Band (rock and pop)
A rock band or pop band is a small musical ensemble which performs rock music, pop music or a related genre. The four-piece band is the most common configuration in pop music. Before the development of the electronic keyboard, the configuration was two guitarists, a bassist, a drummer. Another common formation is a vocalist who does not play an instrument, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, a drummer. Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing; some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble, the Jam, ZZ Top, Green Day, while power trios with the bass guitarist on lead vocals include Cream, The Police and Motörhead.
Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. Two-member rock and pop bands omit one of these musical elements. In many cases, two-member bands will omit a drummer, since guitars, bass guitars, keyboards can all be used to provide a rhythmic pulse. Examples of two-member bands are The White Stripes, Pet Shop Boys, Flight of the Conchords, the Ting Tings, Hall & Oates, Twenty One Pilots and T. Rex; when electronic sequencers became available in the 1980s, this made it easier for two-member bands to add in musical elements that the two band members were not able to perform. Sequencers allowed bands to pre-program some elements of their performance, such as an electronic drum part and a synth bass line. Two-member pop music bands such as Soft Cell and Yazoo used pre-programmed sequencers. Other pop bands from the 1980s which were ostensibly fronted by two performers, such as Wham!, Eurythmics and Tears for Fears, were not two-piece ensembles, because other instrumental musicians were used "behind the scenes" to fill out the sound.
Modern bands that use this format include Ninja Sex Death Grips. Two-piece bands in rock music are quite rare. However, starting in the 2000s, blues-influenced rock bands such as the White Stripes and the Black Keys utilized a guitar-and-drums scheme. Death from Above 1979 featured a bass guitarist. Tenacious D is a two-guitar band. Ratatat are a two-guitar band. W. A. S. P. Guitarist Doug Blair is known for his work in the two-piece progressive rock band signal2noise, where he acts as the lead guitarist and bassist at the same time, thanks to a special custom instrument he invented. Heisenflei of Los Angeles duo the Pity Party plays drums and sings simultaneously. Royal Blood is a two-piece band that drums along with electronic effects; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing.
Some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are Campsite 85, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble and Muse. A handful of others with the bassist on vocals include Thin Lizzy, Rush, Motörhead, the Police and Cream; some power trios feature two lead vocalists. For example, in the band Blink-182 vocals are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Matt Skiba, or in the band Dinosaur Jr. guitarist J. Mascis is the primary songwriter and vocalist, but bassist Lou Barlow writes some songs and sings as well. An alternative to the power trio are organ trios formed with an electric guitarist, a drummer and a keyboardist. Although organ trios are most associated with 1950s and 1960s jazz organ trio groups such as those led by organist Jimmy Smith, there are organ trios in rock-oriented styles, such as jazz-rock fusion and Grateful Dead-influenced jam bands, for instance Medeski Martin & Wood. In organ trios, the keyboard player plays a Hammond organ or similar instrument, which permits the keyboard player to perform bass lines and lead lines.
A variant of the organ trio are trios formed with an electric bassist, a drummer and an electronic keyboardist such as the progressive rock band Emerson, Lake & Palmer. A power trio with the guitarist on lead vocals is a popular record company lineup, as the guitarist and singer will be the songwriter. Therefore, the label only has to present one "face" to the public; the backing band may or may not be featured in publici
Moving Pictures (Rush album)
Moving Pictures is the eighth studio album by the Canadian rock band Rush, released on February 12, 1981, on Anthem Records. After touring to support their previous album, Permanent Waves, the band started to write and record new material in August 1980 with co-producer Terry Brown, they continued to write songs with a more radio friendly format, featuring tighter song structures and songs of shorter length compared to their early albums. Moving Pictures received a positive reception from current and retrospective music critics and became an instant commercial success, reaching number one in Canada and number 3 in the United States and the United Kingdom, it remains Rush's highest selling album in the United States after it was certified quadruple-platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for over 4 million copies sold. "Limelight", "Tom Sawyer" and "Vital Signs" were released as singles across 1981, the instrumental "YYZ" was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance.
Rush supported the album with a concert tour from September 1980 to July 1981. In June 1980, the band ended their ten-month tour of the United States and the United Kingdom in support of their seventh studio album, Permanent Waves. During the tour's stop in New York City, the band agreed to start work on a new studio album, rather than prepare a second live album from several recordings they set up during the tour due to the ideas they were developing at sound checks interested them enough to put them onto tape. Peart was instrumental in doing a new album, Lee and Lifeson found themselves catching onto his enthusiasm; the trio pitched the idea to their manager and producer who had mapped out a two-year plan for them, but agreed to the sudden change and cancelled the schedule. After a short break, they regrouped at Phase One Studios in Toronto, Canada, in July 1980 with members of rock band Max Webster to record "Battlescar" for their album Universal Juveniles. During the sessions, their lyricist Pye Dubois suggested a song that he thought was suitable for Rush to record, developed into "Tom Sawyer".
Rush moved to Stony Lake, Ontario to write and prepare material for their new album. The sessions were productive, with "The Camera Eye" the first song to be worked on, followed by "Tom Sawyer", "Red Barchetta", "YYZ" and "Limelight". Following the initial writing sessions, Rush returned to Phase One Studios with their co-producer Terry Brown and prepared demos of the songs; the band worked on them further during rehearsals of their 1980–1981 tour which began in September, included "Tom Sawyer" and "Limelight" in their live set prior to recording. With the material prepared, Rush recorded Moving Pictures in October and November 1980 at Le Studio in Morin-Heights, Quebec; the studio had been fitted out with a digital 48-track machine, unfamiliar to the band and necessitated them spending time familiarising themselves with the equipment. Moving Pictures is Brown's first digitally-produced album; the band made a conscious effort to preserve the quality of their recordings as much as possible by transferring finished sections onto a fresh piece of tape and placing the original copy in storage, thereby reducing the damage to it from frequent playback.
During the sessions they experimented with a pressure zone microphone, a type of boundary microphone that picks up direct sound and no reverberated signals, taped onto Peart's chest as he played. The audio captured from it was used to pick up the ambience in the studio room in the final mix. Peart wore the microphone for the filming of the music video to "Vital Signs". "Red Barchetta" was recorded in one take. There were problems with equipment failures and they finished the album three days behind schedule. "Tom Sawyer" features a backbeat in a 44 time signature with its instrumental and closing sections in 74. Peart described the track as "an enjoyable work" which took around a day and a half to record, "collapsing afterwards with raw, aching hands and feet", its instrumental section grew from what Lee would play on his synthesiser during sound checks on tour, forgotten about until the band traded ideas on what the section should be. It became one of a mainstay of subsequent live shows. Peart's lyrics to "Red Barchetta" were inspired by the short story "A Nice Morning Drive" by Richard S. Foster written in the November 1973 edition of the American car magazine Road & Track.
Lee described the tale as "Orwellian in nature" which deals with an individual taking their Barchetta on a fast ride despite the banning of high speeds, is chased after by hovering patrol cars for breaking the rule. Instead of an MGB roadster as featured in the original story, Peart reported the Ferrari 166 MM Barchetta was the car that inspired the song's title. In 2007, Foster and Peart met for the first time and shared their mutual interest of BMW motorcycles, documented in an article titled "The Drummer, The Private Eye, Me". "YYZ" is an instrumental titled after the IATA airport code for Toronto Pearson International Airport, with its rhythm a mirror of the letters "YYZ" in Morse code. It stemmed from the band's enjoyment of recording "La Villa Strangiato", a nine-minute instrumental on Hemispheres, which they wanted to do again for Moving Pictures only shorter; the code was adapted into the song's rhythm of a 54 time signature, where the dashes are played using eighth notes and the dots use sixteenth notes.
The lyrics to "Limelight" are autobiographical and based on Peart's own dissatisfaction with fame and its intrusion into one's personal life. The song contains two self-references: the first, the line "living in
Paul Brandon Gilbert, is an American hard rock/heavy metal guitarist. He is best known for being the co-founder of the band Mr. Big, he was a member of Racer X, with whom he released several albums. In 1996, Gilbert launched a solo career, for which he has released numerous solo albums, featured in numerous collaborations and guest appearances on other musicians' albums. Gilbert has been voted fourth-best on GuitarOne magazine's "Top 10 Greatest Guitar Shredders of All Time", he has ranked in Guitar World's "50 Fastest Guitarists of All Time" list. Gilbert was raised in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, he began playing music at age five. Around 1981, Gilbert first contacted Mike Varney, asking for a gig with metal mega-star Ozzy Osbourne. At the time, Varney couldn't think, they continued talking over the next 3 years, culminating in Gilbert's 1984 cross-country move to Los Angeles to attend the GIT. At the young age of 17, Gilbert became a local legend due to his advanced alternate picking technique, record-breaking speed, his young age, his massive repertoire of cover material.
He was hired as a GIT instructor in 1985, recorded Racer X's debut album Street Lethal soon after. Formed in Los Angeles in 1985, Racer X was composed of Paul Gilbert, Juan Alderete, Harry Gschoesser, Jeff Martin, they were influenced by Judas Priest, Gilbert's playing was reminiscent of Yngwie Malmsteen, displaying fast-driven solos with extreme-level technique. Gschoesser was replaced by Scott Travis in 1986, Bruce Bouillet, one of Gilbert's private students at GIT, was added as a second guitarist after demonstrating an ability to harmonize Gilbert's string skipping sequences. Gilbert gained recognition as one of the world's fastest guitarists due to technical pieces like "Technical Difficulties", "Frenzy", "Scarified", "Y. R. O." and "Scit Scat Wah". Around this time, Gilbert recorded his first instructional video, Intense Rock, in which he demonstrated a number of his famous techniques and practice regimens in detail. Throughout his career he would go on to release many more instructional videos.
Racer X toured the American southwest the state of California, would sell out thousand-seat venues. Despite their rigorous fan base, the band did not have prospects for a major label deal and Gilbert became disinterested. In 1987, he was approached by Talas bassist Billy Sheehan, one of his biggest influences, about forming a band that would become Mr. Big. Gilbert reformed it after the 1996 breakup of Mr. Big. Paul contacted the members of Racer X, all agreed to return with the exception of Bruce Bouillet, who could play guitar at the time due to a severe bout of carpal tunnel syndrome. In mid-1999, the band recorded the album Technical Difficulties. Racer X's new record label requested a follow-up. To further capitalize on their new-found success in Japan, Universal Japan requested that the band perform for a live-album CD and DVD. On May 25, 2001, the band played their first live performance in thirteen years, to a sold-out crowd, at the world-famous "The Whisky" in Los Angeles; the resulting CD and DVD were released in 2002 under the title Snowball of Doom.
In January 2002, in support of Superheroes and Snowball of Doom, Racer X toured Taiwan. The band performed these shows in their Superheroes costumes; the tour's final show, in Yokohama, was hastily recorded in two tracks on the sound board and released as Snowball of Doom 2. That year, Universal Japan pushed for another Racer X release. In October 2002, all four members of Racer X gathered at Gilbert's house in Las Vegas to record Getting Heavier, sold alongside Snowball of Doom 2 in a package deal. Although the album was a successful release in Japan, some fans were disappointed with the lighter tracks, which resembled a Paul Gilbert solo album more than a conventional Racer X album. Racer X performed at the 2009 NAMM show at the Anaheim Convention Center in California. Andy Timmons and his band opened the show, followed by a solo set from Paul Gilbert, Racer X; the Racer X lineup consisted of Scott Travis, Jeff Martin and John Alderete. When bass guitarist Billy Sheehan left David Lee Roth's solo band in 1988, he and Gilbert co-founded Mr. Big which included Pat Torpey on drums and Eric Martin on vocals.
The band was successful in Japan, but achieved international stardom with the 1991 release of their second studio album Lean into It. This album featured the acoustic ballad "To Be with You" which received strong play on radio stations and MTV, rising to #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. Mr. Big broke up in 1996; when Mr. Big reformed soon after, committed to his own record contract, was replaced by Richie Kotzen. Mr. Big disbanded again in 2002, but Gilbert reunited the original members in June 2009 for a worldwide reunion tour; the band recorded a new album with producer Kevin Shirley titled What If.... The album was released in Japan on Dec. 2010, in Europe on Jan.. 21st, 2011 and in the U. S. in Feb. 2011. A tour to support the album kicked off at the Holly
Foo Fighters is an American rock band, formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1994. It was founded by Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl as a one-man project following the dissolution of Nirvana after the suicide of Kurt Cobain; the group got its name from the UFOs and various aerial phenomena that were reported by Allied aircraft pilots in World War II, which were known collectively as "foo fighters". Prior to the release of Foo Fighters' 1995 debut album Foo Fighters, which featured Grohl as the only official member, Grohl recruited bassist Nate Mendel and drummer William Goldsmith, both of Sunny Day Real Estate, as well as Nirvana touring guitarist Pat Smear to complete the lineup; the band began with performances in Oregon. Goldsmith quit during the recording of the group's second album, The Colour and the Shape, when most of the drum parts were re-recorded by Grohl himself. Smear's departure followed soon afterward, though he would appear as a guest with the band starting in 2006, would rejoin as an official full-time member in 2011.
They were replaced by Taylor Hawkins and Franz Stahl although Stahl was fired before the recording of the group's third album, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. The band continued as a trio until Chris Shiflett joined as the band's lead guitarist after the completion of There Is Nothing Left to Lose; the band released its fourth album, One by One, in 2002. The group followed that release with the two-disc In Your Honor, split between acoustic songs and heavier material. Foo Fighters released its sixth album, Silence, Patience & Grace, in 2007; the band's seventh studio album, Wasting Light, produced by Butch Vig, was released in 2011, in which Smear returned as a full member. In November 2014, the band's eighth studio album, Sonic Highways, was released as an accompanying soundtrack to the Grohl-directed 2014 miniseries of the same name. On September 15, 2017, the band released their ninth studio album and Gold, which became their second to reach number one in the United States and was the band's first studio album to feature longtime session and touring keyboardist Rami Jaffee as a full member.
Over the course of the band's career, four of its albums have won Grammy Awards for Best Rock Album. As of 2015, the band has sold 12 million copies in the United States alone. Foo Fighters frontman Dave Grohl joined the grunge group Nirvana as its drummer in 1990. During tours, he wrote songs. Grohl held back these songs from the rest of the band. I thought it was best that I kept my songs to myself." Grohl booked studio time to record demos and covers of songs he liked and issued a cassette of some of those songs called Pocketwatch under the pseudonym "Late!" in 1992. Frontman Kurt Cobain was found dead in his Seattle home on April 8, 1994, Nirvana subsequently disbanded. Grohl received offers to work with various artists. Grohl declined and instead entered Robert Lang Studios in October 1994 to record fifteen of the forty songs he had written. With the exception of a guitar part on "X-Static", played by Greg Dulli of the Afghan Whigs, Grohl played every instrument and sang every vocal on the tracks.
"I was supposed to just join another band and be a drummer the rest of my life," Grohl said. "I thought. I enjoy writing music and I enjoy trying to sing, there's nothing anyone can do to discourage me." Grohl completed an album's worth of material in five days and handed out cassette copies of the sessions to his friends for feedback. Grohl hoped to keep his anonymity and release the recordings in a limited run under the title "Foo Fighters", taken from the World War II term "foo fighter", used to refer to unidentified flying objects. "Around the time that I recorded the first FF tape, I was reading a lot of books on UFO's. Not only is it a fascinating subject, but there's a treasure trove of band names in those UFO books!" he said. "So, since I had recorded the first record by myself, playing all the instruments, but I wanted people to think that it was a group, I figured that FOO FIGHTERS might lead people to believe that it was more than just one guy. Silly, huh?" Continuing, Grohl insisted.
"Had I considered this to be a career, I would have called it something else, because it's the stupidest fucking band name in the world."However, the demo tape circulated in the music industry, creating interest among record labels. Grohl formed a band to support the album, he talked to former Nirvana bandmate Krist Novoselic about joining the group, but both decided against it. "For Krist and I, it would have felt natural and great", Grohl explained. "But for everyone else, it would have been weird, it would have left me in a bad position. I would have been under the microscope." Having heard about the disbanding of Seattle-based rock band Sunny Day Real Estate, Grohl drafted the group's bass player, Nate Mendel, drummer, William Goldsmith. Grohl asked Pat Smear, who served as a touring guitarist for Nirvana after the release of its 1993 album, In Utero, to join as the group's second guitarist. Grohl licensed the album to Capitol Records, releasing it on Roswell Records, his new record label.
Foo Fighters made its live public debut on February 23, 1995, at the Jambalaya Club in Arcata and March 3 at The Satyricon in Portland. They followed that with a show at the Velvet Elvis in
Rush was a Canadian rock band made up of Geddy Lee, Alex Lifeson, Neil Peart. Formed in 1968, the band went through several configurations until arriving at its longest and most popular line-up when Peart replaced original drummer John Rutsey in July 1974, two weeks before the group's first tour of the United States. Rush is known for its musicianship, complex compositions, eclectic lyrical motifs drawing on science fiction and philosophy; the band's musical style has changed several times over the years, from a blues-inspired hard rock beginning moving into progressive rock, including a period marked by heavy use of synthesizers. In the early 1990s, Rush returned to a guitar-driven hard rock sound, which continued for the rest of their career. Rush announced plans to cease large-scale touring at the end of 2015. After nearly three years of an uncertain future, Lifeson reluctantly announced in January 2018 that the band had dissolved. According to the RIAA, Rush ranks 86th with sales of 25 million units in the U.
S. Although total worldwide album sales are not calculated by any single entity, several industry sources estimated Rush's total worldwide album sales at over 40 million units as of 2017; the group has been awarded 24 gold, 14 platinum, 3 multi-platinum albums. Rush has received nominations for seven Grammy Awards; the band has won several Juno Awards, won an International Achievement Award at the 2009 SOCAN Awards, was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2013. Over their careers, the members of Rush have been acknowledged as some of the most proficient players on their respective instruments, with each band member winning numerous awards in magazine readers' polls; the original line-up formed in the neighbourhood of Willowdale in Toronto, Ontario, by guitarist Alex Lifeson and front man Jeff Jones, drummer John Rutsey on September 18, 1968. Within a couple of weeks of forming, before their second performance and lead vocalist Jones left the band and was replaced by Geddy Lee, a schoolmate of Lifeson.
Their first gigs took place at the Coff-Inn, a youth centre in the basement of St. Theodore of Canterbury Anglican Church in North York. After several line-up reformations, Rush's official incarnation formed in May 1971 consisting of Lee and Rutsey; the name "Rush" was suggested by Bill. The band was managed by local Toronto resident Ray Danniels, a frequent attendee of Rush's early shows. After gaining stability in the line-up and honing their skills on the local bar and high school dance circuit, the band members released their first single "Not Fade Away", a cover of the Buddy Holly song, in 1973. Side B contained an original composition, "You Can't Fight It", credited to Rutsey; the single generated little reaction and, because of record company indifference, the band formed their own independent label, Moon Records. With the assistance of Danniels and the newly enlisted engineer Terry Brown, the band released its self-titled debut album in 1974, considered derivative of Led Zeppelin. Rush had limited local popularity until the album was picked up by WMMS, a radio station in Cleveland, Ohio.
Donna Halper, a music director and DJ working at the station, selected "Working Man" for her regular playlist. The song's blue-collar theme resonated with hard rock fans, this newfound popularity led to the album being re-released by Mercury Records in the U. S. After the release of the debut album, Rutsey left the band due to health difficulties stemming from diabetes and his distaste for touring, his last performance with the band was on July 1974, at Centennial Hall in London, Ontario. Rush selected Neil Peart as Rutsey's replacement. Peart joined the band on July 29, 1974, two weeks before the group's first US tour, they performed their first concert together, opening for Uriah Heep and Manfred Mann with an attendance of over 11,000 people at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 14. In addition to becoming the band's drummer, Peart assumed the role of principal lyricist from Lee, who had little interest in writing, despite having penned the lyrics of the band's first album.
Lee and Lifeson focused on the instrumental aspects of Rush. Fly by Night, Rush's first album after recruiting Peart, saw the inclusion of the band's first epic mini-tale "By-Tor and the Snow Dog", replete with complex arrangements and a multi-section format. Lyrical themes underwent dramatic changes because of Peart's love for fantasy and science-fiction literature. Despite these many differences, some of the music and songs still mirrored the blues style found on Rush's debut; the band followed Fly by Night with Caress of Steel, a five-track album featuring two extended multi-chapter songs, "The Necromancer" and "The Fountain of Lamneth". Some critics said Caress of Steel was unfocused and an audacious move for the band because of the placement of two back-to-back protracted songs, as well as a heavier reliance on atmospherics and story-telling, a large deviation from Fly by Night. Intended to be the band's break-through album, Caress of Steel sold below expectations and the promotional tour consisted of smaller venues, which led to the moniker the "Down the Tubes Tour".
In light of these events, Rush's record label tried to pressure the members into moulding their next album in a more commercially friendly and accessible fashion. Despite this, the album was the band's first taste of commercial success and their fir
Quintuple meter or quintuple time is a musical meter characterized by five beats in a measure. The beats can have the pattern strong-weak-medium-weak-weak or strong-weak-weak-medium-weak, although a survey of certain forms of American popular music suggests that latter is the more common of these two in these styles; the beats may use any other combination, including five equally-stressed beats in every bar, each consisting of an accent and a non-accent Like the more common duple and quadruple meters, it may be simple, with each beat divided in half, or compound, with each beat divided into thirds. The most common time signatures for simple quintuple meter are 54 and 58, compound quintuple meter is most written in 158. Simple quintuple meter can be written in 54 or 58 time, but may be notated by using alternating bars of triple and duple meters, for example 24 + 34. Compound quintuple meter, with each of its five beats divided into three parts, can be notated using a time signature of 158, by writing triplets on each beat of a simple quintuple signature, or by alternating meters such as 68 + 98.
Another notational variant involves compound meters, in which two or three numerals take the place of the expected numerator. In simple quintuple meter, the 5 may be replaced as 2 2 +1 +28 for example. A time signature of 158, does not mean the music is in a compound quintuple meter, it may, for example, indicate a bar of triple meter in which each beat is subdivided into five parts. In this case, the meter is sometimes characterized as "triple quintuple time", it is possible for a 158 time signature to be used for an irregular, or additive, metrical pattern, such as groupings of 3+3+3+2+2+2 eighth notes or, for example in the Hymn to the Sun and Hymn to Nemesis by Mesomedes of Crete, 2+2+2+2+2+3+2, which may alternatively be given the composite signature 8+78. The presence of some bars with a 54 or 58 meter signature does not mean that the music is in quintuple meter overall; the regular alternation of 54 and 44 in Bruce Hornsby's "The Tango King", for example, results in an overall nonuple meter.
Before the 20th century, quintuple time was rare in European concert music, but is more found in other cultures. Rhythm in ancient Greek music was tied to poetic meter, included what are understood today as quintuple patterns; the two Delphic Hymns from the second century BC both provide examples. The First Delphic Hymn, by Athenaeus, son of Athenaeus, is in the quintuple Cretic meter throughout; the first nine of the ten sections of the Second Hymn, by Limenius, are in Cretic meter. In addition to the Cretic meter, which consisted of a long-short-long pattern, ancient Greek music had seven other quintuple meters: Bacchic, four species of Paeanic, hyporchematic. Arabic theorists in the early Abbasid period described modal rhythmic cycles, that included quintuple meters, though taxonomies and terminology vary amongst writers; the first figure to describe these rhythms was Abū Yūsuf Ya‘qūb al-Kindī, who divided them into two broad categories, ṯẖaqīl and khafīf. Two of his ṯẖaqīl modes—ṯẖaqīl thānī and ramal —and one khafīf mode are quintuple.
The most important writers of the Abbasid period were Abū Naṣr al-Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā. Al-Fārābī elaborated the rhythmic system established a century earlier by another important early Abbasid musician, Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī, who had based it on local traditions, without any knowledge of classical Greek music theory. Isḥāq's and al-Fārābī's system consisted of eight rhythmic modes, the third and fourth of which were quintuple: called ṯẖaqīl thānī, khafīf al-ṯẖaqīl thānī, both of which are short-short-short-long, in slow and fast tempo, respectively; this terminology and these definitions continued to be found as late as the 12th century in Muslim Spain, for example in a document by Abd-Allāh ibn Muḥammad ib al-Ṣīd al-Baṭaliawsī. In the Moroccan Malḥūn repertory, 58 rhythms are sometimes introduced into the basic meter of 24. Turkish classical music employs a system of rhythmic modes, which include units ranging from two to ten time units; the five-beat meter is called türk aksağı. The traditional music of Adjara in Western Georgia includes an ancient war-dance called Khorumi, in quintuple meter.
The cyclically repeating fixed time cycles of Carnatic and Hindustani classical music, called tālas, include both fast and slow quintuple patterns, as well as binary and septuple cycles. In the Carnatic system, there is a complex "formal" system of tālas, of great antiquity, a more recent, rather simpler "informal" system, comprising selected tālas from the "formal" system, plus two fast tālas called Cāpu; the slow quintuple tāla, called Jhampā is from the formal system, consists of a pattern of 7+1+2 beats. However, the pattern of beats marking the rotation of the cycle does not indicate the internal rhythmic organization. For example, although the Jhampā tāla, in its most common miśra variety, is governed by 2+1+2, the most characteristic rhythm of melodies in this tāla is +; the tālas in Hindustani music are somewhat more complicated. To begin with, they are not systematically codified, but rather comprise a miscellany of patterns from a
VHF omnidirectional range
High Frequency Omni-Directional Range is a type of short-range radio navigation system for aircraft, enabling aircraft with a receiving unit to determine its position and stay on course by receiving radio signals transmitted by a network of fixed ground radio beacons. It uses frequencies in the high frequency band from 108.00 to 117.95 MHz. Developed in the United States beginning in 1937 and deployed by 1946, VOR is the standard air navigational system in the world, used by both commercial and general aviation. By 2000 there were about 3,000 VOR stations around the world including 1,033 in the US, reduced to 967 by 2013 with more stations being decommissioned with the widespread adoption of GPS. A VOR ground station sends out an omnidirectional master signal, a directional second signal is propagated by a phased antenna array and rotates clockwise in space 30 times a second; this signal is timed so that its phase varies as the secondary signal rotates, this phase difference is the same as the angular direction of the'spinning' signal.
By comparing the phase of the secondary signal with the master, the angle to the aircraft from the station can be determined. This line of position is called the "radial" from the VOR; the intersection of radials from two different VOR stations can be used to fix the position of the aircraft, as in earlier radio direction finding systems. VOR stations are short range: the signals are line of sight between transmitter and receiver and are useful for up to 200 miles; each station broadcasts a VHF radio composite signal including the navigation signal, station's identifier and voice, if so equipped. The navigation signal allows the airborne receiving equipment to determine a bearing from the station to the aircraft; the station's identifier is a three-letter string in Morse code. The voice signal, if used, is the station name, in-flight recorded advisories, or live flight service broadcasts. At some locations, this voice signal is a continuous recorded broadcast of Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service or HIWAS.
Developed from earlier Visual Aural Radio Range systems, the VOR was designed to provide 360 courses to and from the station, selectable by the pilot. Early vacuum tube transmitters with mechanically-rotated antennas were installed in the 1950s, began to be replaced with solid-state units in the early 1960s, they became the major radio navigation system in the 1960s, when they took over from the older radio beacon and four-course system. Some of the older range stations survived, with the four-course directional features removed, as non-directional low or medium frequency radiobeacons. A worldwide land-based network of "air highways", known in the US as Victor airways and "jetways", was set up linking VORs. An aircraft can follow a specific path from station to station by tuning into the successive stations on the VOR receiver, either following the desired course on a Radio Magnetic Indicator, or setting it on a course deviation indicator or a horizontal situation indicator and keeping a course pointer centred on the display.
As of 2005, due to advances in technology, many airports are replacing VOR and NDB approaches with RNAV approach procedures. VOR signals provide greater accuracy and reliability than NDBs due to a combination of factors. Most significant is that VOR provides a bearing from the station to the aircraft which does not vary with wind or orientation of the aircraft. VHF radio is less vulnerable to diffraction around terrain coastlines. Phase encoding suffers less interference from thunderstorms. VOR signals offer a predictable accuracy of 90 m, 2 sigma at 2 NM from a pair of VOR beacons. VOR stations rely on "line of sight" because they operate in the VHF band—if the transmitting antenna cannot be seen on a clear day from the receiving antenna, a useful signal cannot be received; this limits VOR range to the horizon -- or closer. Although the modern solid state transmitting equipment requires much less maintenance than the older units, an extensive network of stations, needed to provide reasonable coverage along main air routes, is a significant cost in operating current airway systems.
VORs are assigned radio channels between 117.95 MHz. The first 4 MHz is shared with the instrument landing system band. To leave channels for ILS, in the range 108.0 to 111.95 MHz, the 100 kHz digit is always so 108.00, 108.05, 108.20, 108.25, so on are VOR frequencies but 108.10, 108.15, 108.30, 108.35 and so on, are reserved for ILS in the US. The VOR encodes azimuth as the phase relationship between a variable signal; the omnidirectional signal contains a modulated continuous wave 7 wpm Morse code station identifier, contains an amplitude modulated voice channel. The conventional 30 Hz reference signal is frequency modulated on a 9,960 Hz subcarrier; the variable amplitude modulated signal is conven