The Yōrō Code was one iteration of several codes or governing rules compiled in early Nara period in Classical Japan. It was compiled in 718, the second year of the Yōrō regnal era by Fujiwara no Fuhito et al. but not promulgated until 757 under the regime of Fujiwara no Nakamaro under Empress Kōken. The penal code portions were lost, although they have been reconstructed; the content of the civil code portions are preserved nearly copied out in texts. The Yōrō Code was a revision of the Taihō Code of 701, differences may have been limited. Still, when Nakamaro put the laws into effect in 757, it was unpopular among the nobility as it "slowed down the promotion schedule for officials." While the precursor code does not survive, a substantial amount of Yōrō Code is preserved in the exegitical piece, Ryō no gige the civil codes. In English-language scholarly literature, some commentators state that the code is preserved in a fragmentary state, but other academics do note preservation is nearly complete for the civil code portion.
The Ryō no gige contains the full text of the ryō except for two chapters according to a Kadokawa publishing house history dictionary, the missing portions being the warehouse statute and the medical service statute, this lacuna can be be filled from a collections of fragments of the codes. The ritsu or the penal code portion was lost, but a compilation of fragments from various codes, entitled the Ritsuitsu, in 8 volumes, was compiled by Ishihara Masaaki 1760–1821; the resulting text, including the fragments, are printed in the volume on Ritsuryō texts in the Kokushi taikei historical text series. Other sources agree, adding that for the civil code all of the text that runs to Article 955 has been restored. Relying on the Tang dynasty penal code that survives, a complete reconstruction of the Yōrō penal code has been undertaken; the ritsuryō codes were modeled after the civil and penal codes of the Tang dynasty, in particular, the code of the Chinese: Yonghui era passed in 651, current is named by scholars as the basis of the two ritsuryō codes.
The Code remained in effect until the early 10th century, after which it became an obsolete dead letter law code, but not formally repealed and hence valid at least "in paper" until the Meiji Restoration. During the feudal age in Japan, various ministerial offices were awarded to as formality to samurai without any responsibilities or authorities vested in the office under the code. Ritsuryō Taihō Code Ōmi Code Asuka Kiyomihara Code Texts and translations黒板勝美, ed. 国史大系, 第22巻, 国史大系編修会, 吉川弘文館Kuroita, Kasumi, ed.' Kokushi taikei, 22, Yoshikawa Kōbunkan Dettmer, ed. Der Yōrō-Kodex, die Gebote: Einleitung und Übersetzung des Ryō-no-gige, 1, Hans Adalbert, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447059400 Volume 2, Der Yōrō-Kodex.. Bücher 2-10 Volume 3, Der Yōrō-Kodex, die Verbote. Übersetzung des Yōrō-ritsu. Sansom, George Bailey. "Early Japanese Law and Administration". Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. Second Series. 9: 67–110. Studies Ooms, Herman. "Translating the Corpus of Ancient Japanese Law".
Monumenta Nipponica. 68.1: 69–77. Doi:10.1353/mni.2013.0021. Additional readingCrump, J. I.. "Borrowed T'ang TItles and Offices in the Yoro Code". Occasional Papers of the Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan. 2: 35–58. Inoue, Mitsusada. "The Ritsuryo System in Japan". Acta Asiatica. 31: 83–112. Miller, Richard J.. "Japan's first bureaucracy: a study of eighth-century government". China-Japan Program. 19: 124–128.e-text at Cornell digital collection Yoro Civil Code by Yoshiki Koizuka and Katsuya Miyoshi, available at the Open Database page, admin Takehiko Yoshimura, Meiji University Research Institute for Japanese Ancient Studies site
Deniz Dimaki is a triathlete from Greece. She represented Greece in triathlon at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Dimaki started her competitive career in 1990 as a medium and long distance runner, she took up triathlon in 2002 and has won the Greek Triathlon Championship a record nine consecutive times while at the same time she posted top finishes in other sports such as running and cycling. Her notable results include: 1st at the 2005 Ierapetra ITU Triathlon Balkan Championships 3rd at the 2006 Erdek ITU Triathlon European Cup 2nd at the 2007 Limassol ITU Triathlon European Cup and Small States of Europe Championships 3rd at the 2007 Kusadasi ITU Triathlon European Cup 1st at the 2007 Gallipoli ITU Triathlon European Cup and Balkan Championships 1st at the 2007 Egirdir ITU Triathlon European Cup 2nd at the 2007 Split ITU Triathlon European Cup 2nd at the 2007 Alanya ITU Triathlon Premium European Cup 3rd at the 2008 Chania ITU Triathlon European Cup 3rd at the 2008 Serres ETU Duathlon European Championships 1st at the 2008 Belgrade ITU Triathlon European Cup and Balkan ChampionshipsHer coach for most of her professional career as a triathlete was Vassilis Krommidas, a two-time Olympian triathlete himself.
Since 2010 Dimaki has returned to long distance running. Official website ITU Profile Page of Deniz Dimaki Greek Triathlon Federation
Raden Adjeng Kartini, sometimes known as Raden Ayu Kartini, was a prominent Indonesian national hero from Java. She was a pioneer in the area of education for girls and women's rights for Indonesians. Born into an aristocratic Javanese family in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, she attended a Dutch language primary school, she aspired to further education but the option was unavailable to her and other girls in Javanese society. She came into contact with various officials and influential people, including J. H. Abendanon, in charge of implementing the Dutch Ethical Policy. Kartini wrote letters about her ideas and feelings, they were published in a Dutch magazine and as: Out of Darkness to Light, Women's Life in the Village, Letters of a Javanese Princess, her birthday is now celebrated as Kartini Day in Indonesia. She opposed polygamy, her advocacy for the education of girls was continued by her sisters. Kartini Schools were named for her and a fund established in her name to fund the education of girls.
Kartini was born into an aristocratic Javanese family when Java was part of the Dutch colony of the Dutch East Indies. Kartini's father Sosroningrat became Regency Chief of Jepara. Kartini's father was the district chief of Mayong, her mother Ngasirah was a teacher of religion in Telukawur. She was his first wife but not the most important one. At this time, polygamy was a common practice among the nobility. Colonial regulations required a regency chief to marry a member of the nobility. Since Ngasirah was not of sufficiently high nobility, Sosroningrat married a second time to Woerjan, a direct descendant of the Raja of Madura. After this second marriage, Kartini's father was elevated to Regency Chief of Jepara, replacing his second wife's own father, Tjitrowikromo. Kartini was the fifth child and second-eldest daughter in a family of eleven, including half siblings, she was born into a family with a strong intellectual tradition. Her grandfather, Pangeran Ario Tjondronegoro IV, became a regency chief at the age of 25, while Kartini's older brother Sosrokartono was an accomplished linguist.
Kartini's family allowed her to attend school. Here, among other subjects, she learned to speak Dutch, an unusual accomplishment for Javanese women at the time. After she turned 12 she was secluded at home, a common practice among Javanese nobility, to prepare young girls for their marriage. During seclusion girls were not allowed to leave their parents' house until they were married, at which point authority over them was transferred to their husbands. Kartini's father was more lenient than some during his daughter's seclusion, giving her such privileges as embroidery lessons and occasional appearances in public for special events. During her seclusion, Kartini continued to educate herself on her own; because she could speak Dutch, she acquired several Dutch pen friends. One of them, a girl by the name of Rosa Abendanon, became a close friend. Books and European magazines fed Kartini's interest in European feminist thinking, fostered the desire to improve the conditions of indigenous Indonesian women, who at that time had a low social status.
Kartini's reading included the Semarang newspaper, to which she began to send contributions which were published. Before she was 20 she had read Love Letters by Multatuli, she read De Stille Kracht by Louis Couperus, the works of Frederik van Eeden, Augusta de Witt, the Romantic-Feminist author Goekoop de-Jong Van Eek, an anti-war novel by Berta von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder!. All were in Dutch. Kartini's concerns were not only in the area of the emancipation of women, but other problems of her society. Kartini saw that the struggle for women to obtain their freedom and legal equality was just part of a wider movement. Kartini's parents arranged her marriage to Joyodiningrat, the Regency Chief of Rembang, who had three wives, she was married on 12 November 1903. Her husband understood Kartini's aims and allowed her to establish a school for women in the east porch of the Rembang Regency Office complex. Kartini's only son was born on 13 September 1904. A few days on 17 September 1904, Kartini died at the age of 25.
She was buried in Rembang. Inspired by R. A. Kartini's example, the Van Deventer family established the R. A. Kartini Foundation which built schools for women,'Kartini's Schools' in Semarang in 1912, followed by other women's schools in Surabaya, Malang, Madiun and other areas. In 1964, President Sukarno declared R. A. Kartini's birth date, 21 April, as "Kartini Day"—an Indonesian national holiday; this decision has been criticized. It has been proposed that Kartini Day should be celebrated in conjunction with Indonesian Mothers Day on 22 December, so that the choice of R. A. Kartini as a national heroine would not overshadow other women who, unlike R. A. Kartini, took up arms to oppose the colonizers. In contrast, those who recognize the significance of R. A. Kartini argue that not only was she a feminist who elevated the status of women in Indonesia, she was a nationalist figure with new ideas, who struggled on behalf of her people and played a role in the national struggle for independence. After Raden Adjeng Kartini died, Mr. J.
H. Abendanon, the Minister for Culture and Industry in the East Indies and published the letters that Kartini had sent to her friends in Europe; the book was titled Door Duisternis tot Licht and was published in 1911. It went through five editions, with some additional letters included in the final edition, was translated into Englis
The 1916 Stanley Cup Finals was played between the National Hockey Association champion Montreal Canadiens and the Pacific Coast Hockey Association champion Portland Rosebuds. This was the first time; the Rosebuds were the first team based in the United States to play for the Cup. The Canadiens defeated the Rosebuds three games to two in the best-of-five game series; this was the Canadiens' first Stanley Cup championship. Montreal won the NHA title after finishing the 1915–16 regular season in first place with a 16–7–1 record. Meanwhile, Portland clinched the 1915–16 PCHA title with a 13–5 record; the games of the series were played at Montreal's Montreal Arena as it was the turn of the NHA champions to host the series. This was not the home rink of the Canadiens. Games one and five were played under NHA rules. Ernie Johnson's share of series revenues was by court order to be paid to the Montreal Wanderers, whom he had left while under contract to go to the PCHA. For the entire series, future Hockey Hall of Fame goaltender Georges Vezina aided Montreal by posting a 2.60 goals-against average.
Didier Pitre led the Canadiens in scoring with 4 goals. Montreal Canadiens NHA champions Roster - Georges Veznia goalie, Howard McNamara point, Bert Corbeau cover point, Didier Pitre rover, Edouard "Newsy" Lalonde center, George "Goldie" Prodgers right wing-left wing, Jack Laviolettte left wing, Amous Arbour left wing, Louis Berlinguette left wing, Georges "Skinner" Poulin center, Eskene “Skene” Ronan center right wing, spare Jack Fournier right wing-left wing - U. P. Boudier, George "Kennedy", Kendall. Portland Rosebuds PCAH champions Roster - Tommy Murray goalie, Del Irvine point, Ernie "Moose" Johnson cover point, Fred "Smokey" Harrius rover-left wing, Tommy Dunderdale center, Eddie Oatman light wing, Charlies Tobin left wing-right wing, Charlie Uksilla left wing, Alf Barbour center, C. D. Doherty, Edward Savage. Portland showed no weariness, recording a shutout. Despite missing Newsy Lalonde and Jack Laviolette, Montreal behind some heavy checking defeated Portland 2–1 to tie the series. Lalonde and Laviolette played in game three.
Lalonde got into a fight with Ernie Johnson. Lalonde and Laviolette were ejected for the game and Eddie Oatman received a major penalty. Pitre was the scoring star, scoring three goals; the Rosebuds evened the series with a 6–5 victory in game four. The Rosebuds took a 3 -- 0 lead, only to see the Canadiens take a 4 -- 3 lead. In the third period Portland's Fred Harris scored twice and Charlie Uksilla scored once to take a 6–4 lead until the last minute when Lalonde scored to make it closer. In game five, Portland's Tommy Dunderdale gave his team a 1–0 lead before Skene Ronan tied the game; the seldom-used George Prodger scored the game and series-winning goal to clinch the Cup for the Canadiens. ‡ played rover in the Stanley Cup Finals Although the Rosebuds did not win the series, the Rosebuds had the words "Portland Ore./PCHA Champions/1915–16" engraved on the Cup after obtaining the trophy from the previous year's champions, the Vancouver Millionaires. This was consistent with the practice at the time that the trophy was passed on to the winner of the league championship of the previous Cup champion's league.
Portland is thus the only city not to win the Cup outright to be listed as champions on the Stanley Cup. After the series, "Canadian/NHA & World's Champions/Defeated Portland/1915–16" was added to the Cup. *-Two non-players first names are unknown. Manager-Coach George Kenndey is known as George Kendall. Montreal Canadian credits him as President in 1916. However, the team picture list U. P. Boucher as president. Coleman, Charles L.. The Trail of the Stanley Cup, vol.1 1893–1926 inc. National Hockey League. Pp. 299–304. "1915–16 Stanley Cup Winner: Montreal Canadiens". Hockey Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2011-12-21. "hockeyleaguehistory.com – Pacific Coast Hockey Association". Retrieved 2011-12-21. Podnieks, Andrew. Lord Stanley's Cup. Triumph Books. Pp. 12, 48. ISBN 1-55168-261-3. Dan Diamond, ed.. The Official National Hockey League Stanley Cup Centennial Book. Firefly Books. Pp. 46–47. ISBN 1-895565-15-4. 1915–16 Montreal Canadiens season 1915–16 NHA season 1915–16 PCHA season List of Stanley Cup champions
Luděk Niedermayer is a Czech politician and economist serving as a Member of the European Parliament representing the Czech Republic since July 2014. He is part of the European People's Party, he currently serves as Vice-Chair of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs in the European Parliament. Prior to entering European politics Niedermayer was an economist, holding a number of public and private sector roles. Niedermayer studied theoretical cybernetics, mathematical informatics and systems theory at Jan Evangelista Purkyně University, completing his education in 1989. From 1991 until 2008 he was employed at the Czech National Bank serving in various roles including as a director, member of the Bank's board and as Vice‑Governor. From 2008 until his election in 2014 he was employed by Deloitte Czech Republic as a director. Niedermayer held a number of senior roles within international financial administration, including a term as member of a working group of the Bank for International Settlements and Representative of the Czech Republic at meetings of the International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Additionally, from 2005 until 2008 he chaired the Scientific Council of the Czech Banking Association. Member, Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs Member, Delegation for relations with the United States Member, Committee of Inquiry to investigate alleged contraventions and maladministration in the application of Union law in relation to money laundering, tax avoidance and tax evasion Member, Special Committee on Tax Rulings and Other Measures Similar in Nature or Effect Member, Special Committee on Tax Rulings and Other Measures Similar in Nature or Effect
Anime Matsuri is an annual four-day anime convention traditionally held during spring at the George R. Brown Convention Center in Houston, Texas; the convention's name comes from the Japanese word'matsuri' meaning festival. The convention's programming includes an artists' alley, a carshow, the attendance of celebrities and special guests, cosplay chess, cosplay contests, fashion shows, gaming events, karaoke, LARP, live concerts, maid cafe, panels, a vendors' and exhibitors' area, workshops; the Charity Auction benefited Child's Play in 2009 and raised over $3,000. The convention was held at George R. Brown Convention Center and Hilton Americas in 2007. Anime Matsuris 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012 were held at the Woodlands Waterway Marriott Hotel and Convention Center, Anime Matsuri 2011 was held at the Crowne Plaza Houston Hotel near Reliant Park/Medical Center. Anime Matsuri 2013 was held at Hyatt Regency Houston; the Syfy reality series Heroes of Cosplay filmed the masquerade at Anime Matsuri and was featured in an episode.
The convention in 2014 moved to the George R. Brown Convention Center. Complaints about the 2014 convention included long delays. Despite the issues, the 2014 convention became the 9th largest North American anime convention; the convention in 2015 remained at the George R. Brown Convention Center and used the first and most of the second floors; the 2015 convention became the 8th largest North American anime convention. Owners of Anime Matsuri have a history of not paying guests like Japanese artists, BESPA KUMAMERO in 2008, Miyavi in 2009, Flow in 2012, Nightmare in 2014. Nightmare's show began late due to poor planning by Anime Matsuri's staff and released song about John Leigh with "SUPER BOOGER MAN" on their "Taboo" single on June 25, 2014, a few months after performing at convention, they did not provide food or translators for guest cosplayers like Midori and Akira during their fan signing in 2014. The guests had to ask fans for food in Japanese for a hamburger and were grateful to the fans who helped them.
After Anime Matsuri 2015, John Leigh, the conventions event manager was accused of sexual harassment by several members of the Lolita fashion community. Significant financial improprieties have been alleged against the convention organizers. In May 2016, Anime Matsuri announced that the former CEO of Anime Expo, Marc Perez would join the convention as COO; the convention sent Tyler Willis, owner of YouTube channel Last Week Lolita News a cease and desist letter in early 2018 after reporting about John Leigh's sexual harassment. Boycott Anime Matsuri was formed in 2018 to inform about the conventions past actions, with guests such as Johnny Yong Bosch, Steven Universe voice actors, Femm canceling. Leigh apologized for his past actions. Anime Matsuri Hawaii was a three-day anime convention held during November at the Hawaii Convention Center in Honolulu, Hawaii; the convention's programming included a concert, cosplay showcase, J-Fashion show and panels. Yuegene Fay, a cosplayer, was unable to make a guest appearance due to immigration issues.
Anime Matsuri Hawaii did not return in 2016. Official website