Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support
Korean Central Television
Korean Central Television is a television service operated by the Korean Central Broadcasting Committee, a state-owned broadcaster in North Korea. It is the only official source of television news for North Koreans. KCTV was established on 1 September 1953 as Pyongyang Broadcasting Network after the Korean War ended. Kim Il-sung envisioned that the time was ripe for television broadcasting in North Korea, but this was not yet to happen. Thus, the PBN began an 8-year period of preparation for commencement of television broadcasts, with the help of the national government. PBN was renamed as Central Broadcasting Television System in 1961, conducted on 1 September the same year its first test broadcasts. Central Broadcasting Television System began operations on 3 March 1963 at 19:00 KST based in Pyongyang, broadcasting two hours between 19:00 until 21:00 KST on weekdays only, expanding to 4 and 6 hours; the network carried live the whole proceedings of the 5th Workers' Party of Korea Congress held on 1 October 1970.
The Central Broadcasting Television System would be renamed Korean Central Television and was relaunched at 17:00 local time on 3 January 1973. The broadcasting hours closed on weekends and national holidays. KCTV began colour television broadcasts on 1 July 1974 and broadcast the first live colour telecast in preparation for the 7th Asian Games held in Tehran via satellite transmission on 1 September 1974, the first network to do so. KCTV was the first live colour television channel to broadcast the New Year's Eve in colour on 31 December 1974, in 1975 began weekend broadcasts as well. KCTV started their full-time colour broadcasts on 1 September 1977; the first broadcast received by media telecommunication on satellite television was the 22nd Summer Olympic Games on 19 July 1980. KCTV started broadcasting on national holidays on 1 March 1981. On national holidays, the broadcasting time of each station is the same as weekends save for major ones; the channel was the official host broadcaster of the 1989 13th World Festival of Students.
On 19 January 2015, KCTV started experimental high-definition television broadcasts via digital satellite as part of its modernization of the network. Although the broadcaster has been producing a growing number of shows in 16:9 format for several years, the station was still natively broadcasting in 4:3 format and widescreen programmes therefore had to be shown letterboxed. For satellite transmissions, this meant that the station's 4:3 output was broadcast with black bars on both sides, resulting in widescreen programmes getting windowboxed; the station began natively broadcasting in 16:9 widescreen with stereophonic sound on 4 December 2017, one of the last state-run broadcasters to do so, albeit several years after other developed nations have done so. To reflect this change, the station's graphics have been refreshed and its test card has been changed for the first time since 1980. By 2 December 2018, Korean Central Television was more Western-looking, toning down the previous norm of broadcasting country-related propaganda and moving on to broadcasting interviews with average North Korean citizens, kitchen staff, cosmetic factory dorms, students showing off the latest smartphone models.
More field reporting was found on the channel, as well as reporter engagement. More of the channel's faculty were found wearing neon suits, moving away from the traditional hanbok dresses. Younger presenters were added to the news bulletins, relocated to a high-tech studio replacing Ri Chun Hui. Nowadays, the KCTV broadcasts only 8 hours each day from 14:30 until 22:40 PYT daily, 14 hours from 08:30 to 22:40 PYT or on Sundays and key national holidays. There is another exception, for the emergency events in North Korea at night or daytime, it starts up without any announcers or the Voice of Korea interval signal; the station is open. The station's output is dominated by propaganda programming focusing on the history and achievements of the ruling Korean Workers' Party, the Korean People's Army and Kim Jong-un. News topics cover range from new construction projects to history lessons about the accomplishments and past of the "founding father" Kim Il-sung, as well as his son Kim Jong-il, grandson and current leader Kim Jong-un and the Juche idea.
Other program topics such as health and education are aired. Locally produced feature films, children's programmes, patriotic musical shows and filmed theatre shows are shown on the networks. On national holidays, military parades, musical performances and movies, plus more special programs are shown on all three networks; the following illustrates part of a typical day's broadcasting on KCTV on weekdays: Newsreaders wear the same outfit every day, though they may vary in color, have the same haircut for everyone of the same gender. Newscasters must project their voices when on air. Newscasts start with a blank red or blue slide, followed by a slow fade to the anchor; the set has the background of Pyongyang with the Taedong river. Nowadays Mt. Baekdu or another view of Pyongyang is used as the background for the newscasts; this technological advancement allows live reportages, though it has not been used
Christian rock is a form of rock music that features lyrics focusing on matters of Christian faith with an emphasis on Jesus performed by self-proclaimed Christian individuals. The extent to which their lyrics are explicitly Christian varies between bands. Many bands who perform Christian rock have ties to the contemporary Christian music labels, media outlets, festivals, while other bands are independent. Rock music was not viewed favorably by most traditional and fundamentalist Christians when it became popular with young people from the 1950s, although early rock music was influenced by country and gospel music. In 1952 Archibald Davison, a Harvard professor, summed up the sound of traditional Christian music and why its supporters may not like Rock music when he said: "... a rhythm that avoids strong pulses. Based upon Archibald Davison's statement it is easy to see how different these two genres of music are. Christians in many regions of the United States did not want their children exposed to music with unruly, impassioned vocals, loud guitar riffs and jarring, hypnotic rhythms.
Rock and roll differed from the norm, thus it was seen as a threat. The music was overtly sexual in nature, as in the case of Elvis Presley, who became controversial and massively popular for his suggestive stage antics and dancing. However, Elvis was a religious person who released a gospel album: Peace in the Valley. Individual Christians may have listened to or performed rock music in many cases, but it was seen as anathema to conservative church establishments in the American South, he Touched Me was a 1972 gospel music album by Elvis Presley which sold over 1 million copies in the US alone and earned Presley his second of three Grammy Awards. Not counting compilations, it was his third and final album devoted to gospel music; the song "He Touched Me" was written in 1963 by Bill Gaither, an American singer and songwriter of southern gospel and Contemporary Christian music. In the 1960s, rock music developed artistically, attained worldwide popularity and became associated with the radical counterculture alienating many Christians.
In 1966 The Beatles, regarded as one of the most popular and influential rock bands of their era, ran into trouble with many of their American fans when John Lennon jokingly offered his opinion that Christianity was dying and that the Beatles were "more popular than Jesus now". The romantic, melodic rock songs of the band's early career had been viewed as inoffensive, but after the remark, churches nationwide organized Beatles record burnings and Lennon was forced to apologize. Subsequently, the Beatles and most rock musicians experimented with a more complex, psychedelic style of music, that used anti-establishment, drug related, or sexual lyrics, while The Rolling Stones sang "Sympathy for the Devil", a song written from the point of view of Satan. Allegations of Satanic intent arose from the Beatles' et al. use of the controversial backmasking recording technique. This further increased Christian opposition to rock music; as the decade continued, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement, the Paris student riots and other events served as catalysts for youth activism and political withdrawal or protest, which became associated with rock bands, whether or not they were political.
Moreover, many saw the music as promoting a lifestyle of promiscuous "sex and rock and roll" reflected in the behavior of many rock stars. However, there was growing ideological potential of rock. Countless new bands sprang up in the mid-to-late 1960s, as rock displaced older, smoother pop styles to become the dominant form of pop music, a position it would enjoy continuously until the end of the 20th century, when hip-hop eclipsed it in sales. Among the first bands that played Christian rock was The Crusaders, a Southern Californian garage rock band, whose November 1966 Tower Records album Make a Joyful Noise with Drums and Guitars is considered one of the first gospel rock releases, or "the first record of Christian rock", Mind Garage, "arguably the first band of its kind", whose 1967 Electric Liturgy was recorded in 1969 at RCA's "Nashville Sound" studio. Both of these recordings were preceded by the rockabilly praise LP I Like God's Style and performed by one 16-year-old Isabel Baker and released on the private Wichita, Kansas Romco label in 1965, which slipped into obscurity before being rediscovered around 2007.
Larry Norman described as the "father of Christian rock music", in his years "the Grandfather of Christian rock", who, in 1969 recorded and released Upon This Rock, "the first commercially released Jesus rock album", challenged a view held by some conservative Christians that rock music was anti-Christian. One of his songs, "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?" Summarized his attitude and his quest to pioneer Christian rock music. A cover version of Larry Norman's Rapture-themed "I Wish We'd All Been Ready" appears in the Evangelical Christian feature film A Thief in the Night and appeared on Cliff Richard's Christian album Small Corners along with "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". Another Christian rock pioneer, Randy Stonehill, released his first album in 1971, the Larry Norman-produced Born Twice. In the most common pressing of th
Seoul Broadcasting System
Seoul Broadcasting System is a national South Korean television and radio network company. In March 2000, the company became known as SBS, changing its corporate name from Seoul Broadcasting System, it has provided terrestrial digital TV service in the ATSC format since 2001, T-DMB service since 2005. Its flagship terrestrial television station is Channel 6 for Cable. After the 1987 South Korean democratic reform, the government had decided to create a new commercial broadcaster in South Korea. MBC was a mouthpiece of KBS to broadcast sporting events like the 1986 FIFA World Cup, however, the purpose for South Korea's new commercial broadcaster has to become an alternative channel to the audience that it was before 1990 mastered by MBC. During the separation of MBC from KBS, the government had luckily succeeded it, by that, it introduced a new South Korean commercial broadcaster called SBS. According to the National Pension Service, SBS is South Korea's second commercial broadcaster after MBC, it were founded on 14 November 1990, when the government allowed the creation of a second commercial station in Seoul.
At the same time, during its establishment, SBS were first marking its start by beginning its experimental demo emissions, later, it were therefore commencing its test transmissions for its TV and radio channels on 1 December 1990, that same year. On 20 March 1991, SBS started its regular broadcasts by launching SBS Radio's first regular broadcasts on AM 792kHz. 9 months on 1 December 1991, that same year, when MBC celebrated its 30th anniversary, SBS commenced its official broadcasts with the introduction of SBS TV at 10:00am in Seoul, it was designated as "The Day of Birth of SBS", but SBS were only broadcasting terrestrially in Seoul and its surrounding areas. On 9 October 1992, the government began accepting applications for private broadcasting stations in other regions of the country. SBS had planned for a television and radio broadcast affiliate network that aims to air SBS' programs in other new regional channels before its 5th anniversary. In 1994, the private channels KNN in Busan, TJB in Daejeon, TBC in Daegu, kbc in Gwangju were created after government approval.
On 14 May 1995, SBS launched its national television network with its new local affiliates, KNN, TJB, TBC, kbc. SBS had managed a network that airs SBS programs in other regional channels while local stations created local programming to suit the local residents needs. In 1996, plans for a FM radio station to complement the existing AM station became realized. On 14 November 1996, SBS Power FM began broadcasting on 107.7 MHz as a music-centric station. On 4 January 1999, the original SBS Radio on AM 792 kHz began broadcasting on FM as well; the station rebranded as SBS Love FM on 103.5 MHz airing on both AM and FM frequencies. High-definition digital television was introduced in 2001. Digital Multimedia Broadcasting was introduced in 2005. SBS introduced its current logo on 14 November 2000, after its 10th anniversary celebrations to ensure the overall coherence of the current identity. SBS' logo has three embryos placed in a circle of the model where three colors are used to represent the symbol of human-centered and creative, future-oriented management philosophy, showing that the'life' and'the seeds of civilization' has centered on the theme of SBS.
SBS' branding is used in all sectors such as vehicle, envelopes, business cards, helicopter, ganpanryu, uniforms, program title, etc. SBS had used the slogan "Humanism thru Digital" until January 2010 where a new slogan is used. Gomi is the mascot of SBS-oriented as the new face of'Humanism thru Digital' through the harmony of nature and human life where green environment is important. On 29 October 2012, SBS TV became South Korea's second channel to go 24/7; the network's current advertising slogan is Together, we make delight, as used in a new station identification video with apl.de.ap's "We Can Be Anything" as background music. 1 terrestrial TV 2 radio stations7 cable TV channels SBS dramas have been part of the "Korean Wave", exported to many countries across the world. Sandglass has one of the highest viewership ratings in South Korea, is considered the breakout drama for the network. Other dramas that have enjoyed high viewership include Lovers in Paris, Trap of Youth, Brilliant Legacy, Rustic Period, Temptation of Wife, The Heirs, My Love from the Star.
SBS airs a variety of entertainment programs ranging from informational, music, talk shows, auditions. Many programs are popular throughout Asia, including X-Man, Family Outing, Running Man, The Music Trend, many more. SBS documentaries encompass a wide range of issues, from foreign affairs to the environment; the Its Know premiered in 1992, has since earned notoriety for its investigations from a journalistic standpoint. SBS broke tradition by creating its flagship newscast SBS Eight O'Clock News, airing at 20:00 instead of 21:00, giving itself the slogan "News an hour earlier", it produces news-analysis programs such as Morning Wide, Nightline, SBS Current Affairs Debate, Curious Stories Y, In Depth 21 covering the political, economic and cultural issues of the days. SBS Eight O'Clock News, the network's flagship newscast, reported “Actress Jang Ja-yeon had ‘entertained’ 31 guests for a total of 100 times.” The newscast showed a 230-page document directly written by Jang which however was not her writing.
The newscast said “A 50-container/230-page document directly wr
KKLQ is a non-commercial FM radio station owned by Educational Media Foundation and carries the contemporary Christian music format of its nationally syndicated network K-Love throughout the Greater Los Angeles area. Licensed to Los Angeles, California, KKLQ's transmitter is located atop Mount Wilson and has a booster in Santa Clarita, KKLQ-FM2 at 100.3 MHz, to extend its coverage into the Santa Clarita Valley and other areas north of Los Angeles. From 2008 through 2017, the station broadcast a classic rock format under the brand 100.3 The Sound as KSWD. In 2017, station owner Entercom announced its merger with CBS Radio. In order to satisfy U. S. Federal Communications Commission ownership caps, Entercom retained CBS Radio's pre-existing L. A. cluster but divested KSWD to EMF, who assumed control of the station on November 16, 2017 and flipped it to K-Love programming. The former broadcast studios of The Sound were located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile district of Los Angeles. KKLQ is not affiliated with KLVE, a Spanish-language radio station which has used the name "K-Love" in the Los Angeles market continuously since 1974 and holds the trademark locally.
Prior to assuming control of KKLQ, EMF reached an agreement with Univision Radio, owner of KLVE, that allows KKLQ to use the K-Love brand on-air yet requires the station to differentiate itself in its marketing efforts. 100.3 FM debuted in 1957 as a background music station with the call letters KMLA. In 1965, the station became KVXN and KFOX-FM, the country sister station to KFOX in Long Beach In 1972, 100.3 FM was purchased by four businessmen who changed the call letters to KIQQ in an attempt to capitalize on its 100.3 MHz dial location. The following year, with the station's soft rock format failing to gain ratings or billing, KIQQ brought in deposed KHJ heavyweights Bill Drake and Gene Chenault, who contracted to program and manage the station. In spite of bringing in former KHJ powerhouse jocks, including Robert W. Morgan and The Real Don Steele, certain management and programming decisions are believed to have led to the demise of Drake-Chenault's run at KIQQ. By 1975, Morgan and Steele were gone.
The station cut costs drastically by airing a generic national format via satellite. In the early 1980s, K-100 dropped its handle, kept to the calls as "KIQQ" with a live and local aggressive top 40 or contemporary hit radio format; the on-air lineup included Jeff Thomas, G. W. McCoy, Francesca Cappucci. "Play Hits for Cash" was a regular promotion. KIQQ simulcast the NBC television show Friday Night Videos and had Wally George as a weekend call-in host. KIQQ carried American Top 40 beginning in 1983 after competing CHR KIIS-FM lost the countdown program over the playing of network commercials. By 1986, with competition from KIIS, KKHR, KBZT proving too intense, KIQQ became easy listening 100.3 K-Lite. The format lasted for only three years before the launch of another new format. In 1989, KIQQ was sold to Westwood One, which hired Scott Shannon from WHTZ in New York to program the station, they became KQLZ at 5:00 a.m. on March 17, 1989, airing a top 40 playlist leaning toward rock. The last song played on KIQQ was " The End" by Earl Grant, while the first song on Pirate Radio was "Welcome to the Jungle" by Guns'n' Roses.
While KQLZ played a lot of heavy metal, they mixed in some mainstream rock and a few dance songs by artists like Madonna. The first ratings books showed an initial spike, but faded rather once the novelty wore off. KQLZ dropped the dance songs and went rock. Shannon was let go in February 1991, he went back to New York to program WPLJ. On December 25, 1992, KQLZ shifted to modern rock and dropped the "Pirate Radio" moniker, rebranded as "100.3 FM, Southern California's Cutting Edge". Opting to leave the radio ownership business, Westwood One sold KQLZ to Viacom in 1993, the new owners ended the rock format at 3:00 p.m. on April 2 of that year. Viacom brought KXEZ and its soft adult contemporary format back to life at 100.3 FM after a six-month absence from the FM dial. The KXEZ call letters and format were at 98.7 FM. In 1992, KXEZ had become KYSR and was named Star 98.7. It was during this period that the station hired prostitute Divine Brown to be their television spokesperson soon after her arrest with actor Hugh Grant.
On August 29, 1996, at Noon, KXEZ changed calls to KIBB, flipped to a dance-leaning Rhythmic Hot AC format, branded as B100. The first song on KIBB was; the move was to go after listeners who have become disenfranchised with the increasing hip-hop content at KPWR. The move came about based on the instant success of WKTU in New York City, which debuted in February of that year. In 1997, the Chancellor company would buy KIBB, added currents to its playlist, shifted directions to Rhythmic Contemporary Hits, as well as altering their slogan to "L. A.'s Hot FM". Despite the effort and a promotional campaign, KIBB couldn't make a dent in the ratings. After a little over a year and minor tweaks in its playlist and direction, KIBB's fate was sealed when Chancellor decided to drop the format at 5 PM on November 19, 1997 (after a couple of days of teasing a "major event" and playing "I'll Be Missing You" by Puff Daddy as the
Digital multimedia broadcasting
Digital multimedia broadcasting is a digital radio transmission technology developed in South Korea as part of the national IT project for sending multimedia such as TV, radio and datacasting to mobile devices such as mobile phones, laptops and GPS navigation systems. This technology, sometimes known as mobile TV, should not be confused with Digital Audio Broadcasting, developed as a research project for the European Union. DMB was developed in South Korea as the next generation digital technology to replace FM radio, but the technological foundations were laid by Prof. Dr. Gert Siegle and Dr. Hamed Amor at Robert Bosch GmbH in Germany; the world's first official mobile TV service started in South Korea in May 2005, although trials were available much earlier. It can operate via terrestrial transmission. DMB has some similarities with the main competing mobile TV standard, DVB-H. T-DMB is made for terrestrial transmissions on band L frequencies. DMB is unavailable in the United States because those frequencies are allocated for television broadcasting and military applications.
USA is adopting ATSC-M/H for free broadcasts to mobiles, Qualcomm's proprietary MediaFLO system was used there. In Japan, 1seg is the standard, using ISDB. T-DMB uses MPEG-4 Part 10 for HE-AAC v2 for the audio; the audio and video is encapsulated in an MPEG transport stream. The stream is forward error corrected by Reed Solomon encoding and the parity word is 16 bytes long. There is convolutional interleaving made on this stream the stream is broadcast in data stream mode on DAB. In order to diminish the channel effects such as fading and shadowing, the DMB modem uses OFDM-DQPSK modulation. A single-chip T-DMB receiver is provided by an MPEG transport stream demultiplexer. DMB has several applicable devices such as mobile phone, portable TV, PDA and telematics devices for automobiles. T-DMB is an standard; as of December 14, 2007, ITU formally approved T-DMB as the global standard, along with three other standards, like DVB-H, 1seg, MediaFLO. Smart DMB started in January 2013 in South Korea. Smart DMB has a VOD service and quality has been improved from 240p to 480p.
Smart DMB will be built in many Korean smartphones starting with the Galaxy Grand in January 2013. HD DMB started in August 2016 in South Korea. HD DMB has been improved from 240p to 720p, it uses HEVC.5 codec. There are 6 HD DMB stations in Seoul. Smartphones integrated Qualcomm Snapdragon 801 or higher received firmware upgrade to support HD DMB. DMB is being put into use in a number of countries, although used in South Korea. See list of Countries using DAB/DMB. In 2005, South Korea became the world's first country to start S-DMB and T-DMB service on May 1 and December 1, respectively. In December 2006, T-DMB service in South Korea consists of, 7 TV channels, 12 radio channels, 8 data channels; these are broadcast on six multiplexes in the VHF band on TV channels 8 and 12. In October 2007, South Korea added broadcasting channel MBCNET to the DMB channel, but in 2010, this channel changed. In 2009 there were eight DMB video channels in Seoul, six in other metropolitan cities; as of April 2013, S-DMB service in South Korea consists of 15 TV channels, 2 radio channels and 6 data channels.
South Korea has had Full T-DMB services including JSS, DLS, BWS, TPEG since 2006. S-DMB service in South Korea is provided on a subscription basis through TU Media and is accessible throughout the country. T-DMB service is provided free of charge. Around one million receivers have been sold as of June 2006. 14 million DMB receivers were sold including T-DMB and S-DMB in South Korea, 40% of the new cell phones have the capability to see DMB. Receivers are integrated in car navigation systems, mobile phones, portable media players, laptop computers and digital cameras. In mid-August 2007, Iriver, a multimedia and micro-technology company released their "NV", which utilizes South Korea's DMB service. Since the advent of smartphones DMBs have been made available on phones with receivers through smartphone applications, most of which come pre-installed in phones made and sold in Korea; some T-DMB trials are available or planned around Europe and other countries: In Norway T-DMB services have been available since May 2009.
MiniTV DMB service launched by the Norwegian Mobile TV Corporation is backed by the three largest broadcasters in Norway: the public broadcaster NRK, TV2 and Modern Times Group. The live channels can be viewed around Greater Oslo. Germany's Mobiles Fernsehen Deutschland launched the commercial T-DMB service "Watcha" in June 2006, in time for the World Cup 2006, marketed together with Samsung's P900 DMB Phone, the first DMB Phone in Europe, it was stopped in April 2008 as MFD is now favouring the European standard. France on December 2007 chose T-DMB Audio in VHF band III and L band as the national standard for terrestrial digital radio.. It was replaced by DAB+. China in 2006 chose DAB as an industrial standard. Since 2007 DAB and T-DMB services broadcast in Beijing, Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Zhejiang and Shenzhen. In Mexico most cell phone carriers offer DMB broadcasting as part of their basic plans; as of 2008 the vast majority of Mexico receives DMB signals. Ghana is running a T-DMB service in Accra and Kumasi on mobile network since May 2008.
Netherlands: MFD, T-Systems and private investors are planning a DMB service under the name Mobiel TV Nederland. Callmax will deploy a DMB service on the L-Band frequency in the