon-influenced, four-season climate that lies in the transition between the continental and humid subtropical regimes, with hot, humid summers, and cold. The city is dry and nearly rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 13.1 °C, and the precipitation is 559 millimetres, with a strong summer maximum. January is the coldest and driest month, with a temperature of −2.6 °C and 5.5 mm of equivalent rainfall. July is the hottest and wettest month, the numbers are 26.8 °C. A large part of the economy revolves around petroleum and the nearby Shengli Oil Field. Dongying is one of the leading producers of rubber tires. It has more tire factories than any city in the world. Recently, Dongyings economy has grown significantly, reflecting the development of Chinas economy. The citys growing manufacturing sector and its proximity to oil reserves have led to increased company investments, an example is DuPont, which invested 5 billion yuan in 2005 to build a titanium dioxide factory in the area. After this projects completion, it became the largest investment outside of the US for DuPont, zibo–Dongying Railway Dongying Shengli Airport A new bus station was built between the east and west sides of the city, on Huanghe Road. Connections to Beijing, Qingdao and Jinan, among other cities are available on a daily basis. Dongying is home to one university, the China University of Petroleum, as well as several collegesDongying – Location of Dongying City administration in Shandong
14. Yantai – Yantai, formerly known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a prefecture-level city on the Bohai Strait in northeastern Shandong Province, China. Lying on the southern coast of the Korea Bay, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and it is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan. The name Yantai derives from the watchtowers constructed on Mount Qi in 1398 under the reign of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty, the towers were used to light signal fires and send smoke signals, called langyan from their supposed use of wolf dung for fuel. At the time, the area was troubled by the Dwarf Pirates, initially raiders from the states in Japan. It was also formerly romanized as Yen-tai, the major district of Yantai is Zhifu, which used to be the largest independent city in the area. It was variously romanized as Chefoo, Che-foo, Chi-fu, although this name was used for the city by foreigners prior to the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, the locals referred to the settlement as Yantai throughout. During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the region was inhabited by indigenous peoples known to the Chinese as the Eastern Barbarians. Under the Zhou, they were colonized and sinicized as the state of Lai. Lai was annexed by Qi in 567 BC, under the First Emperor, the area was administered as the Qi Commandery. Under the Han, this was renamed as the Donglai Commandery, following the Three Kingdoms Period, the area was organized by the Jin as the Donglai Kingdom or Principality, later returning to prefecture status as a jùn and then zhōu. Under the Tang and during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, it was known as Deng Prefecture and it was then organized as the Laizhou and then, under the Qing, Dengzhou Commandery. Up to the 19th century, however, the Zhifu area consisted of nothing, following the Second Opium War, the Qing Empire was obliged to open more treaty ports by the unequal 1858 Treaty of Tianjin, including Tengchow. Its port being found inadequate, Zhifu—about 30 miles away—was selected to act as the seat of the foreign commerce. The mooring was at considerable distance from shore, necessitating more time and expense in loading and unloading, the harbor opened in May 1861, with its status as an international port affirmed on 22 August. The official decree was accompanied by the construction of the Donghai Pass and it quickly became the residence of a circuit intendant, customs house, and a considerable foreign settlement located between the old native town and the harbor. Britain and sixteen other nations established consulates in the town, the principal traders were the British and Americans, followed by the Germans and Thais. The town also traded Chinese liquors and sundries for the seaweed grown in the shallows of the Russian settlements around Port Arthur. In 1875, the murder of the British diplomat Augustus Margary in Tengchong, Yunnan, led to a crisis that was resolved in Zhifu by Thomas WadeYantai – Yantai Skyline
15. Longkou – Longkou, formerly Huang County, is a port city in northeastern Shandong province, China, facing the Bohai Sea to the north and the Laizhou Bay to the west. Longkou, a city, is administered by the prefecture-level city of Yantai. The total population of Longkou is 620,000, Longkou was formerly known as Huang County, and was renamed to the current name in 1986. Its administrative area covers 893 km2 and contains a coastline of 68.4 km, Longkou is quite mountainous in the south and flat plains to the north. It has with low hills in the southeast and littoral plains in the northwest, there are mountains and rivers surrounding Longkou. The annual average temperature within the city is 11.7 °CLongkou – Nanshan Temple in Longkou
16. Penglai, Shandong – Penglai, formerly known as Dengzhou or Tengchow, is a county-level city belonging to the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong Province, in the Peoples Republic of China. It lies on the northwest corner of the Shandong Peninsula on the southern coast of the Gulf of Bohai, the city is famous for its mirages out at sea, which are frequent during May and June. Penglai is entirely surrounded by other divisions of Yantai, Fushan District is to the east, Longkou City to the west, the Martial Emperor of Han later also visited the area while searching for the elixir of immortality. The old city walls incorporate guard towers of three stories because the uncle of the first emperor of the 6th-century Sui dynasty had been prince of the area, under the Ming, the harbor was fortified and used by the warjunks of the imperial navy. Following the Second Opium War, Dengzhou became the first port opened to foreigners on the Shandong Peninsula in 1858, the harbor was found inadequate for the traders, however, and Zhifu was developed 30 miles away to function as Dengzhous port. 374,400 Penglai citizens work in agriculture, with the remaining 75,600 in various other sectors, Penglai has been ranked by the Chinese government as a top domestic tourist destination. Its Water Fortress, a harbor, is one of Chinas oldest military ports. It was built under the Ming in 1376 and housed a fleet of warjunks and it is now a protected historical monument being renovated at a cost of 500m RMB. There is a walk along the cliffs nearby. More than US$25 million has also invested into developing the Penglai Pavilion. The Penglai Pavilion is a park of ancient buildings, palaces and temples. It has been a tourist goal for more than a thousand years, among other cultural attractions of Penglai are the Naval Museum with exhibits of ancient ships and the restored residence of the famous patriotic general Qi Jiguang. Penglai also has the largest ocean aquarium in Asia and it includes a polar area, a shark hall, a tropical rainforest, and a theater with mermaids, dolphins and sea lions. A picturesque festival takes place in January for the birthday of Tianhou, the production of wine is the second largest industry in the province. However, in Penglai, tourism is the industry. The hills south of Penglai have an elevation of 200 metres. Most of the soil is loose, well-aerated, and rich in minerals, the wineries are located mainly in the Nanwang Grape Valley and along the Yan-Peng Sightseeing Highway. The main varieties grown there, like Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt, Merlot, Riesling and Chardonnay, are all reaching 20 years of age, most of them maintain an average sugar content of above 20%Penglai, Shandong – Penglai City viewed from the Penglai Pavilion
17. Changdao County – The Changdao County is a county in Yantai, an area of Shandong in the Peoples Republic of China. It consists of the Changshan Island chain in the Bohai Sea and they are known for their sandy beaches and picturesque limestone cliffs. The total land area is only 56 square kilometers, but the coastline is 146 km long, ten of the islands are occupied, and there are twenty-two uninhabited islands, some little more than sand spits. There is one town, Touji Town, population 8,495. The major occupation is farming, producing products such as sea cucumbers, abalone, sea urchins, bivalves, kelp, scallops. Tourism is also important, many of the villages sport resort hotels, the islands are regularly served by both a passenger and vehicle Roll On, Roll Off ferry from Penglai. There is a military airport on the largest island, Changdao Island. Both Changdao National Forest Park and Changdao National Nature Reserve are located on the islands, the islands are often referred to as the Temple Islands because of the large number of temples that were built there. Xianying Palace is a temple that was built during the Northern Song Dynasty and it was originally a Taoist temple to the sea goddess Matsu, but became Buddhist later. At the present time the government has restored the temple to its Ming Dynasty appearance. Changdao Island was previously closed to non-Chinese nationals, westerners found on the island were swiftly taken to the passenger ferry terminal and placed on the next ferry back to Penglai by the islands Police service. Islanders promptly reported all outsiders to the police service. Police explained the reasons for this, due to the number of military installations on the Island. The Changdao Islands are now open to nationals, including westerners This was agreed by the local and national governments as of 1 December 2008. Official Changdao County website Changdao website from Yantai IDB development corporationChangdao County – A view of Nanchangshan Island (南长山岛), one of the Changdao Islands
18. Weifang – For the World War II civilian internment camp at Weifang see Weihsien Compound. Weifang is a city in central Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. The city borders Dongying to the northwest, Zibo to the west, Linyi to the southwest, Rizhao to the south, Qingdao to the east, and looks out to the Laizhou Bay to the north. Its population was 9,086,241 at the 2010 census, of whom 2,659,938 lived in the area made up of 4 urban districts. Weifang has numerous natural and historic sites, such as Shihu Garden, Fangong Pavilion, fossil sites, Mount Yi National Forest Park, Mount Qingyun, painted New Year woodcuts from Yangjiabu are also well known. The prefecture-level city of Weifang administers 12 county-level divisions, including 4 districts,6 county-level cities and 2 counties, nearby major cities include Jinan and Zibo to the west, Yantai to the northeast and Qingdao to the southeast. Weifang has a monsoon-influenced, four-season climate, on the borderline between humid continental and humid subtropical, with hot, humid summers, and cold but dry winters. Monthly daily average temperatures range from −2.9 °C in January to 26.2 °C in July, more than 70% of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September, and sunshine is generally abundant year-round. A majority of the precipitation occurs in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47% in July to 62% in April, established in August 1995, Weifang Binhai Economic & Technological Development Area is a national economic and technological development area approved by the State Council. Covering an area of 677 km2, BEDA has a population of 100,000, BEDA possesses a large state-owned industrial land for use with an area of 400 km2. The land can be transacted conveniently which would guarantee the demand of any project construction, the city is home to the large diesel engine company and factory Weichai. The village of Yangjiabu in Hanting District is famous for folk wood-block print, in the 1980s, a large sapphire mine was discovered in Changle. According to released information, billions of carats of sapphire are estimated to lie under the 450 km2 mine territory and it has become one of the top four sapphire mines in the world. The main feature of this sapphire is the blue or close to black color because of the high iron content. Weifang is headquarters of the 26th Group Army of the Peoples Liberation Army, Kite flying is a traditional custom among the people in Weifang in spring time. In 1984, the first international festival was held in Weifang. More than ten thousand fans attended the opening ceremonyWeifang – Dongfeng Street in Downtown Weifang
19. Changyi, Shandong – Changyi is a county-level city of Weifang in the northwest corner of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. The city is 1627.5 square kilometers in area, with a population of 581,000 as of 2010. The city is under the administration of the Changyi Municipal Peoples Government, with 3 neighborhoods,6 towns,691 administrative villages, and one special economic development zone. Changyi has a history that extends back into the Spring and Autumn period Changyi, from the Chinese characters 昌 for prosperous and 邑 for city. Changyi was originally known as Ziyi and Duchang, as it was named Duchang County by the Qin Dynasty, the area was renamed “Changyi” during the Northern Song Dynasty in 962 AD, and has retained its name since then. Changyi is over 2200 years old, in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, the city served as the manor of Yanzi and Sun Bin. In 1988, Changyi was designated by the Central Government of China as “coastal open city”, situated on southern Laizhou Bay area of Bohai Sea, it neighbors with Yantai, Laizhou, Qingdao, and Pingdu to its east, and Weifang City to its west. It belongs to the Qingdao One-hour Economic Zone” and “Weifang Half-hour Economic Zone. ”It has Shandong’s largest reservoir, the city has a total area of 1627.5 square kilometers. Changyis Petrochemical industry has a processing capacity of 10 million tons. Changyis salt and salt chemical industry produces crude salt with a production capacity of 4 million tons. The bromine production capacity of Changyi by the Shandong JinDian Chemical Company is 40,000 tons a year, machinery manufacturing includes textile machinery, plastic machinery, broaching machines, auto parts. The auto parts manufacturing, particularly by Consolidated Metcos Shandong branch, is the largest production base in China for large automotive wheels, brake drums, the Tyson plant processes up to 80,000 chickens per day. The aquaculture industry currently has factory farming area of 230,000 square meters, producing over 140,000 tons of aquatic products, industry of seedlings has seedlings of 1647.369 acres, seedling stock of 200 million annual turnover of 500 million RMB. The city has been named an advanced city for science. Swiss electric company direct drive permanent magnet wind turbine won 11 national patents and is designated as one of the 2011 key projects of Shandong Province, Changyi City has 53 km of coastline,430 mu of shallow sea area, over 300 thousand mu of tidal flats. In recent years, construction of the areas has built up an opportunity of national strategic importance. The first is the strategic planning based on location and resources to establish development goals to one city, one district, one port. One city means to construct the city of advanced economy, complete and perfect infrastructure, sound ecological environmentChangyi, Shandong – Wind turbines along the Bohai coast of Changyi City
20. Zhucheng – Zhucheng is a county-level city in the southeast of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. It is under the administration of Weifang City and had at the 2010 census a population of 1,086,222 even though its area is much smaller. Zhucheng was originally known as Langya and it was from here that Emperor Qin Shi Huang sent Xu Fu sailing towards Japan in 210 BC, in pursuit of the elixir of youth. The Song Dynasty painter Zhang Zeduan was born in Zhucheng and it was also the birthplace of Mao Zedongs last wife and leader of the Gang of Four, Jiang Qing. Zhao Shucong, vice-governor of Anhui province, is a native of Zhucheng, in 2005, Zhucheng had a total output value of RMB20.8 billion and an average annual growth rate of 16%. Zhucheng is projected to continue its 16% annual growth rate and attain a total value of RMB43.6 billion by 2010. The Zhucheng Industrial Park was approved by the Shandong Provincial Government in 1992 and its total area spans 25 square kilometres. For 2001, exports were US$68.92 million, and revenue was 83.17 million yuan, Zhucheng is about an hours drive from Qingdao city. The local community is known to use calcium rich fossils for traditional village remedies used to treat muscle cramps, the worlds largest hadrosaurid fossil was found in Zhucheng in the 1980s and is on display in the local museum. Scientists have collected more than 50 metric tons of fossils since 1960, the city has also been a place for smuggling of dinosaur bones, in January 2008, Australia returned hundreds of kilograms of Chinese dinosaur fossils, including dinosaur fossil eggs. These fossils were recovered during an operation carried out on warehouses. The latest sites to be discovered are near the towns of Longdu, Shunwang, Jiayue, the palaeontologists believe they have found one of the biggest sites of dinosaur remains from a massive excavation pit. The fossilized bones date to the late Cretaceous period just prior to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, the findings also include the remains of a 20-meter hadrosaurid, a record size for the duck-billed dinosaur. A fossilized skull of a large ceratopsian was also found along with bones which belong to club-tailed ankylosaurs, such a high concentration of fossil bones in such a small area is significant for the theories of extinction of dinosaurs. A detailed scientific journal on the fossils is expected to be published later in 2009, excavations are currently suspended for the winter but will resume when the weather gets warmer. Scientists believe a volcanic eruption may have killed the dinosaurs, and a subsequent flood carried the fossils to Zhucheng, the local authorities in Shandong are making plans to set up a fossil park in the area. Zhucheng is heavily industrialized and is one of the few cities of China exceeding a million inhabitants. The major ethnic groups comprising the city include Han Chinese, Manchu, Korean, the city has a Christian population of approximately of 19,000Zhucheng – Location of Zhucheng (red) within Weifang City, and location of Weifang City within Shandong province
21. Shouguang – Shouguang is a county-level city located in Weifang Prefecture-level city, Shandong Province, China. It has 1,139,454 people residing within the municipality and its towns and villages. The city is located thirty minutes east of Zibo, thirty to forty minutes west of downtown Weifang. From Shouguang, and driving at legal highway speeds, one could reach Beijing in approximately seven hours, Shouguang is flourishing and has a modern downtown area and a new six-lane highway leading from the Jiqing Expressway into the heart of the city. The local government is focused on developing the citys service, industry. The city hosts a fair every year around May 1. The artwork is displayed at the convention center and ten large plant exhibition halls. The visit and the efforts of the head and farmers were featured on national news programs. San Yuan Wang has since erected a sign displaying Hu. Due to the citys large year-round harvests, many trading and trucking companies have opened operations in Shouguang. The city has an auction house, which provides residents knowledgeable of harvest amounts with substantial extra income through the rapid buying and selling of crops. Buying and selling of crops can be conducted online as well as at the auction house, Chinas first Vegetable Museum opened in Shouguang, Shandong Province in April 2010, covering an area of 3,000 square metersShouguang – 寿光 Shouguang city. Bank of China.
22. Jining – Jining is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong province. It borders Heze to the southwest, Zaozhuang to the southeast, Taian to the northeast, Jining, which is located right to the north of the Lake Nanyang, is today the northernmost city reachable by navigation on the Grand Canal of China. Its population was 8,081,905 at the 2010 census, of whom 1,241,012 lived in the area made up of Rencheng urban district on 884 km2. The name Jining was first given to the region in the year 1271 during the Song dynasty, although the exact area, temples to a number of these philosophers still exist in various parts of the prefecture. Liangshan, a county of Jining, is famous as the principal setting of the Chinese literary classic. The prefecture-level city of Jining administers 11 county-level divisions, including 2 districts,2 county-level cities and 7 counties, an industrial city, Jining has a coal-fired power station, the Jining Power Plant. The city is served by Jining Airport, xiaoting Pan, the first professional pool player from China to play full-time on the Womens Professional Billiard Association tourJining – Zoucheng, Jining
23. Yanzhou District – Not to be confused with Yangzhou in Jiangsu Yanzhou is a district and former county-level city under the administration of Jining, in the southwest of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. Yanzhou has a monsoon-influenced, four-season climate that lies in the transition between the subtropical and humid continental regimes. Winters are cold and dry summers are hot and humid. Monthly daily average temperatures range from −1.3 °C in January to 26.8 °C, more than 70% of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September, with barely any occurring in the winter months. The city receives 2,461 hours of sunshine annually. Giuseppe Sportelli has been bishop from 2008 to 2011, Yanzhou Coal Mining Company is headquartered in Yanzhou. Beijing–Shanghai Railway Yanzhou-Shijiusuo Railway Xinxiang–Yanzhou Railway Government website of Yanzhou Yanzhou Daily on NetYanzhou District – Cathedral of the Holy Spirit of Yanzhou
24. Qufu – Qufu is a city in southwestern Shandong Province, near the eastern coast of China. It is located about 130 kilometres south of the provincial capital Jinan and 45 kilometres northeast of the seat at Jining. Qufu has an population of about 60,000. Qufu is best known as the hometown of Confucius, who is believed to have been born at nearby Mount Ni. The city contains numerous historic palaces, temples and cemeteries, the three most famous cultural sites of the city, collectively known as San Kong, i. e. The Three Confucian, are the Temple of Confucius, the Cemetery of Confucius, together, these three sites have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994. The name Qufu literally means crooked hill, and refers to a hill that was part of the city during its time as capital of the state of Lu. During the Shang, the area around Qufu was home to the people of Yan, along with Pugu and Xu, Yan joined the Shang prince Wu Geng and the Three Guards in their failed rebellion against the Duke of Zhou c. 1142 BC. After the rebels defeat, the Duke launched punitive campaigns against the Dongyi, forcing their submission, the territory of the Yan became part of the state of Lu, who made Qufu their capital throughout the Spring and Autumn period. This city had walls considerably larger than the present Ming-era fortifications, including land to the east. During the Tang Dynasty and the days of the Song Dynasty the city was centered around the present-day Temple of Duke Zhou. A temple in honor of the Yellow Emperor was built there, after the conquest of the northern China by the Jurchens, the new Jin Dynasty renamed Xianyuan back to Qufu, but the city stayed at its Song location. It was not until the reign of the Jiajing Emperor of the Ming Dynasty that the city wall was built. The site of the city in 1012-1522 is now Jiuxian Village, from that time up until the Yuan dynasty, there were two Duke Yanshengs, once in the north in Qufu and the other in the south at Quzhou. An invitation to come back to Qufu was extended to the southern Duke Yansheng Kong Zhu by the Yuan dynasty Emperor Kublai Khan. The title was taken away from the branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation. The southern branch still remained in Quzhou where they lived to this day, confuciuss descendants in Quzhou alone number 30,000. The Hanlin Academy rank of Wujing boshi 五經博士 was awarded to the branch at Quzhou by a Ming Emperor while the northern branch at Qufu held the title Duke YanshengQufu – Qufu's south gate
25. Zoucheng – Zoucheng is a county-level city in the south of Shandong province in China. Before it became a city, it was known as Zou County or Zouxian, Zoucheng is located about 20 km south of the city of Qufu, and like Qufu, is administratively under the prefecture-level city of Jining. Its population was 1,116,692 at the 2010 census even though its area is much smaller. The philosopher Mencius was born in Zoucheng, then within the feudal State of Zou and his descendants lived in Zoucheng all the way to the present. Some of them migrated to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War, in the present day, there are four major sites in the city relating to Mencius, the Mencius Temple, the Mencius Family Mansion, the Mencius Forest, and Mencius Mothers Forest. The Mencius Temple, which covers an area of more than 4 hectares on the side of town, has five courtyards and sixty-four halls. Its history dates back to the year 1037 in the Northern Song dynasty, the Mencius Mansion, where his descendants lived, is adjacent to the temple, and has 116 halls and rooms. According to the management of the Mencius Temple, the grounds house over 270 stone steles and sculptures. Among them are some Yuan dynasty stelae with inscriptions in Phags-pa script, immediately to the north of Zoucheng lies the tomb of the King of Lu of the Ming dynasty. It is the tomb of Zhu Tan, the son of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty. There is also a tomb from the Han dynasty. Zoucheng Railway Station on the Beijing-Shanghai Railway Frequent bus service to the nearby Qufu, menciuss sites- Meng family mansion 孟府, Temple of Mencius 孟廟, and Cemetery of Mencius 孟林 Zoucheng municipal websiteZoucheng – A Zoucheng landscape
26. Jiaxiang County – Jiaxiang County is a county of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. It is under the administration of Jining City, the population was 871,920 in 2011. The cultural heritage site of the Carved Stones in the Tombs of the Wu Family is in this county, in 1961, it was added to the list of national historical and cultural monuments. The county is home to the temple of Zengzi, a Confucian disciple. The Jining Qufu Airport is located in the part of the countyJiaxiang County – Jiaxiang central township
27. Weihai – Weihai is a city in eastern Shandong province, China. It is the easternmost prefecture-level city of the province and a major seaport, Weihai borders Yantai to the west and the Yellow Sea to the east. Weihais population was 2,804,800 at the 2010 census, amongst them,591,982 live in the built up area. Rongcheng, a city within Weihai, has a built up area with 1,006,795 inhabitants. The minor planet 207931 Weihai is named after this city, Weihaiwei port was the base for the Beiyang Fleet during the Qing Dynasty. In 1895, the Japanese captured it in the Battle of Weihaiwei, the Japanese then evacuated on 24 May 1898, when its occpated by the British. Weihaiwei was under British rule from 1 July 1898, under agreement with the Chinese empire, until 1930. A Royal Navy base was built on Liugong Island, Weihaiwei became a special administrative region after it was returned to the Republic of China in 1930, but Liukung-tao and its facilities are leased back to the U. K. until 11 Nov 1940. In 1938, the Roman Catholic Independent Mission of Weihai was promoted to Apostolic Prefecture of Weihai, in 1949, Weihaiwei City was established, and was renamed Weihai City after the Communist revolution. Weihai is a port and major fishing center with some light industries. Due to its proximity to South Korea, Weihai also has a large Korean business community. Weihai is also a key area for peanuts and fruit. Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone is a development zone approved by the State Council on October 21,1992. The administrative area has an area of 194 km2, including the area of 36 km2. Its nearest port is Weihai Port, and the airport closest to the zone is Wuhai Airport, Weihai Export Processing Zone was set up by the approval of the State Council on April 27,2000. Weihai EPZ is located in Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone with programmed area of 2.6 km2, Weihai EPZ belongs to comprehensive export & processing zone. The EPZ is located 30 km from Weihai Airport,3 km to Weihai Railway Station and 4 km from Weihai Harbor, Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council on March 1991. Located in Weihais northwest zone of culture, education and science, the Park has the area of 111.9 km2Weihai – The Happiness Gate is the landmark of Weihai
28. Rushan, Shandong – Rushan is a county-level city in the prefecture-level city of Weihai, Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. Rushan borders Yantai to the north and looks out to the Yellow Sea to the south and it derives its name from a breast-shaped hill on the seashore. The county-level city of Rushan administers 14 towns, Rushan City has a long history. The first county in Rushan City was founded in 206 B. C. and it is located on the south-eastern seashore of Shandong Province in China at 36°7′ northern latitude and 121°5′ east of Greenwich. Rushan has a mild, seasonal climate moderated by the Yellow Sea, august is the warmest month with a 24-hour average temperature of 23. 5°C and January the coldest with 24-hour average temperature of 0 °C. It is within 2 hours flight from major Chinese cities such as Beijing, large and medium-sized cities around it are Qingdao, Yantai and Weihai, all within one-hour-drive from Rushan. Qingdao-Weihai Expressway, State Highway 309 and Jinan-Weihai Railway run across Rushan, Rushan has fulfilled 31.31 billion RMB Yuan of GDP in 2010. The total fixed investment was 19.01 RMB Yuan. Rushan is thus ranked No.55 among all the Chinese counties in terms of economic competitiveness, with a coast of 185 kilometers long, Rushan is known for its varieties of shellfishes and rare fish species. The annual seafood production is more than 200 thousand tons, rich in hilly land, Rushan becomes the principal fruit producing base in Jiaodong Peninsula. Rushan has many scenic spots such as Silver Beach Resort and Da Rushan Coastal Resort, Juyushan National Forest Park, Tangshang Hot Spring, major elementary schools include, Rushan Number One Experimental Elementary School（乳山第一实验小学）, Huangshanlu Elementary School （黄山路小学）, and Rushan Number Two Experimental Elementary School （乳山第二实验小学）Rushan, Shandong – Looking eastward to Rushan (Mamma Mount)
29. Rizhao – Rizhao is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shandong province, China. It is situated on the coastline along the Yellow Sea, and it borders Qingdao to the northeast, Weifang to the north, Linyi to the west and southwest, and faces Korea and Japan across the Yellow Sea to the east. The name of the city literally means sunshine, the city is known for its sustainability, and it mandates solar-water heaters in all new buildings. Rizhao city was recognized by the United Nations as one of the most habitable cities in the world in 2009, the city population stands at 2,801,100 as of the 2010 census. Out of those, a little over 865,000 people live in the area of Donggang district. Rizhao is located at the place where the ancient Dawenkou culture, Rizhao belonged to the Dongyi people during the Xia and Shang dynasties, and to Ju and Yue states in the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. It became a part of Langya Commandery in the Qin dynasty, Rizhao was named Haiqu County during the Western Han and Xihai County under the Eastern Han. During the Tang dynasty, together with Ju County, Rizhao belonged to Mi Prefecture of Henan Prefecture, in the second year of the Yuanyou Period of the Song dynasty, Rizhao Township was established, with the name meaning sunshine. In the 24th year of the Dading Period of the Jin dynasty, in 1940 it came under control of the Communist Party of China. After being a county and since 1985 a city administration of Linyi. The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago has done field survey archaeological work in Rizhao over years, Rizhao has a temperate, four-season, monsoon-influenced climate that lies in the transition between the humid subtropical and humid continental regimes, but favouring the former. Winter is cool to cold and windy, but generally dry, summer is generally hot and humid, but very hot days are rare, with an August average of 25.7 °C. Due to its proximity to the coast and being on a peninsula, conversely, autumn is milder than inland areas in Shandong. The annual mean temperature is 12.95 °C, on average, there are 2,530 hours of bright sunshine annually and the relative humidity is 70–74 %. The prefecture-level city of Rizhao administers four county-level divisions, including two districts and two counties, the effort to install solar water heaters began in 1992. As of 2007,99 percent of households in the districts use solar water heaters. In 2007 the city had over a half-million square meters of water heating panels. The city has designated as the Environmental Protection Model City by Chinas SEPARizhao – Rizhao Seaport
30. Laiwu – Laiwu is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong Province, China. The smallest prefecture-level city in the province, it borders the capital of Jinan to the north, Zibo to the east. Its population was 1,298,529 at the 2010 census whom 989,535 lived in the area made up of Laicheng district. The prefecture-level city of Laiwu administers 2 county-level divisions, both of which are districts, Laicheng District Gangcheng District provincial economic development zone These are further divided into 19 township-level divisions, including 14 towns,1 townships and 4 subdistricts. Government website of Laiwu Local portal of Laiwu Laigang Iron and Steel Company（state-owned） Civilisation&Education forum of Laiwu High School Student One of the editors blogsLaiwu – Location of Laiwu City (yellow) in Shandong
31. Linyi – Linyi is a prefecture-level city in the south of Shandong province, China. The city Linyi literally means close to the Yi River, the city recently expanded along the Yi River to Nanfang, under slogan Grand Linyi, New Linyi. Multiple recreational parks were built, along with new school campuses etc, the development is a consequence of a series of governmental projects, including relocate the city government, which is expected to stimulate the economy. The population was 10,039,440 at the 2010 census, of which 2,303,648 lived in the area made up of Lanshan District, Luozhuang District. The prefecture-level city of Linyi administers 12 county-level divisions, including 3 districts and 9 counties, the city is further divided into 181 township-level divisions. Linyi has a history of 2400 years and it is home to many historical figures, notably Zhuge Liang and Wang Xizhi. In 1972, the Sun Bins Art of War was first discovered here, Sun Bins Art of War is currently in display at Shandong Provincial museum. In the spring of 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the civilians were encouraged by army victory in the Battle of Taierzhuang, which was nearby, defended Linyi fiercely, but Japanese soldiers breached the walls on April 19,1938. The defenders withdrew the day to another contested area 30 miles away. After the China was founded in October 1949, the division was adjusted. In 2005, Linyi drew international attention as a center of human rights related to the enforcement of Chinas controversial family planning policies. Following widespread allegations of violence and coercion in excess of Chinese law, the local Chinese courts refused to hear the case and imprisoned Chen Guangcheng on charges of fomenting state resistance. Due in part to the severity and scope of these abuses Linyi has been used by activists to criticize Chinas violation of womens rights, Linyi is in the south of Shandong province, not far from the ports of Rizhao, Lanshan District, Rizhao and Lianyungang. It is along the G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway as well as the Eurasian Land Bridge, the urban area lies on mostly flat land that gives way to more rugged terrain in the west and northwest of the citys administrative area, which covers 17,184 km2. Linyi has a climate with generous summer precipitation, with cold, dry winters. Under the Köppen climate classification, it is in the transition from the subtropical zone to the humid continental zone. More than half of the precipitation of 831 mm falls in July and August alone. Linyis economy is based around its wholesale markets, the Linyi Wholesale City is ranked 3rd in its category in China with an annual trade volume of 40 billion RMBLinyi – Linyi Confucius Temple
32. Dezhou – Dezhou is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. It borders the capital of Jinan to the southeast, Liaocheng to the southwest, Binzhou to the northeast. The King of Sulu Paduka Pahala from the first royal family on Sulu before the Hashemites went on a mission to the Ming dynasty Yongle Emperor. He died of causes in China and his two sons were left in the care of Hui Muslims in Dezhou, Shandong. The two families descended from the two sons were given the surnames An and Wen by the Ming Emperors and they lived through the Ming and Qing dynasties and still live in Dezhou today. The Kingdom of Sulu was converted to Islam, and the Hashemite Sharif ul-Hāshim of Sulu arrived in Sulu and married a princess of the previous royal family. Tausug delegations from Sulu have visited Dezhou to see the descendants of the royal family. The municipality of Dezhou comprises thirteen county-level sub divisions, Districts Decheng District, the government of the prefecture-level city is located in this sub division. It is also one of the 23 stations on the exclusive Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Dezhou has always been an important transport hub since ancient times, with its reputation of Junction of Nine Arteries （九达天衢）and Portal of the Capital （神京门户）gradually established. In addition to two railways, National Highway 104,105 and some provincial roads cross the city as well, the Yellow River and the Grand Canal both run through it. Dezhous biggest historical attraction is the tomb of Sultan Paduka Pahala of Sulu, the tomb is well preserved and has been declared a national heritage site. Descendants of the sultans Muslim followers still live in Dezhou today, one of Dezhous county Lingxian used to be a big county in China in history, when it was called Pingyuan County. Now part of the ancient city wall of Tang Dynasty still exists in the south of the region, before the Three Kingdoms formed, one of the three emperors Liu Bei used to be the chief of the county, together with his fellows Guan Yu and Zhang Fei. Today, a hall for the two historic figures is built in the Peoples Park of Lingxian, where a lot of materials of Dongfang Shuo. For tourist attractions, there is also a temple in Qingyun County. Its called Haidao Jinshan Temple, which is one of the biggest centers of Buddhism in Northern China, the most attractive scene is the underground aisle where the portrait of the hell is presented using high technology. A new industrial zone hailed as the Solar Valley is being built for experimenting with clean- energy urban projects, the Washington Post describes Dezhous Solar Valley as the clean-tech version of Silicon Valley. Nowadays one of the biggest and most famous industries in Dezhou is solar energy industry, Himin Group has developed into the worlds largest solar water heater manufacturer and is also discovering new areas such as photoelectricityDezhou – Dezhou 德州市
33. Liaocheng – Liaocheng, also known as the Water City, is a prefecture-level city in western Shandong province, China. It borders the capital of Jinan to the southeast, Dezhou to the northeast, Taian to the south. The Grand Canal flows through the city center and its population was 5,789,863 at the 2010 census whom 1,229,768 lived in the built-up area made up of Donchangfu district, even though large parts remain rural. During the Song dynasty, the area of present-day Liaocheng included the prefectures of Bo, in 2007, the city is named Chinas top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. The prefecture-level city of Liaocheng administers eight county-level divisions, including one district, one county-level city, dongchangfu District Linqing City Yanggu County Donge County Chiping County Gaotang County Guan County Shen County These are further divided into 134 township-level divisions. Liaocheng University In August 1949 Liaocheng was detached from Shandong and attached to Pingyuan, in November 1952 Pingyuan was dissolved and Liaocheng returned to Shandong. Shanxi-Shaanxi Assembly Hall Guangyue Tower Yueyang Building Huanghe Building Iron Tower Lion Building Linqing Mosque Liaocheng is a city of the following cities. Uiryeong County, South Korea Blacktown, Australia Gwangmyeong, South Korea Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia Furthermore, there is a partnership with the district Offenbach in GermanyLiaocheng – Shanxi-Shaanxi Assembly Hall.
34. Linqing – Linqing is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Liaocheng in western Shandong Province, China. It is located north-northwest of Liaocheng, the city is situated at the confluence of the Wei River and the Grand Canal. It is 380 kilometres from Beijing on the Jingjiu railway line to Hong Kong, elevation within Linqing County ranges from 29 metres to 38 metres above sea level. The area of the county is 955 km², the annual average temperature is 12. 8℃, the highest recorded temperature 41. 4℃, and the lowest recorded temperature -22. 1℃. Annual mean precipitation is 590.4 millimeters, there are 205 frost-free days per year on average and the average annual sunshine is 2661 hours. Linqing has played an important role in the history of China, in Ming and Qing times it was a great center for the distribution of textiles, grain and bricks and is also famous as the place where the tiles of the Great Wall and the Forbidden City were produced. Today the citys flourishing economy is based on a number of industrial enterprises. Aside from the Grand Canal, sights include a distinctive promontory, a stupa, a Ming-Dynasty Hui mosques, in particular, the Sheli Pagoda near the Grand Canal is a well-known local landmark. The city proper has about 143,000 residents, whereas Linqing as a whole had 709,328 inhabitants in 1999 and it remains exempt, i. e. directly dependent on the Holy See and its missionary Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. The see has been vacant, without Apostolic administrator, since the third death in 1981. Ecclesiastical Superior none available Apostolic Prefects Father Gaspar Hu Xiu-shen, died 1945 Fr, joseph Li Chao-gui Fr. Paul Li Ben-liang Tang Dynasty musician Lu Cai Ming Dynasty poet Xie Zhen national hero Zhang Zizhong contemporary renowned educator Ji Xianlin. Article on Linqing from China Today, no.78 Official website of Linqing city government GCatholic Catholic missionary jurisdictions Another Linqing site, but with picturesLinqing – Junction of the "Lu Canal" and "Southern Canal" sections of the Grand Canal at Linqing
35. Heze – Heze is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong, China. It is home to 8,287,693 inhabitants, of whom 1,346,717 live in the area comprising Mudan District. The westernmost prefecture-level city in Shandong, it borders Jining to the east, the old name of Heze was Caozhou and now a part of the city bears this name. The first character in the name is sometimes incorrectly written as 荷 instead. The citys name in postal romanization is Tsaochow, in August 1949 Heze was detached from Shandong and given to the experimental province of Pingyuan. It returned to Shandong just over three years later, in April 1953 Heze and Jining shared the counties of Huxi, which is no more. Heze has a climate that lies between the humid subtropical and humid continental zones, with four well-defined seasons. The city is warm and nearly rainless in spring, hot and humid in summer, crisp in autumn and cold and dry in winter. The mean annual temperature is 13.74 °C, with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from −0.9 °C in January to 26.8 °C in July, nearly 70% of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 60% in May, the prefecture-level city of Heze administers nine county-level divisions. The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary are in Mudan District, together with CPC, China National Highway 220 Heze is the largest center in China for the cultivation of the national flower peony, after which the Mudan District was named. Over 30% of its income comes from the sale of peony. According to the government numbers released in 1995, there are about 800,000 people living in this areaHeze – Location of Heze City jurisdiction in Shandong