A postage stamp is a small piece of paper issued by a post office, postal administration, or other authorized vendors to customers who pay postage, who affix the stamp to the face or address-side of any item of mail—an envelope or other postal cover —that they wish to send. The item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark or cancellation mark—in modern usage indicating date and point of origin of mailing—is applied to the stamp and its left and right sides to prevent its reuse; the item is delivered to its addressee. Always featuring the name of the issuing nation, a denomination of its value, an illustration of persons, institutions, or natural realities that symbolize the nation's traditions and values, every stamp is printed on a piece of rectangular, but sometimes triangular or otherwise shaped special custom-made paper whose back is either glazed with an adhesive gum or self-adhesive; because governments issue stamps of different denominations in unequal numbers and discontinue some lines and introduce others, because of their illustrations and association with the social and political realities of the time of their issue, they are prized for their beauty and historical significance by stamp collectors whose study of their history and of mailing systems is called philately.
Because collectors buy stamps from an issuing agency with no intention to use them for postage, the revenues from such purchases and payments of postage can make them a source of net profit to that agency. Throughout modern history, numerous methods were used to indicate that postage had been paid on a mailed item, so several different men have received credit for inventing the postage stamp. William DockwraIn 1680, William Dockwra, an English merchant in London, his partner Robert Murray established the London Penny Post, a mail system that delivered letters and small parcels inside the city of London for the sum of one penny. Confirmation of paid postage was indicated by the use of a hand stamp to frank the mailed item. Though this'stamp' was applied to the letter or parcel itself, rather than to a separate piece of paper, it is considered by many historians to be the world's first postage stamp. Lovrenc KoširIn 1835, the Slovene civil servant Lovrenc Košir from Ljubljana in Austria-Hungary, suggested the use of "artificially affixed postal tax stamps" using "gepresste papieroblate", but although civil bureaucrats considered the suggestion in detail, it was not adopted.
Rowland HillIn 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, gave Sir Rowland Hill numerous books and documents about the postal service, which Hill described as a "half hundred weight of material". After a detailed study, on 4 January 1837 Hill submitted a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, marked "private and confidential," and not released to the general public, to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Thomas Spring Rice; the Chancellor summoned Hill to a meeting at which he suggested improvements and changes to be presented in a supplement, which Hill duly produced and submitted on 28 January 1837. Summoned to give evidence before the Commission for Post Office Enquiry on 13 February 1837, Hill read from the letter he wrote to the Chancellor that included a statement saying that the notation of paid postage could be created "...by using a bit of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, covered at the back with a glutinous wash...". This would become the first unambiguous description of a modern adhesive postage stamp.
Shortly afterward, Hill's revision of the booklet, dated 22 February 1837, containing some 28,000 words, incorporating the supplement given to the Chancellor and statements he made to the Commission, was published and made available to the general public. Hansard records that on 15 December 1837, Benjamin Hawes asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer "whether it was the intention of the Government to give effect to the recommendation of the Commissioners of the Post-office, contained in their ninth report relating to the reduction of the rates of postage, the issuing of penny stamps?"Hill’s ideas for postage stamps and charging paid-postage based on weight soon took hold, were adopted in many countries throughout the world. With the new policy of charging by weight, using envelopes for mailing documents became the norm. Hill’s brother Edwin invented a prototype envelope-making machine that folded paper into envelopes enough to match the pace of the growing demand for postage stamps. Rowland Hill and the reforms he introduced to the United Kingdom postal system appear on several of its commemorative stamps.
James ChalmersIn the 1881 book The Penny Postage Scheme of 1837, Scotsman Patrick Chalmers claimed that his father, James Chalmers, published an essay in August 1834 describing and advocating a postage stamp, but submitted no evidence of the essay's existence. Until he died in 1891, Patrick Chalmers campaigned to have his father recognized as the inventor of the postage stamp; the first independent evidence for Chalmers' claim is an essay, dated 8 February 1838 and received by the Post Office on 17 February 1838, in which he proposed adhesive postage stamps to the General Post Office. In this 800-word document concerning methods of indicating that postage had been paid on mail he states: "Therefore, of Mr Hill’s plan of a uniform rate of postage... I conceive that the most simple and economical mode... would be by Slips... in the hope that Mr Hill’s plan may soon be carried into operation I would sugg
A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light, caused by thickness or density variations in the paper. Watermarks have been used on postage stamps and other government documents to discourage counterfeiting. There are two main ways of producing watermarks in paper. Watermarks vary in their visibility. Various aids have been developed, such as watermark fluid. A watermark is useful in the examination of paper because it can be used for dating, identifying sizes, mill trademarks and locations, determining the quality of a sheet of paper; the word is used for digital practices that share similarities with physical watermarks. In one case, overprint on computer-printed output may be used to identify output from an unlicensed trial version of a program. In another instance, identifying codes can be encoded as a digital watermark for a music, picture, or other file; the origin of the water part of a watermark can be found back when a watermark was something that only existed in paper.
At that time the watermark was created by changing the thickness of the paper and thereby creating a shadow/lightness in the watermarked paper. This was done while the paper was still wet/watery and therefore the mark created by this process is called a watermark. Watermarks were first introduced in Fabriano, Italy, in 1282. Traditionally, a watermark was made by impressing a water-coated metal stamp or dandy roll onto the paper during manufacturing; the invention of the dandy roll in 1826 by John Marshall revolutionised the watermark process and made it easier for producers to watermark their paper. The dandy roll is a light roller covered by material similar to window screen, embossed with a pattern. Faint lines are made by laid wires that run parallel to the axis of the dandy roll, the bold lines are made by chain wires that run around the circumference to secure the laid wires to the roll from the outside; because the chain wires are located on the outside of the laid wires, they have a greater influence on the impression in the pulp, hence their bolder appearance than the laid wire lines.
This embossing is transferred to the pulp fibres and reducing their thickness in that area. Because the patterned portion of the page is thinner, it transmits more light through and therefore has a lighter appearance than the surrounding paper. If these lines are distinct and parallel, and/or there is a watermark the paper is termed laid paper. If the lines appear as a mesh or are indiscernible, and/or there is no watermark it is called wove paper; this method is called line drawing watermarks. Another type of watermark is called the cylinder mould watermark, it is a shaded watermark first used in 1848 that incorporates tonal depth and creates a greyscale image. Instead of using a wire covering for the dandy roll, the shaded watermark is created by areas of relief on the roll's own surface. Once dry, the paper may be rolled again to produce a watermark of thickness but with varying density; the resulting watermark is much clearer and more detailed than those made by the Dandy Roll process, as such Cylinder Mould Watermark Paper is the preferred type of watermarked paper for banknotes, motor vehicle titles, other documents where it is an important anti-counterfeiting measure.
In philately, the watermark is a key feature of a stamp, constitutes the difference between a common and a rare stamp. Collectors who encounter two otherwise identical stamps with different watermarks consider each stamp to be a separate identifiable issue; the "classic" stamp watermark is a small crown or other national symbol, appearing either once on each stamp or a continuous pattern. Watermarks were nearly universal on stamps in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but fell out of use and are not used on modern U. S. issues. Some types of embossing, such as that used to make the "cross on oval" design on early stamps of Switzerland, resemble a watermark in that the paper is thinner, but can be distinguished by having sharper edges than is usual for a normal watermark. Stamp paper watermarks show various designs, letters and pictorial elements; the process of bringing out the stamp watermark is simple. Sometimes a watermark in stamp paper can be seen just by looking at the unprinted back side of a stamp.
More the collector must use a few basic items to get a good look at the watermark. For example, watermark fluid may be applied to the back of a stamp to temporarily reveal the watermark. Using the simple watermarking method described, it can be difficult to distinguish some watermarks. Watermarks on stamps printed in yellow and orange can be difficult to see. A few mechanical devices are used by collectors to detect watermarks on stamps such as the Morley-Bright watermark detector and the more expensive Safe Signoscope; such devices can be useful for they can be used without the application of watermark fluid and allow the collector to look at the watermark for a longer period of time to more detect the watermark. Audio watermark detection Thomas Harry Saunders Allan H. Stevenson Overprinting Overprint Buxton, B. H; the Buxton Encyclopedia of Watermarks. Tappan, N. Y.: Buxton Stamp Co. 1977 114p. Felix, Ervin J; the Stamp Collector's Guidebook of Worldwide Perforations, from 1840 to date. Racine, WI.: Whitman Publishing Co. 1966 256p.
German Cameroon was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon. German Cameroon included northern parts of Gabon and the Congo with western parts of the Central African Republic, southwestern parts of Chad and far eastern parts of Nigeria; the first German trading post in the Duala area on the Kamerun River delta was established in 1868 by the Hamburg trading company C. Woermann; the firm's agent in Gabon, Johannes Thormählen, expanded activities to the Kamerun River delta. In 1874, together with the Woermann agent in Liberia, Wilhelm Jantzen, the two merchants founded their own company, Jantzen & Thormählen there. Both of these West Africa houses expanded into shipping with their own sailing ships and steamers and inaugurated scheduled passenger and freight service between Hamburg and Duala; these companies and others obtained extensive acreage from local chiefs and began systematic plantation operations, including bananas. By 1884, Adolph Woermann, representing all West African companies as their spokesman, petitioned the imperial foreign office for "protection" by the German Empire.
Bismarck, the Imperial Chancellor, sought to utilize the traders on site in governing the region via "chartered companies". However, in response to Bismarck's proposal, the companies withdrew their petition. At the core of the commercial interests was pursuit of profitable trading activities under the protection of the Reich, but these entities were determined to stay away from political engagements. Bismarck yielded to the Woermann position and instructed the admiralty to dispatch a gunboat; as a show of German interest, the small gunboat SMS Möwe arrived in West Africa. Germany was interested in Cameroon's agricultural potential and it was entrusted to large firms to exploit and export it. Chancellor Bismarck defined the order of priorities as follows: "first the merchant the soldier", it was under the influence of businessman Adolph Woermann, whose company set up a trading house in Douala, that Bismarck skeptical about the interest of the colonial project, was convinced. Large German trading companies and concession companies established themselves massively in the colony.
Letting the big companies impose their order, the administration supported them, protected them and eliminated indigenous rebellions. Germany was planning to build a great African empire, which would connect Kamerun through the Congo to its East African possessions; the German Foreign Minister said shortly before the First World War that the Belgian Congo was too large a colony for a country too small. The protectorate of Kamerun was established during the period known as Europe's imperialist "Scramble for Africa"; the German explorer, medical doctor, imperial consul and commissioner for West Africa, Gustav Nachtigal, was the driving force toward the colony's establishment. By well over a dozen German companies, based in Hamburg and Bremen, conducted trading and plantation activities in Kamerun. With imperial treasury subsidies, the colony built two rail lines from the port city of Duala to bring agricultural products to market: the Northern line of 160-kilometre to the Manenguba mountains, the 300-kilometre long mainline to Makak on the river Nyong.
An extensive postal and telegraph system and a river navigation network with government ships connected the coast to the interior. The Kamerun protectorate was enlarged with Neukamerun in 1911 as part of the settlement of the Agadir Crisis, resolved by the Treaty of Fez. At the outbreak of World War I, French and British troops invaded the German colony in 1914 and occupied it during the Kamerun campaign; the last German fort to surrender was the one at Mora in the north of the colony in 1916. Following Germany's defeat, the Treaty of Versailles divided the territory into two League of Nations mandates under the administration of Great Britain and France. French Cameroun and part of British Cameroons reunified in 1961 as Cameroon. In 1914 a series of drafts were made for proposed Coat of Flags for the German Colonies. However, World War I broke out before the designs were finished and implemented and the symbols were never taken into use. Following the defeat in the war, Germany lost all its colonies and the prepared coat of arms and flags were therefore never used.
German West African Company History of Cameroon Neukamerun Index: German colonisation in Africa German South West Africa Togoland German East Africa Elo Sambo Kamerun Campaign DeLancey, Mark W.. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3775-7. OCLC 43324271. Gorges, E. Howard; the Great War in West Africa. London: Hutchinson & Co. Haupt, Werner. Deutschlands Schutzgebiete in Übersee 1884–1918. Friedberg: Podzun-Pallas Verlag. ISBN 3-7909-0204-7. Hoffmann, Florian. Okkupation und Militärverwaltung in Kamerun. Etablierung und Institutionalisierung des kolonialen Gewaltmonopols. Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 9783867274722. "German Cameroons 1914". UniMaps. 2004. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Map of the territories exchanged between Germany at the Treaty of Fez. Schaper, Ulrike. Koloniale Verhandlungen. Gerichtsbarkeit, Verwaltung und Herrschaft in Kamerun 1884-1916. Frankfurt am Main 2012: Campus Verlag. ISBN 3-593-39639-4. Washausen, Helmut.
Hamburg und die Kolonialpolitik des Deutschen Reiches 1880 bis 1890 [Hamburg and Colonial Politics of th
Postage stamps and postal history of German South West Africa
German South West Africa was a German colony in Africa, established in 1884 with the protection of the area around Lüderitz and abandoned during World War I, when the area was taken over by the British. The postal history of the colony started on 7 July 1888 at Otjimbingwe, when the regular postal service began using German postage stamps and postmarks reading OTYIMBINGUE; the service continued in this fashion for a number of years expanding to additional post offices in Windhoek and Swakopmund. The first stamp issue for the colony consisted of overprints applied to German stamps in May 1897, reading "Deutsch- / Südwest-Afrika" at an angle. On 15 November 1898, the overprint was changed to "Deutsch- / Südwestafrika" dropping the hyphen. In 1900, the omnibus Yacht issue included stamps for South West Africa, printed on watermarked paper after 1906; the last of these was a 3 Mark value, never put on sale in the colony. Some values, such as the 3 and 5 Pfennig Yachts, are available today, with prices of around US$1.
The others range up to several hundred dollars. The high values of the watermarked Yachts saw little usage before the colony was captured, genuinely used stamps are up to 10 times more valuable. Postage stamps and postal history of the German colonies Postage stamps and postal history of Namibia Postage stamps and postal history of South West Africa References SourcesScott catalogue
Postage stamps and postal history of German East Africa
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of German East Africa. German East Africa was a German colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi and Tanganyika, it came into existence during the 1880s and ended during World War I, when the area was taken over by the British and Belgians, as League of Nations mandate territories. A German postal agency was established on 27 February 1885 in Lamu using German stamps for mail. Following the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty in 1890 Germany created the colony of German East Africa. German stamps were used; the first postage stamps for German East Africa were German stamps surcharged in pesa values in 1893, followed by stamps overprinted "Deutsch-Ostafrika" in 1896. In 1900, Germany issued the "Yachts," a common design used for all of Germany's colonies, featuring the Kaiser's yacht Hohenzollern. In German East Africa they were denominated in pesas and rupees, inscribed "DEUTSCH-OSTAFRIKA". In 1905 new stamps were denominated in "hellers," 100 hellers to a rupee.
Germany continued to print stamps during the war, issuing a 1-rupee watermarked Yacht in 1916. After the colony was occupied by Belgian and British troops, each issued its own provisional stamps. In 1916, the Belgians overprinted stamps of Belgian Congo in several ways, first with "RUANDA" and "URUNDI," although these were never used. A second series was overprinted with the dual-language "EST AFRICAIN ALLEMAND / OCCUPATION BELGE / DUITSCH OOST AFRIKA / BELGISCHE BEZETTING." In 1922 these stamps received surcharges ranging from 5c to 50c. In 1916, at the request of Brigadier General Edward Northey, to the Governor of Nyasaland, Nyasaland stamps were overprinted "N. F.". The overprint was intended to be "N. F. F.", for "Nyasaland Field Force", but the telegraph operator omitted one “F.” when sending the request to the Governor. The stamps could only be used by troops of the Nyasaland Rhodesian Field Force. Although they were intended for use in German East Africa, they were used from field post offices in Nyasaland and Mozambique.
They were not issued to any civilian post office. The civilian population were able to send mail through the Indian Army postal service field post offices using Indian Expeditionary Forces stamps; when civilian post offices were opened in 1917, stamps of East Africa and Uganda Protectorates were issued overprinted with "G. E. A.". The same overprint on stamps of East Africa and Uganda Protectorates issued in 1921 after the establishment of Tanganyika are considered part of Tanganyika's postal history. On January 12, 1915, Mafia was taken by British troops as a base for the air and sea assault on the light cruiser Königsberg. Stamps were issued by the British occupation forces on the island of Mafia in 1915 and 1916. Postage stamps and postal history of the German colonies Postage stamps and postal history of Ruanda-Urundi Postage stamps and postal history of Rwanda Postage stamps and postal history of Burundi Postage stamps and postal history of Tanganyika Postage stamps and postal history of Tanzania Postage stamps and postal history of Kionga
German New Guinea
German New Guinea consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and several nearby island groups and was the first part of the German colonial empire. The mainland part of the territory, called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, became a German protectorate in 1884. Other island groups were added subsequently. New Pomerania, the Bismarck Archipelago, the northern Solomon Islands were declared a German protectorate in 1885. Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and nearby islands fell to Australian forces, while Japan occupied most of the remaining German possessions in the Pacific; the mainland part of German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and the North Solomon Islands are now part of Papua New Guinea. The Micronesian islands of German New Guinea are now governed as the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands. Nauru, the Northern Mariana Islands and Palau are independent countries; the islands to the east of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, on annexation, were renamed the Bismarck Archipelago and the two largest islands renamed Neu-Pommern and Neu-Mecklenburg.
Due to their accessibility by water, these outlying islands were, have remained, the most economically viable part of the territory. With the exception of German Samoa, the German islands in the Western Pacific formed the "Imperial German Pacific Protectorates"; these were administered as part of German New Guinea and included the German Solomon Islands, the Carolines, the Marianas, the Marshall Islands, Nauru. The total land area of German New Guinea was 249,500 square kilometres; the first Germans in the South Pacific were sailors on the crew of ships of the Dutch East India Company: during Abel Tasman's first voyage, the captain of the Heemskerck was one Holleman, born in Jever in northwest Germany. Hanseatic League merchant houses were the first to establish footholds in the South Pacific: Johann Cesar Godeffroy & Sohn of Hamburg, headquartered at Samoa from 1857, operated a South Seas network of trading stations dominating the copra trade and carrying German immigrants to various South Pacific settlements.
By the end of 1875, one German trader reported: "German trade and German ships are encountered everywhere at the exclusion of any other nation". In the late 1870s and early 1880s, an active minority, stemming from a right-wing National Liberal and Free Conservative background, had organised various colonial societies all over Germany to persuade Chancellor Bismarck to embark on a colonial policy; the most important ones were the Kolonialverein of 1882 and the Society for German Colonization founded in 1884. The reasons for Bismarck's lack of enthusiasm when it came to the subject of Germany's colonial possessions is reflected in his curt response in 1888 to the procolonial, expansionist remarks of Eugen Wolf, reflected in the latter's autobiography. After Bismarck had patiently listened to Wolf enthusiastically laying out his plans that he sought to pitch employing several illustrative maps, Bismarck interrupted his monologue: Your map of Africa there is nice I have to admit, but you know, my map of Africa is here... in Europe.
You see. And us, we are here – right in the middle between those two. That's my map of Africa. Despite his personal objections, it was Bismarck himself who organised the acquisition of much of what would become the German colonial empire; the first attempts at the new policy came in 1884 when Bismarck had to put German trading interests in southwestern Africa under imperial protection. Bismarck told the Reichstag on 23 June 1884 of the change in German colonial policy: annexations would now proceed but by grants of charters to private companies; the edition of 27 November 1882 of the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung carried an article which the Colonial Secretary of the British colony of New South Wales drew to the attention of the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald and, on 7 February 1883, the paper published a summary of the article under the heading German annexation of New Guinea. The argument lifted from the German paper began by stating that New Guinea fell into the Australian sphere but had been neglected.
Recent explorations had given the basis for reconsideration: it "is considered useful by geology and biology people as holding in its forests the key to solve problems... a profitable field for cultivation" but London had only sent missionaries to save souls. "As we Germans have learnt a little about conducting colonial policy, as our wishes and plans turn with a certain vivacity towards New Guinea... according to our opinion it might be possible to create out of the island a German Java, a great trade and plantation colony, which would form a stately foundatio
German South West Africa
German South West Africa was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919. With an area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time; the colony had a population of around 2,600 Germans. In 1915, during World War I, German South West Africa was invaded by the Western Allies in the form of South African and British forces. After the war its administration was taken over by the Union of South Africa and the territory was administered as South West Africa under a League of Nations mandate, it became independent as Namibia in 1990. Initial European contact with the areas which would become German South West Africa came from traders and sailors, starting in January 1486 when Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão accompanied by Martin Behaim, landed at Cape Cross. However, for several centuries, European settlement would remain temporary. In February 1805 the London Missionary Society established a small mission in Blydeverwacht, but the efforts of this group met with little success.
In 1840 the London Missionary Society transferred all of its activities to the German Rhenish Missionary Society. Some of the first representatives of this organisation were Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt and Carl Hugo Hahn, they began founding churches throughout the territory. The Rhenish missionaries had a significant impact on culture and dress, later on politics. During the same time that the Rhenish missionaries were active and farmers were establishing outposts. On 16 November 1882 a German merchant from Bremen, Adolf Lüderitz, requested protection for a station that he planned to build in South West Africa, from Chancellor Bismarck. Once this was granted, his employee Heinrich Vogelsang purchased land from a native chief and established a city at Angra Pequena, renamed Lüderitz. On 24 April 1884, he placed the area under the protection of Imperial Germany to deter British encroachment. In early 1884, the gunboat SMS Nautilus visited to review the situation. A favourable report from the government, acquiescence from the British, resulted in a visit from the corvettes Leipzig and Elisabeth.
The German flag was raised in South West Africa on 7 August 1884. The German claims on this land were confirmed during the Conference of Berlin. In October, the newly appointed Commissioner for West Africa, Gustav Nachtigal, arrived on the Möwe. In April 1885, the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwest-Afrika was founded with the support of German bankers and politicians. DKGSWA was granted monopoly rights to exploit mineral deposits; the new Society soon bought the assets of Lüderitz's failing enterprises. In 1908, diamonds were discovered, thus along with gold, copper and other minerals, diamonds became a major investment. Lüderitz drowned in 1886 while on an expedition to the Orange River; the company bought all of Lüderitz' land and mining rights, following Bismarck's policy that private rather than public money should be used to develop the colonies. In May, Heinrich Ernst Göring was appointed Commissioner and established his administration at Otjimbingwe. On 17 April 1886, a law creating the legal system of the colony was passed, creating a dual system with laws for Europeans and different laws for natives.
Over the following years relations between the German settlers and the indigenous peoples continued to worsen. Additionally, the British settlement at Walvis Bay, a coastal enclave within South West Africa, continued to develop, many small farmers and missionaries moved into the region. A complex web of treaties and vendettas increased the unrest. In 1888 the first group of Schutztruppen—colonial protectorate troops—arrived, sent to protect the military base at Otjimbingwe. In 1890 the colony was declared a German Crown Colony, more troops were sent. In July of the same year, as part of the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty between Britain and Germany, the colony grew in size through the acquisition of the Caprivi Strip in the northeast, promising new trade routes into the interior. Between August and September 1892, the South West Africa Company Ltd was established by the German and Cape Colony governments, aided by financiers to raise the capital required to enlarge mineral exploitation. German South West Africa was the only German colony.
German settlers were drawn to the colony by economic possibilities in diamond and copper mining, farming. In 1902 the colony had 200,000 inhabitants, although only 2,595 were recorded as German, while 1,354 were Afrikaners and 452 were British. By 1914, 9,000 more German settlers had arrived. There were around 80,000 Herero, 60,000 Ovambo, 10,000 Nama, who were referred to as Hottentots. Through 1893 and 1894, the first "Hottentot Uprising" of the Nama and their legendary leader Hendrik Witbooi occurred; the following years saw many further local uprisings against German rule. Before the Herero and Namaqua genocide of 1904–1907, the Herero and Nama had good reasons to distrust the Germans, culminating in the Khaua-Mbandjeru rebellion; this rebellion, in which the Germans tried to control the Khaua by seizing their property by artificially imposing European legal views of property ownership, led to the largest of the rebellions, known as the Herero Wars of 1904. Remote farms were attacked, and