A tutelary is a deity or spirit, a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, lineage, culture, or occupation. The etymology of "tutelary" expresses the concept of safety, thus of guardianship. In late late Greek and Roman religion, one type of tutelary deity, the genius, functions as the personal deity or daimon of an individual from birth to death. Another form of personal tutelary spirit is the familiar spirit of European folklore. Chinese folk religion, both past and present, includes a myriad of tutelary deities. Exceptional individuals may become deified after death. Guan Yu is a well-known tutelary. See City God and Tudigong. In Hinduism, tutelary deities are known as Kuldevi or Kuldevta. Gramadevata are guardian deities of villages. Devas can be seen as tutelary. Shiva is patron of renunciants; the City goddesses include: Mumbadevi Sachchika Kuladevis include: Ambika Mahalakshmi In Korean shamanism and sotdae were placed at the edge of villages to frighten off demons.
They were worshiped as deities. In Philippine animism, Diwata or Lambana are deities or spirits that inhabit sacred places like mountains and mounds and serve as guardians.* Maria Makiling is the deity who guards Mt. Makiling. * Maria Cacao and Maria Sinukuan. In Shinto, the spirits, or kami, which give life to human bodies come from nature and return to it after death. Ancestors are therefore themselves tutelaries to be worshiped. Thai provincial capitals palladiums; the guardian spirit of a house is known as Pra Poom. Every Buddhist household in Thailand has a miniature shrine housing this tutelary deity, known as a spirit house. Tibetan Buddhism has Yidam as a tutelary deity. Dakini is the patron of those. Socrates spoke of hearing the voice of his personal spirit or daimonion: You have heard me speak of an oracle or sign which comes to me …; this sign I have had since I was a child. The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything, this is what stands in the way of my being a politician.
The Greeks thought deities guarded specific places: For instance, Athena was the patron goddess of the city of Athens. Tutelary deities who guard and preserve a place or a person are fundamental to ancient Roman religion; the tutelary deity of a man was that of a woman her Juno. In the Imperial era, the Genius of the Emperor was a focus of Imperial cult. An emperor might adopt a major deity as his personal patron or tutelary, as Augustus did Apollo. Precedents for claiming the personal protection of a deity were established in the Republican era, when for instance the Roman dictator Sulla advertised the goddess Victory as his tutelary by holding public games in her honor; each town or city had one or more tutelary deities, whose protection was considered vital in time of war and siege. Rome itself was protected by a goddess; the Capitoline Triad of Juno and Minerva were tutelaries of Rome. The Italic towns had their own tutelary deities. Juno had this function, as at the Latin town of Lanuvium and the Etruscan city of Veii, was housed in an grand temple on the arx or other prominent or central location.
The tutelary deity of Praeneste was Fortuna. The Roman ritual of evocatio was premised on the belief that a town could be made vulnerable to military defeat if the power of its tutelary deity were diverted outside the city by the offer of superior cult at Rome; the depiction of some goddesses such as the Magna Mater as "tower-crowned" represents their capacity to preserve the city. A town in the provinces might adopt a deity from within the Roman religious sphere to serve as its guardian, or syncretize its own tutelary with such; each Roman home had a set of protective deities: the Lar or Lares of the household or familia, whose shrine was a lararium. The poet Martial lists the tutelary deities; the architecture of a granary featured niches for images of the tutelary deities, who might include the genius loci or guardian spirit of the site, Silvanus, Fortuna Conservatrix and in the Greek East Aphrodite and Agathe Tyche. The Lares Compitales were the tutelary gods of a neighborhood, each of which had a compitum devoted to these.
During the Republic, the cult of local or neighborhood tutelaries sometimes became rallying points for political and social unrest. Some tutelary deities are known to exist in Slavic Europe, a more prominent example being that of Leshy. Animal spirit Dvarapala Eudaemon Guardian angel Landvættir Nagual National god Patron saint Power animal Totem Tulpa Uay
Aztec mythology is the body or collection of myths of Aztec civilization of Central Mexico. The Aztecs were Nahuatl-speaking groups living in central Mexico and much of their mythology is similar to that of other Mesoamerican cultures. According to legend, the various groups who were to become the Aztecs arrived from the north into the Anahuac valley around Lake Texcoco; the location of this valley and lake of destination is clear – it is the heart of modern Mexico City – but little can be known with certainty about the origin of the Aztec. There are different accounts of their origin. In the myth the ancestors of the Mexica/Aztec came from a place in the north called Aztlan, the last of seven nahuatlacas to make the journey southward, hence their name "Azteca." Other accounts cite their origin at Tamoanchan. The Mexica/Aztec were said to be guided by their god Huitzilopochtli, meaning "Left-handed Hummingbird" or "Hummingbird from the South." At an island in Lake Texcoco, they saw an eagle holding a rattlesnake in its talons, perched on a nopal cactus.
This vision fulfilled a prophecy telling them. The Aztecs built their city of Tenochtitlan on that site, building a great artificial island, which today is in the center of Mexico City; this legendary vision is pictured on the Coat of Arms of Mexico. According to legend, when the Mexicans arrived in the Anahuac valley around Lake Texcoco, they were considered by the other groups as the least civilized of all, but the Mexica/Aztec decided to learn, they took all they could from other people from the ancient Toltec. To the Aztec, the Toltec were the originators of all culture. Aztec legends identify the Toltecs and the cult of Quetzalcoatl with the legendary city of Tollan, which they identified with the more ancient Teotihuacan; because the Aztec adopted and combined several traditions with their own earlier traditions, they had several creation myths. One of these, the Five Suns describes four great ages preceding the present world, each of which ended in a catastrophe, "were named in function of the force or divine element that violently put an end to each one of them".
Coatlicue was the mother of Centzon Huitznahua, her sons, Coyolxauhqui, her daughter. She found a ball filled with feathers and placed it in her waistband, becoming pregnant with Huitzilopochtli, her other children became suspicious as to the identity of the father and vowed to kill their mother. She gave birth on Mount Coatepec, pursued by her children, but the newborn Huitzilopochtli defeated most of his brothers, who became the stars, he killed his half-sister Coyolxauhqui by tearing out her heart using a Xiuhcoatl and throwing her body down the mountain. This was said to inspire the Aztecs to rip the hearts out of their victims and throw their bodies down the sides of the temple dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, who represents the sun chasing away the stars at dawn. Our age, the fifth age, or fifth creation, began in the ancient city of Teotihuacan. According to the myth, all the gods had gathered to create a new age. Although the world and the sun had been created, it would only be through their sacrifice that the sun would be set into motion and time as well as history could begin.
The most handsome and strongest of the gods, was supposed to sacrifice himself but when it came time to self-immolate, he could not jump into the fire. Instead, Nanahuatl the smallest and humblest of the gods, covered in boils, sacrificed himself first and jumped into the flames; the sun was set into motion with his sacrifice and time began. Humiliated by Nanahuatl's sacrifice, Tecuciztecatl became the moon. Water deities god of rain and lightning and thunder, he is a fertility god Chalchiuhtlicue, goddess of water, rivers, streams, horizontal waters and baptism. Huixtocihuatl, goddess of salt Opochtli, god of fishing and birdcatchers, discoverer of the harpoon and net Atlahua, god of water, a fisherman and archer Fire deities Xiuhtecuhtli, god of fire and time Chantico, goddess of firebox and volcanoes Xolotl, god of death, associated with Venus as the Evening Star Death deities Mictlantecuhtli, god of the dead, ruler of the Underworld Mictecacihuatl, goddess of the dead, ruler of the Underworld Xolotl, god of death, associated with Venus as the Evening Star Sky deities Tezcatlipoca, god of providence, the darkness and the invisible, lord of the night, ruler of the North.
Xipe-Totec, god of force, lord of ruler of the East. Quetzalcoatl, god of the life, the light and wisdom, lord of the winds and the day, ruler of the West. Huitzilopochtli, god of the war, lord of ruler of the South. Xolotl, god of death, associated with Venus as the Evening Star Ehecatl, god of wind Tlaloc, god of rain and lightning and thunder, he is a fertility god Coyolxauhqui and leader of the Centzonhuitznahua, associated with the moon Meztli, goddess of moon Tonatiuh, god of sun Centzonmimixcoa, 400 gods of the northern stars Centzonhuitznahua, 400 gods of the southern stars Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, god of the morning star Lords of the Night Xiuhtecuhtli, god of fire and time Tezcatlipoca, god of providence, the darkness and the invisible, lord of the night, ruler of the North. Piltzintecuhtli, god of the visions,associated with Mercury (the planet that
The Codex Borgia or Codex Yoalli Ehēcatl is a Mesoamerican ritual and divinatory manuscript. It is one of a handful of codices that some scholars believe to have been written before the Spanish conquest of Mexico, somewhere within what is now southern or western Puebla, though some scholars argue, produced in the first decades after the conquest as a copy of an earlier precolumbian codex; the Codex Borgia is a member of, gives its name to, the Borgia Group of manuscripts. The codex is made of animal skins folded into 39 sheets; each sheet is a square 27 cm by 27 cm, for a total length of nearly 11 meters. All but the end sheets are painted on both sides; the codex is read from right to left. Pages 29–46 are oriented perpendicular to the rest of the codex; the top of this section is the right side of page 29, the scenes are read from top to bottom. So the reader must rotate the manuscript 90 degrees in order to view this section correctly; the Codex Borgia is organized into a screen-fold. Single sheets of the hide are attached as a long strip and folded back and forth.
Images were painted over with a white gesso. Stiffened leather are used as end pieces by gluing the first and last strips in order to create a cover; the edges of the pages are overlapped and glued together, making the sheet edges hardly visible under the white gesso finish. The gesso creates a stiff, white finished surface that preserves the images below; the Codex Borgia features eighteen pages of an astronomical narrative that shows the yearlong alteration of the rainy and dry season. The Codex Borgia is named after the Italian Cardinal Stefano Borgia, who owned it before it was acquired by the Vatican Library; the Codex Borgia was brought to Europe Italy, some time in the early Spanish Colonial period. It was discovered in 1805 by Alexander von Humboldt among the effects of Cardinal Stefano Borgia; the Codex Borgia is presently housed in the Apostolic Library, the Vatican, has been digitally scanned and made available to the public. The first eight pages list the 260 day signs of the tonalpohualli, each trecena of 13 signs forming a horizontal row spanning two pages.
Certain days are marked with a footprint symbol. Divinatory symbols are placed below the day signs. Sections parallel to this are contained in the first eight pages of the Codex Cospi and the Codex Vaticanus B. However, while the Codex Borgia is read from right to left, these codices are read from left to right. Additionally, the Codex Cospi includes the Lords of the Night alongside the day signs. Pages 9 to 13 are divided into four quarters; each quarter contains one of the twenty day signs, its patron deity, associated symbols. Page 14 is divided into nine sections for each of the nine Lords of the Night, they are accompanied by symbols indicating positive or negative associations. Pages 15 to 17 depict deities associated with childbirth; each of the twenty sections contains four day signs. The bottom section of page 17 contains a large depiction of Tezcatlipoca, with day signs associated with different parts of his body. Pages 29 through 46 of the codex constitute the longest section of the codex, the most enigmatic.
The pages refer to different veintena festivals. Together these images represent a 20-day period for the veintena cycle; the glyphs refer to rainy seasons. They show a journey but the complex iconography and the lack of any comparable document have led to a variety of interpretations ranging from an account of actual astronomical and historical events, to the passage of Quetzalcoatl—as a personification of Venus—through the underworld, to a "cosmic narrative of creation". Pages 37 and 38 depict Xolotl holding a Xiuhcoatl or "fire serpent" descending into the underworld with lightning; the sequence ends with a New Fire ceremony, marking the end of one 52-year cycle, the start of another. Pages 47 through 56 show a variety of deities and other complex iconography. Pages 57 through 60 allowed the priest to determine the prospects for favorable and unfavorable marriages according to the numbers within the couple’s names. Pages 61 through 70 are similar to the first section, showing various day signs winding around scenes of deities.
Each of the 10 pages shows 26 day signs. Page 71 depicts the sun god, receiving blood from a decapitated bird. Surrounding the scene are the thirteen Birds of the Day, corresponding to each of the thirteen days of a trecena. Page 72 depicts four deities with day signs connected to parts of their bodies; each deity is surrounded by a serpent. Page 73 depicts the gods Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcoatl seated back to back, similar to page 56, they have day signs attached to various parts of their bodies, the entire scene is encircled by day signs. A list of the "proper sequence" of sections of codices in the Borgia group. Facsimile of Codex Borgianus Mexicanus 1 Digital scans of the Codex Borgianus as produced by the Vatican