Young adult fiction
Young adult fiction is a category of fiction written for readers from 12 to 18 years of age. While the genre is targeted to teenagers half of YA readers are adults; the subject matter and genres of YA correlate with the experience of the protagonist. The genres available in YA include most of those found in adult fiction. Common themes related to YA include: friendship, first love and identity. Stories that focus on the specific challenges of youth are sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming-of-age novels. Young adult fiction was developed to soften the transition between children's novels and adult literature; the history of young adult literature is tied to the history of how childhood and young adulthood has been perceived. One early writer to recognize young adults as a distinct group was Sarah Trimmer, who, in 1802, described "young adulthood" as lasting from ages 14 to 21. In her children's literature periodical, The Guardian of Education, Trimmer introduced the terms "Books for Children" and "Books for Young Persons", establishing terms of reference for young adult literature that still remains in use.
Nineteenth century literature presents several early works, that appealed to young readers, though not written for them, including The Swiss Family Robinson, Walter Scott's Waverley, Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist, Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo, Tom Brown's Schooldays, Dickens' Great Expectations, Alice in Wonderland, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped, Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, Moonfleet by J. Meade Falkner. In the 1950s, two influential adult novels, The Catcher in the Rye and Lord of the Flies, which were not marketed to adolescents, still attracted the attention of the adolescent demographic; the modern classification of young-adult fiction originated during the 1950s and 1960s after the publication of S. E. Hinton's The Outsiders; the novel features a truer, darker side of adolescent life, not represented in works of fiction of the time, was the first novel published marketed for young adults as Hinton was one when she wrote it.
Written during high-school and published when Hinton was only 17, The Outsiders lacked the nostalgic tone common in books about adolescents written by adults. The Outsiders remains one of the best-selling young adult novels of all time; the 1960s became the era "when the'under 30' generation became a subject of popular concern, research on adolescence began to emerge. It was the decade when literature for adolescents could be said to have come into its own"; this increased the new idea of adolescent authors. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, what has come to be known as the "fab five" were published: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, an autobiography of the early years of American poet Maya Angelou; the works of Angelou and Plath were not written for young readers. As publishers began to focus on the emerging adolescent market and libraries began creating young adult sections distinct from children's literature and novels written for adults; the 1970s to the mid-1980s have been described as the golden age of young-adult fiction, when challenging novels began speaking directly to the interests of the identified adolescent market.
In the 1980s, young adult literature began pushing the envelope in terms of the subject matter, considered appropriate for their audience: Books dealing with topics such as rape, parental death, murder, deemed taboo, saw significant critical and commercial success. A flip-side of this trend was a strong revived interest in the romance novel, including young adult romance. With an increase in number of teenagers the genre "matured and came into its own, with the better written, more serious, more varied young adult books published during the last two decades"; the first novel in J. K. Rowling's seven-book Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997; the series was praised for its complexity and maturity, attracted a wide adult audience. While not technically YA, its success led many to see Harry Potter and its author, J. K. Rowling, as responsible for a resurgence of young adult literature, re-established the pre-eminent role of speculative fiction in the field, a trend further solidified by The Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins.
The end of the decade saw a number of awards appear such as the Michael L. Printz Award and Alex Awards, designed to recognize excellence in writing for young adult audiences; the category of young adult fiction continues to expand into other media and genres: graphic novels/manga, light novels, mystery fiction, romance novels, subcategories such as cyberpunk, techno-thrillers, contemporary Christian fiction. Many young adult novels feature coming-of-age stories; these feature adolescents beginning to transform into adults, working through personal problems, learning to take responsibility for their actions. YA serves many literary purposes, it provides a pleasurable reading experience for young people, emphasizing real life experiences and
A hackerspace is a community-operated not for profit, workspace where people with common interests in computers, technology, digital art or electronic art, can meet and collaborate. Hackerspaces are comparable to other community-operated spaces with similar aims and mechanisms such as Fab Lab, men's sheds, commercial for-profit companies such as TechShop. Hackerspaces with open membership became common throughout Germany in the 1990s in the orbit of the German Chaos Computer Club, with the c-base being an example; the concept, was limited to less than a dozen spaces within Germany, did not spread beyond borders at first. Most this was because initial founding costs were prohibitive for small groups without the support of a large organization like the CCC. In 2006, Paul Bohm came up with a fundraising strategy based on the Street Performer Protocol to build Metalab in Vienna and became its founding director. In 2007, he and others started Hackerspaces.org, a wiki-based website that maintains a list of many hackerspaces and documents patterns on how to start and run them.
As of September 2015, the community list included 1967 hackerspaces with 1199 active sites and 354 planned sites. The advent of crowdfunding and Kickstarter has put the tools required to build hackerspaces within reach of an wider audience; those tools are for example used by Bilal Ghalib, who had worked on a hackerspace documentary, others to bring the hackerspace concept to the Middle East. In general, hackerspaces function as centers for peer learning and knowledge sharing, in the form of workshops and lectures, they also offer social activities for their members, such as game nights and parties. Hackerspaces can be viewed as open community labs incorporating elements of machine shops, and/or studios where hackers can come together to share resources and knowledge to build and make things. Many hackerspaces participate in the use and development of free software, open hardware, alternative media, they are physically located in infoshops, social centers, adult education centers, public schools, public libraries, or on university campuses, but may relocate to industrial or warehouse space when they need more room.
Most recent studies of hackerspace in China — where Internet access is censored — suggest that new businesses and organized tech conferences there serve to intervene in the status quo "from within". The first hackerspace in China, opened in Shanghai in 2010. Thereafter a network of hackerspaces emerged. By designing open technologies and developing new businesses, Chinese makers make use of the system, make fun of it, altering it and provoking it. DIY makers bring and align contradictory ideas together, such as copycat and open source, manufacturing and DIY, individual empowerment and collective change. In doing so, they craft a subject position beyond the common rhetoric that Chinese citizens lack creativity; as a site of individual empowerment, hackerspace and DIY making enable people to remake the societal norms and material infrastructures that undergird their work and livelihood. The specific tools and resources available at hackerspaces vary from place to place, they provide space for members to work on their individual projects, or to collaborate on group projects with other members.
Hackerspaces may operate computer tool lending libraries, or physical tool lending libraries, up to and including creative sex toys in some instances. The building or facility the hackerspace occupies provides physical infrastructure that members need to complete their projects. In addition to, most hackerspaces provide electrical power, computer servers, networking with Internet connectivity. Well-equipped hackerspaces may provide machine tools, crafting, art fabrication, audio equipment, video projectors, game consoles, electronic instrumentation, electronic components and raw materials for hacking, various other tools for electronics fabrication and creating things. Specialized large-format printers, 3D printers, laser cutters, industrial sewing machines or water jet cutters may be available for members to use; some hackerspaces provide food storage and food preparation equipment, may teach courses in basic or advanced cooking. Large opportunity gaps in science and engineering persist for youth growing up in poverty, in particular for African American and Latino youth, have become a focus of STEM-rich Making.
The evolving maker movement has generated interest for its potential role in opening up access to learning and attainment in STEM, with advocates arguing for its democratizing effects – with access to a makerspace, “anyone can make… anyone can change the world.” The evolving maker movement has generated interest for its potential role in opening up access to learning and attainment in STEM, with advocates arguing for its “democratizing effects" – with access to a makerspace, “anyone can make… anyone can change the world.” Makerspaces offer opportunities for young people to engage in STEM knowledge and practices in creative and playful ways, where “learning is and for the making”. However, an explicit equity-agenda has been absent in the maker movement as it relates to sustained engagement in making; the movement remains an adult, middle-class pursuit, led by those with the leisure time, technical knowledge and resources to make. With the growth of community-based makerspaces, users of these spaces tend to be white adult men.
The median sal