Avex Inc. is an entertainment conglomerate led by founder Max Matsuura and headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Avex manages J-pop talents like internet sensation PikoTaro, it has shifted into other business domains like anime, video games and live music events like partnering with Ultra Music Festival and hosting the annual A-nation. Avex is an acronym of the English words Audio Visual Expert. Since its foundation, its corporate name was Avex D. D. Incorporated, ten years it was changed to Avex, Incorporated; the current name, Avex Group Holdings, was adopted in 2004 as part of reconstruction process after Tom Yoda's resignation. Avex Group Holdings, Incorporated was used for the main subsidiaries, while the old name was for entertainment components of the Group. In 2005, Incorporated became Avex Entertainment and stayed on as part of the Group. Avex was registered June 1, 1973 as Avex D. D. Incorporated, although it did not become established until 1988, they began as a CD wholesaler based in Tokyo. In September 1990, they created Avex Trax as a music label.
In the same year, they created "Musique Folio Inc.", a music publishing company, which became "Prime Direction Inc." During its early years, the company affiliated itself with the Mitsubishi group of companies. In 1993, they transferred to Aoyama and created a U. S. branch, called "AV Experience America Inc." The year marked the first of Avex's yearly events. It was held in Tokyo Dome under the name "avex rave'93" and attracted 50,000 attendees. In December 1993, they created a joint venture with Toshiba-EMI, called Cutting Edge. In 1994, they formed two UK subsidiaries, "Rhythm Republic Limited" and "Avex U. K. Limited." That year, they opened a disco, claimed on their website to be "the world's largest scale disco", named Velfarre. In 1997, they opened. In early 1999, they signed an agreement with Walt Disney Records and Hollywood Records to handle the companies' Japanese CD releases; that year "Avex Mode", an animation company, was established. In December, the company was listed on the 1st section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol 7860.
In 2001, Avex opened the "avex artists academy" music school. In 2002, they released the "CCCD", a type of copy-protected CD, opened their building in Aoyama, paid for by Sumitomo Life and worth 205 billion yen. In 2003, they opened a classical music business. In 2004, they began selling Japanese music CDs in South Korea and Avex President Max Matsuura "spotted" former idol Ami Suzuki performing live at the annual festival of their school, Nihon University, he subsequently signed her to the Avex label. In 2005, Avex acquired distribution rights for Aozora Records' catalogue including all future Hitomi Yaida releases. In early 2008, Avex partnered with Victor JVC to create the label D-topia Entertainment as a business partnership between the labels and its founder, Terukado Onishi, with the sales promotion handled by Victor while the area promotion handled by Avex; as part of the Avex Group's 20th anniversary celebration, a big project occurred with avex trax's "produced by avex trax" artists.
Avex Group launched BeeTV, May 2009 in partnership with NTT DoCoMo. In August 2004, a feud between Max Matsuura and co-founder Tom Yoda affected group, it started because of Yoda's ambition to expand Avex into other entertainment-related ventures producing movies. In addition, he accused Ryuhei Chiba, the company's executive director and president of Avex Inc. of pursuing personal profit from a few big artists. July 30: In a board meeting, Yoda introduced a resolution calling on Chiba to resign because of an alleged conflict of interest. A source says the disagreement arose because Chiba had signed an artist managed by a member of his family; the board backed Yoda's resolution in a 6-1 vote. However, Matsuura — described by insiders as a close ally of Chiba — introduced a second resolution demanding that Yoda step down due to "a difference of opinion in management principles." Matsuura's motion was defeated 5-2. He and Chiba resigned the next day. August 2: Matsuura and Chiba announced their resignations in a meeting with employees of Avex.
Chiba denied any fault, while Matsuura complained that Avex had lost its love of music and said he wanted to start over. They had the support of many staff who said they would quit. More the label's top star, Ayumi Hamasaki, said would leave; as a result, Avex's stocks in the TSE fell by 16 percent that day. August 3: Due to pressure by employees and artists and to save the company from bankruptcy, Yoda resigned and was replaced by Toshio Kobayashi. AGHD is listed at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and Börse München of Germany under the ticker symbol AX8. More K-pop artists from other agencies continued to sign with Avex such as YG Entertainment's 2NE1, S-plus Entertainment's SS501 member Kim Hyung Jun, Pledis Entertainment's After School, NH Media's U-KISS and Yejeon Media's Shu-I. On July 21, 2011, it was announced that Avex had paired with Korean management label YG Entertainment to form YGEX Entertainment. In 2012, the group began offering limited releases for sale, DRM-free for the first time within Japan on Amazon MP3.
Max Matsuura and Toshio Kobayashi, the company's top two individual shareholders, launched their own investment companies to anchor their shares in 2012. As a show of modernization, Avex Group moved to Izumi Garden Tower in
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
"Days/Green" is the forty-fourth single by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki, released on December 17, 2008. In addition to the A-sides "Days" and "Green", the single contains re-recorded versions of Hamasaki's songs "Love: Destiny" and "To Be"; the single became Hamasaki's 31st single to reach number one on the Oricon and 19th consecutive overall. The single is certified gold for shipment of 100,000 copies. "Green", one of the A-sides from the single, was released through online music store Dwango and Recochoku. It was used in an advertisement for Panasonic; this single was released in two versions: "Days/Green" contains an updated "Love: Destiny". "Green/Days" contains an updated "To Be". Besides the B-sides, there is no difference in the two versions of the CDs other than the track order. However, the DVD of "Days/Green" contains the making of shot of the "Days" video, the DVD of "Green/Days" contains the making of shot of the Green PV; each version of the single was released in CD+DVD and CD-only formats, both having different cover jackets.
The first press of the two CD+DVD versions was packaged in a vertically long casing, similar to the first press editions of Ayumi Hamasaki's previous single "Mirrorcle World". Some online retailers included a B2 size poster of the "Days/Green" CD+DVD cover for all versions of the single; the music videos for "Green" and "Days" were shot during a tour stop in China. Green premiered on November 2008 on MTV Japan; the music video depicts Hamasaki as a nightclub singer in 1930s Shanghai, styled after the Ang Lee film Lust, Caution. The video costs $1,600,000 and is directed by Kazuyoshi Shimomura. In the video, Ayumi rushes to a cabaret; as she is performing, a woman is enticed by her presence. On, the woman dances with her. Days was Hamasaki's first music video to be shot in anamorphic 16:9 widescreen. Retailer Peach John sold a limited-edition replica of the outfit Hamasaki wore in the "Days" music video; the music video premiered December 3, 2008. The music video is set in a ghetto and she plays a sweet girl who gets woken by her boyfriend"s motorcycle, Ayumi goes downstairs and her boyfriend gives her a helmet, she goes out with her boyfriend and she sees a ring she wants and starts asking her boyfriend, but he rejects.
She is trying to get his attention at his Dance classes, but he ignores. It goes back to the scene where she gets woken up by the motorcycle, Ayumi goes downstairs and greets her boyfriend, but he gives a helmet to another woman, wearing the ring she wanted, she walks away and her friends come to Ayumi and the video ends. Scenes of Ayumi in a basement were shown throughout the music video. All lyrics written by Ayumi Hamasaki. All lyrics written by Ayumi Hamasaki. December 3, 2008 - FNS December 5, 2008 - Music Station December 16, 2008 - Best Artist 2008 December 23, 2008 - Happy Xmas Show
Nintendo Entertainment System
The Nintendo Entertainment System is an 8-bit home video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It is a remodeled export version of the company's Family Computer platform in Japan known as the Famicom for short, which launched on July 15, 1983; the NES was launched through test markets in New York City and Los Angeles in 1985, before being given a wide release in the rest of North America and parts of Europe in 1986, followed by Australia and other European countries in 1987. Brazil saw only unlicensed clones until the official local release in 1993. In South Korea, it was packaged as the Hyundai Comboy and distributed by SK Hynix, known as Hyundai Electronics; the best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the North American video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.
It was succeeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he believed that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools; because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
The code name for the project was "GameCom", but Masayuki Uemura's wife proposed the name "Famicom", arguing that "In Japan,'pasokon' is used to mean a personal computer, but it is neither a home or personal computer. We could say it is a family computer." Meanwhile, Hiroshi Yamauchi decided that the console should use a red and white theme after seeing a billboard for DX Antenna which used those colors. During the creation of the Famicom, the ColecoVision, a video game console made by Coleco to compete against Atari's Atari 2600 Game system in The United States, was a huge influence. Takao Sawano, chief manager of the project, brought a ColecoVision home to his family, who were impressed by the system's capability to produce smooth graphics at the time, which contrasted with the flickering and slowdown seen on Atari 2600 games. Uemura, head of Famicom development, stated that the ColecoVision set the bar that influenced how he would approach the creation of the Famicom. Original plans called for the Famicom's cartridges to be the size of a cassette tape, but they ended up being twice as big.
Careful design attention was paid to the cartridge connectors since loose and faulty connections plagued arcade machines. As it necessitated taking 60 connection lines for the memory and expansion, Nintendo decided to produce their own connectors in-house rather than use ones from an outside supplier; the controllers were hard-wired to the console with no connectors for cost reasons. The game pad controllers were more-or-less copied directly from the Game & Watch machines, although the Famicom design team wanted to use arcade-style joysticks taking apart ones from American game consoles to see how they worked. There were concerns regarding the durability of the joystick design and that children might step on joysticks left on the floor. Katsuyah Nakawaka attached a Game & Watch D-pad to the Famicom prototype and found that it was easy to use and caused no discomfort. Though, they installed a 15-pin expansion port on the front of the console so that an optional arcade-style joystick could be used.
Uemura added an eject lever to the cartridge slot, not necessary, but he believed that children could be entertained by pressing it. He added a microphone to the second controller with the idea that it could be used to make players' voices sound through the TV speaker; the console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom's popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984. Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari's name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System; the deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game.
This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, Nintendo decided to market its sys
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
Subtractive color, or "subtractive color mixing", predicts the spectral power distribution of light after it passes through successive layers of absorbing media. This idealized model is the essential principle of how dyes and inks are used in color printing and photography where the perception of color is elicited after white light passes through microscopic "stacks" of absorbing media allowing some wavelengths of light to reach the eye and not others. RYB is the standard set of subtractive primary colors used for mixing pigments, it is used in art and art education in painting. It predated modern scientific color theory. Red and blue are the primary colors of the standard color "wheel"; the secondary colors, violet and green make up another triad, formed by mixing equal amounts of red and blue and yellow, blue and yellow, respectively. The RYB primary colors became the foundation of 18th century theories of color vision as the fundamental sensory qualities blended in the perception of all physical colors and in the physical mixture of pigments or dyes.
These theories were enhanced by 18th-century investigations of a variety of purely psychological color effects, in particular the contrast between "complementary" or opposing hues produced by color afterimages and in the contrasting shadows in colored light. These ideas and many personal color observations were summarized in two founding documents in color theory: the Theory of Colors by the German poet and government minister Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Law of Simultaneous Color Contrast by the French industrial chemist Michel-Eugène Chevreul. In late 19th and early to mid-20th century commercial printing, use of the traditional RYB terminology persisted though the more versatile CMY triad had been adopted, with the cyan sometimes referred to as "process blue" and the magenta as "process red". In color printing, the usual primary colors are cyan and yellow. Cyan is the complement of red; the amount of cyan applied to a white sheet of paper controls how much of the red in white light will be reflected back from the paper.
Ideally, the cyan is transparent to green and blue light and has no effect on those parts of the spectrum. Magenta is the complement of green, yellow the complement of blue. Combinations of different amounts of the three can produce a wide range of colors with good saturation. In inkjet color printing and typical mass production photomechanical printing processes, a black ink K component is included, resulting in the CMYK color model; the black ink serves to cover unwanted tints in dark areas of the printed image, which result from the imperfect transparency of commercially practical CMY inks. Purely photographic color processes never include a K component, because in all common processes the CMY dyes used are much more transparent, there are no registration errors to camouflage, substituting a black dye for a saturated CMY combination, a trivial prospective cost benefit at best, is technologically impractical in non-electronic analog photography. Additive color Color mixing Color motion picture film Color space Color theory Primary color Berns, Roy S..
Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of 3rd edition. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-19459-X. Stroebel, John Compton, Ira Current, Richard Zakia. Basic Photographic Materials and Processes, 2nd edition. Focal Press, Boston. ISBN 0-240-80405-8. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Wyszecki, Günther & W. S. Stiles. Colour Science: Concept and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-02106-7. Stanford University CS 178 interactive Flash demo comparing additive and subtractive color mixing
Chiptune known as chip music or 8-bit music, is a style of synthesized electronic music made using the programmable sound generator sound chips in vintage arcade machines and video game consoles. The term is used to refer to tracker format music which intentionally sounds similar to older PSG-created music, as well as music that combines PSG sounds with modern musical styles. By the early 1980s, personal computers had become less expensive and more accessible than they had been previously; this led to a proliferation of outdated personal computers and game consoles, abandoned by consumers as they upgraded to newer machines. They were in low demand by consumers as a whole, thus were not difficult to find, making them a accessible and affordable method of creating sound or art. While it has been a underground genre, chiptune has had periods of moderate popularity in the 1980s and 21st century, has influenced the development of electronic dance music; the terms "chip music" and "chiptune" refer to music made by the sound chips found within early gaming systems and microcomputers.
A waveform generator is a fundamental module in a sound synthesis system. A waveform generator produces a basic geometrical waveform with a fixed or variable timbre and variable pitch. Common waveform generator configurations included two or three simple waveforms and a single pseudo-random-noise generator. Available waveforms included pulse wave, square wave, triangle wave, sawtooth wave. Two notable examples of systems employing this technology comprise the Nintendo Game Boy portable game console, the Commodore 64 personal computer; the Game Boy uses two pulse channels, a channel for 4-bit pulse-code modulation playback, a pseudo-random-noise generator. The Commodore 64, used the MOS Technology SID chip which offered 3 channels, each switchable between pulse, saw-tooth and noise. Unlike the Game Boy, the pulse channels on the Commodore 64 allowed full control over wave duty cycles; the SID was a technically advanced chip, offering many other features including ring modulation and adjustable resonance filters.
Due to limited number of voices in those primitive chips, one of the main challenges is to produce rich polyphonic music with them. The usual method to emulate it is via quick arpeggios, one of the most relevant features of chiptune music; some older systems featured a simple beeper as their only sound output, as the original ZX Spectrum and IBM PC. The earliest precursors to chip music can be found in the early history of computer music. In 1951, the computers CSIRAC and Ferranti Mark 1 were used to perform real-time synthesized digital music in public. One of the earliest commercial computer music albums came from the First Philadelphia Computer Music Festival, held August 25, 1978, as part of the Personal Computing'78 show; the First Philadelphia Computer Music Festival recordings were published by Creative Computing in 1979. The Global TV program Science International credited a PDP-11/10 for the music. Chiptune music began to appear with the video game music produced during the golden age of video arcade games.
An early example was the opening tune in Tomohiro Nishikado's arcade game Gun Fight. The first video game to use a continuous background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's 1978 release Space Invaders, which had four simple chromatic descending bass notes repeating in a loop, though it was dynamic and interacted with the player, increasing pace as the enemies descended on the player; the first video game to feature continuous melodic background music was Rally-X, an arcade game released by Namco in 1980, featuring a simple tune that repeats continuously during gameplay. It was one of the earliest games to use a digital-to-analog converter to produce sampled sounds; that same year, the first video game to feature speech synthesis was released, Sunsoft's shoot'em up arcade game Stratovox. In the late 1970s, the pioneering electronic dance/synthpop group Yellow Magic Orchestra were using computers to produce synthesized music; some of their early music, including their 1978 self-titled debut album, were sampling sounds from popular arcade games such as Space Invaders and Gun Fight.
In addition to incorporating sounds from contemporary video games into their music, the band would have a major influence on much of the video game and chiptune music produced during the 8-bit and 16-bit eras. Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Locomotive, for example, featured a chiptune cover version of YMO's "Rydeen". By 1983, Konami's arcade game Gyruss utilized five sound chips along with a digital-to-analog converter, which were used to create an electronic rendition of J. S. Bach's Fugue in D minor. In 1984, former YMO member Haruomi Hosono released an album produced from Namco arcade game samples entitled Video Game Music, an early example of a chiptune record and the first video game music a