Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism, is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, spread throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States. Israel Ben Eliezer, the "Baal Shem Tov", is regarded as its founding father, his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion, its members adhere both to Orthodox Jewish practice – with the movement's own unique emphases – and the traditions of Eastern European Jews, so much so that many of the latter, including various special styles of dress and the use of the Yiddish language, are nowadays associated exclusively with Hasidism. Hasidic thought draws on Lurianic Kabbalah, and, to an extent, is a popularization of it. Teachings emphasize God's immanence in the universe, the need to cleave and be one with him at all times, the devotional aspect of religious practice, the spiritual dimension of corporeality and mundane acts.
Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as "courts" or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe. Reverence and submission to the Rebbe are key tenets, as he is considered a spiritual authority with whom the follower must bond to gain closeness to God; the various "courts" share basic convictions, but operate apart, possess unique traits and customs. Affiliation is retained in families for generations, being Hasidic is as much a sociological factor – entailing, as it does, birth into a specific community and allegiance to a dynasty of Rebbes – as it is a purely religious one. There are several "courts" with many thousands of member households each, hundreds of smaller ones; as of 2016, there were over 130,000 Hasidic households worldwide, about 5% of the global Jewish population. The terms hasid and hasidut, meaning "pietist" and "piety", have a long history in Judaism; the Talmud and other old sources refer to the "Pietists of Old" who would contemplate an entire hour in preparation for prayer.
The phrase denoted devoted individuals who not only observed the Law to its letter, but performed good deeds beyond it. Adam himself is honored with the title in tractate Eruvin 18b by Rabbi Meir: "Adam was a great hasid, having fasted for 130 years." The first to adopt the epithet collectively were the hasidim in Second Temple period Judea, known as Hasideans after the Greek rendering of their name, who served as the model for those mentioned in the Talmud. The title continued to be applied as an honorific for the exceptionally devout. In 12th-century Rhineland, or Ashkenaz in Jewish parlance, another prominent school of ascetics named themselves hasidim. In the 16th century, when Kabbalah spread, the title became associated with it. Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah wrote in his glossa on Isaac Luria's version of the Shulchan Aruch that, "One who wishes to tap the hidden wisdom, must conduct himself in the manner of the Pious." The movement founded by Israel Ben Eliezer in the 18th century adopted the term hasidim in the original connotation.
But when the sect grew and developed specific attributes, from the 1770s, the names acquired a new meaning. Its common adherents, belonging to groups each headed by a spiritual leader, were henceforth known as Hasidim; the transformation was slow: The movement was at first referred to as "New Hasidism" by outsiders to separate it from the old one, its enemies derisively mocked its members as Mithasdim, " pretend hasidim". Yet the young sect gained such a mass following that the old connotation was sidelined. In popular discourse, at least, Hasid came to denote someone who follows a religious teacher from the movement, it entered Modern Hebrew as such, meaning "adherent" or "disciple". One was not a hasid anymore, observed historian David Assaf, but a Hasid of someone or some dynasty in particular; this linguistic transformation paralleled that of the word tzaddik, "righteous", which the Hasidic leaders adopted for themselves – though they are known colloquially as Rebbes or by the honorific Admor.
Denoting an observant, moral person, in Hasidic literature tzaddik became synonymous with the hereditary master heading a sect of followers. The lengthy history of Hasidism, the numerous schools of thought therein, its use of the traditional medium of homiletic literature and sermons – comprising numerous references to earlier sources in the Pentateuch and exegesis as a means to grounding oneself in tradition – as the sole channel to convey its ideas, all made the isolation of a common doctrine challenging to researchers; as noted by Joseph Dan, "Every attempt to present such a body of ideas has failed". Motifs presented by scholars in the past as unique Hasidic contributions were revealed to have been common among both their predecessors and opponents, all the more so regarding many other traits that are extant – these play, Dan added, "a prominent role in modern non-Hasidic and anti-Hasidic writings as well"; the difficulty of separating the movement's philosophy from that of its main inspiration, Lurianic Kabbalah, determining what was novel and what a recapitulation baffled historians.
Some, like Louis Jacobs, regarded the early masters as innovators who introduced "much, new if only by emphasis".
Temple in Jerusalem
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque. These successive temples stood at this location and functioned as a site of ancient Israelite and Jewish worship, it is called the Holy Temple. The Hebrew name given in the Hebrew Bible for the building complex is either Beit YHWH, Beit HaElohim "House of God", or Beiti "my house", Beitekhah "your house" etc. In rabbinical literature the temple is Beit HaMikdash, "The Sanctified House", only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name; the Hebrew Bible says. According to the Book of Deuteronomy, as the sole place of Israelite sacrifice, the Temple replaced the Tabernacle constructed in the Sinai Desert under the auspices of Moses, as well as local sanctuaries, altars in the hills; this temple was sacked a few decades by Shoshenq I, Pharaoh of Egypt. Although efforts were made at partial reconstruction, it was only in 835 BCE when Jehoash, King of Judah, in the second year of his reign invested considerable sums in reconstruction, only to have it stripped again for Sennacherib, King of Assyria c. 700 BCE.
The First Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE, when they sacked the city. According to the Book of Ezra, construction of the Second Temple was authorized by Cyrus the Great and began in 538 BCE, after the fall of the Babylonian Empire the year before, it was completed 23 years on the third day of Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the Great, dedicated by the Jewish governor Zerubbabel. However, with a full reading of the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah, there were four edicts to build the Second Temple, which were issued by three kings. Cyrus in 536 BCE, recorded in the first chapter of Ezra. Next, Darius I of Persia in 519 BCE, recorded in the sixth chapter of Ezra. Third, Artaxerxes I of Persia in 457 BCE, the seventh year of his reign, is recorded in the seventh chapter of Ezra. By Artaxerxes again in 444 BCE in the second chapter of Nehemiah. Despite the fact that the new temple was not as extravagant or imposing as its predecessor, it still dominated the Jerusalem skyline and remained an important structure throughout the time of Persian suzerainty.
Moreover, the temple narrowly avoided being destroyed again in 332 BCE when the Jews refused to acknowledge the deification of Alexander the Great of Macedonia. Alexander was "turned from his anger" at the last minute by astute diplomacy and flattery. Further, after the death of Alexander on 13 June 323 BCE, the dismembering of his empire, the Ptolemies came to rule over Judea and the Temple. Under the Ptolemies, the Jews lived content under their rule. However, when the Ptolemaic army was defeated at Panium by Antiochus III of the Seleucids in 198 BCE, this policy changed. Antiochus wanted attempting to introduce the Greek pantheon into the temple. Moreover, a rebellion ensued and was brutally crushed, but no further action by Antiochus was taken, when Antiochus died in 187 BCE at Luristan, his son Seleucus IV Philopator succeeded him. However, his policies never took effect in Judea, since he was assassinated the year after his ascension. Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeded his older brother to the Seleucid throne and adopted his father's previous policy of universal Hellenisation.
The Jews Antiochus, in a rage, retaliated in force. Considering the previous episodes of discontent, the Jews became incensed when the religious observances of Sabbath and circumcision were outlawed; when Antiochus erected a statue of Zeus in their temple and Hellenic priests began sacrificing pigs, their anger began to spiral. When a Greek official ordered a Jewish priest to perform a Hellenic sacrifice, the priest killed him. In 167 BCE, the Jews rose up en masse behind Mattathias and his five sons to fight and win their freedom from Seleucid authority. Mattathias' son Judah Maccabee, now called "The Hammer", re-dedicated the temple in 165 BCE and the Jews celebrate this event to this day as a major part of the festival of Hanukkah; the temple was rededicated under Judah Maccabee in 164 BCE. During the Roman era, Pompey left the Temple intact. In 54 BCE, Crassus looted the Temple treasury, only for him to die the year after at the Battle of Carrhae against Parthia. According to folklore he was executed by having molten gold poured down his throat.
When news of this reached the Jews, they revolted again, only to be put down in 43 BCE. Around 20 BCE, the building was renovated and expanded by Herod the Great, became known as Herod's Temple, it was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE during the Siege of Jerusalem. During the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Romans in 132–135 CE, Simon bar Kokhba and Rabbi Akiva wanted to rebuild the Temple, but bar Kokhba's revolt failed and the Jews were banned from Jerusalem by the Roman Empire; the emperor Julian allowed to have the Temple rebuilt but the Galilee earthquake of 363 ended all attempts since. After the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem in the 7th century, Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ordered the construction of an Islamic shrine, the Dome of the Rock, on the Temple Mount; the shrine has stood on the mount since 691 CE.
The Mishneh Torah, subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka, is a code of Jewish religious law authored by Maimonides. The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180 CE, while Maimonides was living in Egypt, is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus. Accordingly sources refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides", or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides composed other works. Mishneh Torah consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections and paragraphs, it is the only Medieval-era work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws that are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in existence, remains an important work in Judaism. Its title is an appellation used for the Biblical book of Deuteronomy, its subtitle, "Book of the Strong Hand", derives from its subdivision into fourteen books: the numerical value fourteen, when represented as the Hebrew letters Yod Dalet, forms the word yad. Maimonides intended to provide a complete statement of the Oral Law, so that a person who mastered first the Written Torah and the Mishneh Torah would be in no need of any other book.
Contemporary reaction was mixed, with strong and immediate opposition focusing on the absence of sources and the belief that the work appeared to be intended to supersede study of the Talmud. Maimonides responded to these criticisms, the Mishneh Torah endures as an influential work in Jewish religious thought. According to several authorities, a decision may not be rendered in opposition to a view of Maimonides where he militated against the sense of a Talmudic passage, for in such cases the presumption was that the words of the Talmud were incorrectly interpreted. Likewise: "One must follow Maimonides when the latter opposed his teachers, since he knew their views, if he decided against them, he must have disapproved their interpretation." Maimonides sought brevity and clarity in his Mishneh Torah and, as in his Commentary on the Mishnah, he refrained from detailing his sources, considering it sufficient to name his sources in the preface. He drew upon the Torah and the rest of Tanakh, both Talmuds and the halachic Midrashim, principally Sifra and Sifre.
Sources include the responsa of the Geonim. The maxims and decisions of the Geonim are presented with the introductory phrase "The Geonim have decided" or "There is a regulation of the Geonim", while the opinions of Isaac Alfasi and Alfasi's pupil Joseph ibn Migash are prefaced by the words "my teachers have decided". According to Maimonides, the Geonim were considered "unintelligible in our days, there are but few who are able to comprehend them". There were times when Maimonides disagreed with what was being taught in the name of the Geonim. A number of laws appear to have no source in any of the works mentioned. Maimonides himself states a few times in his work that he possessed what he considered to be more accurate texts of the Talmud than what most people possessed at his time; the latter has been confirmed to a certain extent by versions of the Talmud preserved by the Yemenite Jews as to the reason for what were thought to be rulings without any source. The Mishneh Torah is written in Hebrew in the style of the Mishnah.
As he states in the preface, Maimonides was reluctant to write in Talmudic Aramaic, since it was not known. His previous works had been written in Arabic; the Mishneh Torah never cites sources or arguments, confines itself to stating the final decision on the law to be followed in each situation. There is no discussion of Talmudic interpretation or methodology, the sequence of chapters follows the factual subject matter of the laws rather than the intellectual principle involved. 1. HaMadda 1. Yesodei ha-Torah: belief in God, other Jewish principles of faith 2. De'ot: general proper behavior 3. Talmud Torah: Torah study 4. Avodah Zarah: the prohibition against idolatry and foreign worship 5. Teshuvah: the law and philosophy of repentance 2. Ahavah 1. Kri'at Shema: recitation of the Shema 2. Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim: prayer and the priestly blessing 3. Tefillin and Sefer Torah 4. Tzitzit 5. Berachot: blessings 6. Milah: circumcision 7. Seder Tefilot: order of prayers 3. Zemanim 1. Shabbat: Sabbath 2. Eruvin: a Rabbinic device that facilitates Sabbath observance 3.
Shevitat `Asor: laws of Yom Kippur, except for the Temple service 4. Yom Tov: prohibitions on major Jewish holidays that are different from the prohibitions of Sabbath 5. Hametz u-Matza: chametz and matzah 6. Shofar ve-Lulav ve-Sukkah: Shofar and palm frond and Sukkah 7. Shekalim: money collected for the Temple in Jerusalem when it stood 8. Kiddush HaChodesh: sanctification of the month 9. Taaniyot: fasts 10. Hanukah u-Megillah: Hanukkah and the Scroll of Esther 4. Nashim: 1. Ishut: laws of marriage, including kiddushin and the ketubah 2. Geirushin: laws of divorce 3. Yibum va-Chalitzah: laws of levirate marriage 4. Na'arah Betulah: the law of a man who seduces or rapes an unmarried woman 5. Sotah: laws concerning a woman suspected of infidelity 5. Kedushah 1. Issurei Biah: forbidden sexual relations, including niddah and adultery. Since intermarriage with no
Safed is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of 900 metres, Safed is the highest city in Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed experiences warm summers and cold snowy, winters. Safed has been identified with Sepph, a fortified town in the Upper Galilee mentioned in the writings of the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus; the Jerusalem Talmud mentions it as one of five elevated spots where fires were lit to announce the New Moon and festivals during the Second Temple period. In the 12th century CE Safed was a fortified city in the Crusaders' Kingdom of Jerusalem, known to them as Saphet; the Mamluk Sultan Baibars captured the city in 1266 and appointed a governor to take charge of the fortress. The city became the administrative centre of Mamlakat Safad, a province in Mamluk Syria whose jurisdiction included the Galilee and the lands up to Jenin. Under the Ottomans, Safed functioned as the capital of the Safad Sanjak, which encompassed much of the Galilee and extended to the Mediterranean coast.
Since the 16th century, Safed has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem and Tiberias. Rabbi Isaac Luria introduced interest in the Kabbalah to the city in the 16th century. Due to its mild climate and scenic views, Safed has become a popular holiday resort frequented by Israelis and by foreign visitors. In 2017 it had a population of 35,276. Legend has it. According to the Book of Judges, the area where Safed is located was assigned to the tribe of Naphtali, it has been suggested that Jesus' assertion that "a city, set on a hill cannot be hidden" may have referred to Safed. Safed has been identified with Sepph, a fortified town in the Upper Galilee mentioned in the writings of the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus, it is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud as one of five elevated spots where fires were lit to announce the New Moon and festivals during the Second Temple period. There is scarce information about the town of Safed prior to the Crusader conquest in 1099.
The city appears in Jewish sources in the late Middle Ages. In the 12th century, Safed was a fortified city in the Crusaders' Kingdom of Jerusalem, known by the Crusaders as Saphet. King Fulk built a strong castle there on a steep hill, kept by the Knights Templar from 1168. Benjamin of Tudela, who visited the town in 1170, does not mention any Jews as living there; the remains of this castle can now be found under the "citadel" excavations, on a hill above the old city. Safed was captured by the Ayyubids led by Saladin in 1188 after one year's siege, following the Battle of Hattin in 1187. Saladin allowed its residents to relocate to Tyre. Samuel ben Samson, who visited the town in 1210, mentions the existence of a Jewish community of at least fifty there. In 1227, the Ayyubid emir of Damascus, al-Mu'azzam'Isa, had the Safed castle demolished to prevent it being captured and reused by potential future Crusades. In 1240, Theobald I of Navarre, on his own Crusade to the Holy Land, negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and of Egypt and finalized a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem and most of the region of Galilee, including Nazareth and Safed.
The Templars thereafter rebuilt the town's fortress. In 1260, the Mamluk sultan Baybars declared the treaty invalid due to the Christians working in concert with the Mongol Empire against the Muslims, launched a series of attacks on castles in the area, including on Safed. In 1266, during a Mamluk military campaign to subdue Crusader strongholds in Palestine, Baybars captured Safed in July, following a failed attempt to capture the Crusaders' coastal stronghold of Acre. Unlike the coastal Crusader fortresses, which were demolished upon their capture by the Mamluks, Baybars spared Safed from destruction. Instead, he appointed a governor to be in charge of the fortress. Baybars preserved Safed because he viewed its fortress to be of high strategic value due to its location on a high mountain and its isolation from other Crusader fortresses. Moreover, Baybars determined that in the event of a renewed Crusader invasion of the coastal region, a fortified Safed could serve as an ideal headquarters to confront the Crusader threat.
In 1268, he had the fortress repaired and strengthened. Furthermore, he commissioned numerous building works in the town of Safed, including caravanserais, markets and converted the town's church into a mosque. By the end of Baybars' reign, Safed had become the site of a prospering town, in addition to its fortress; the city became the administrative centre of Mamlakat Safad, a province in Mamluk Syria whose jurisdiction included the Galilee and the lands further south down to Jenin. According to al-Dimashqi, who died in Safed in 1327, writing around 1300, Baybars built a "round tower and called it Kullah..." after levelling the old fortress. The tower is built in three stories, it is provided with provisions, halls, magazines. Under the place is a cistern for rain-water, sufficient to supply the garrison of the fortress from year's end to year's end. According to Abu'l Fida, Safed "was a town of medium size, it has a strongly built castle, which dominates the Lake of Tabariyyah. There are underground watercourses, which bring drinking-water up to the castle-gate...
Its suburbs cover three hills... Since the place was conquered by Al Malik Adh Dhahir from the Franks, it has been made the central station for the troops who guard all the coast-towns of
Haredi Judaism is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture. Its members are referred to as Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English, although the term "ultra-Orthodox" is considered pejorative by many of its adherents. Haredim regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although this claim is contested by other streams. Haredi Judaism is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, the Haskalah movement derived from the Enlightenment, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc. In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which hastened to embrace modernity, the approach of the Haredim was to maintain a steadfast adherence both to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society. However, there are many Haredi communities in which getting a professional degree or establishing a business is encouraged, contact exists between Haredi and non-Haredi Jews, as well as between Haredim and non-Jews.
Haredi communities are found in Israel, North America, Western Europe. Their estimated global population numbers 1.5–1.8 million, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, their numbers are growing rapidly. Their numbers have been boosted by a substantial number of secular Jews adopting a Haredi lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva movement; the term most used by outsiders, including most American news organizations, is "ultra-Orthodox" Judaism. Hillel Halkin suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in which Haredi survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in America. However, Isaac Leeser was described in 1916 as "ultra-Orthodox". Haredi is a Modern Hebrew adjective derived from the Biblical verb hared which appears in the Book of Isaiah and is translated as " trembles" at the word of God; the word connotes an awe-inspired fear and anxiety to perform the will of God, is used to describe staunchly Orthodox Jews and to distinguish them from other Orthodox Jews.
The word Haredi is used in the Jewish diaspora in place of the term "ultra-Orthodox", which many view as inaccurate or offensive, it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism. Others, dispute the characterization of the term as pejorative. Ari L. Goldman, a professor at Columbia University, notes that the term serves a practical purpose to distinguish a specific part of the Orthodox community, is not meant as pejorative. Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as "ultra-Orthodox" and "traditional Orthodox", arguing that they misidentify Haredim as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world; the community has sometimes been characterized as "Traditional Orthodox", in contradistinction to the Modern Orthodox, the other major branch of Orthodox Judaism. Haredi Jews use other terms to refer to themselves. Common Yiddish words include Yidn or erlekhe Yidn, Ben Torah and heimish.
In Israel, Haredi Jews are sometimes called by the derogatory slang words dos, that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word datim, meaning religious, more "blacks", a reference to the black clothes they wear. According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredim were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe who fought against modernization. Indeed, adherents see their beliefs as part of an unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai. However, most historians of Orthodoxy consider Haredi Judaism, in its modern incarnation, to date back no earlier than the start of the 20th century. For centuries, before Jewish emancipation, European Jews were forced to live in ghettos where Jewish culture and religious observance were preserved. Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states; the influence of the Haskalah movement was evidence.
Supporters of the Haskalah held that Judaism must change in keeping with the social changes around them. Other Jews insisted on strict adherence to halakha. In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools, his approach was to apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Jews true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel. Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social, or practical change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva. Sofer's student Moshe Schick, together with Sofer's sons Shimon and Samuel Benjamin, took an active role in arguing agai
Haymanot is the branch of Judaism practiced by the Beta Israel known as Ethiopian Jews. Haymanot in both Ge'ez and Amharic means "religion" or "faith", thus in modern Amharic, it is common to speak of the Christian Haymanot, the Jewish Haymanot or the Muslim Haymanot. It is only in Israel. Nabiyy, related to the Arabic word nabīyīn, used in Islamic writing to refer to prophets. Monkosa, related to the Greek word monakhós, which means "alone, solitary." Kahen or Kes – spiritual leader, similar to a Kohen and analogous to a Rabbi. Liqa Kahnet Debtera -- Shmagle -- Mäṣḥafä; the language of the writings is Ge'ez. The holiest book is the Orit which consists of the Five Books of Moses and the books Joshua and Ruth; the rest of the Bible has secondary importance. Sources are lacking on whether the Book of Lamentations is excluded from the canon, or whether it forms part of the Book of Jeremiah as it does in the Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon. In the canon are: Sirach, Esdras 1 and 2, Jubilees, Baruch 1 and 4, Tobit and the testaments of Abraham and Jacob.
Non-Biblical writings include: Nagara Muse, Mota Aaron, Mota Muse, Te'ezaza Sanbat, Arde'et, Gorgorios, Mäṣḥafä Sa'atat, Abba Elias, Mäṣḥafä Mäla'əkt, Mäṣḥafä Kahan, Dərsanä Abrəham Wäsara Bägabs, Gadla Sosna and Baqadāmi Gabra Egzi'abḥēr. Zëna Ayhud and fālasfā are two books; the Synagogue is called masgid bet maqds or ṣalot bet. Dietary laws are based on Leviticus and Jubilees. Permitted and forbidden animals and their signs appear on Leviticus 11:3–8 and Deuteronomy 14:4–8. Forbidden birds are listed on Leviticus 11:13–23 and Deuteronomy 14:12–20. Signs of permitted fish are written on Leviticus 11:9–12 and Deuteronomy 14:9–10. Insects and larvae are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:41–42. Birds of prey are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:13–19. Gid hanasheh is forbidden per Genesis 32:33. Mixtures of milk and meat are not prepared or eaten but are not banned either: Haymanot interpreted the verses Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:26 and Deuteronomy 14:21 "shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk".
Nowadays, under Rabbinic influence, mixing dairy products with meat is banned. Ethiopian Jews were forbidden to eat the food of non-Jews. A Kes only eats meat he has slaughtered himself, which his hosts prepare both for him and themselves. Beta Israel who broke these taboos had to undergo a purification process. Purification included fasting for one or more days, eating only uncooked chickpeas provided by the Kes, ritual purification before entering the village. Unlike other Ethiopians, the Beta Israel do not eat raw meat dishes like gored gored; the Beta Israel calendar is a lunar calendar of 12 months, each 30 days alternately. Every four years there has been a leap year; the calendar is a combination of the ancient calendar of Alexandria Jewry, Book of Jubilees, Book of Enoch, Abu Shaker and the Ge'ez calendar. The years are counted according to the Counting of Kushta "1571 to Jesus Christ, 7071 to the Gyptians and 6642 to the Hebrews", according to this counting the year 5771 in the Rabbinical Hebrew calendar is the year 7082 in this calendar.
Holidays in the Haymanot divided into daily and annually. The annual holiday by month are: Nisan: ba'āl lisan on 1, ṣomä fāsikā on 14, fāsikā between 15 – 21 and gadfat or buho on 22. Iyar: another fāsikā between 15 – 21. Sivan: ṣomä mã'rar on 11 and mã'rar on 12. Tammuz: ṣomä tomos between 1 – 10. Av: ṣomä ab between 1 – 17. Elul: awd amet on 1, ṣomä lul between 1 – 9, anākel astar'i on 10 and asartu wasamantu on 28. Tishrei: ba'āl Matqe on 1, astasreyo on 10 and ba'āla maṣallat between 15 – 21. Cheshvan: holiday for the day Moses saw the face of God on 1, holiday for the reception of Moses by the Israelites on 10, fast on 12 and měhlělla on 29. Kislev: another ṣomä mã'rar and mã'rar on 11 and 12 respectively. Tevet: ṣomä tibt between 1 – 10. Shevat: wamashi brobu on 1. Adar: ṣomä astēr between 11 – 13. Monthly holidays are memorial days to the annual holiday, these are yačaraqā ba'āl on the first day of every month, asärt on the tenth day to commemorate Yom Kippur,'asrã hulat on the twelfth day to commemorate Shavuot, asrã ammest on the fifteenth day to commemorate Passover and Sukkot, ṣomä mälěya a fast on the last day of every month.
Daily holidays include the ṣomä säňňo, ṣomä amus, ṣomä'arb and the holy Sanbat
Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha and theology. It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah. Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses by God were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation; as a result, Karaite Jews do not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud. When interpreting the Tanakh, Karaites strive to adhere to the plain or most obvious meaning of the text. By contrast, Rabbinic Judaism relies on the legal rulings of the Sanhedrin as they are codified in the Midrash and other sources to indicate the authentic meaning of the Torah. Karaite Judaism holds every interpretation of the Tanakh to the same scrutiny regardless of its source, teaches that it is the personal responsibility of every individual Jew to study the Torah, decide its correct meaning.
Karaites may consider arguments made in the Talmud and other works without exalting them above other viewpoints. According to Rabbi Abraham ibn Daud, in his Sefer HaQabbalah, the Karaite movement crystallized in Baghdad in the Gaonic period under the Abbasid Caliphate in what is present-day Iraq; this is the view universally accepted among Rabbinic Jews. However, some Arab scholars claim that Karaites were living in Egypt in the first half of the 7th century, based on a legal document that the Karaite community in Egypt had in its possession until the end of the 19th century, in which the first Islamic governor ordered the leaders of the Rabbinite community against interfering with Karaite practices or the way they celebrate their holidays, it was said to have been stamped by the palm of'Amr ibn al-'As, the first Islamic governor of Egypt, was dated 20 AH. Historians have argued over whether Karaism has a direct connection to anti-Rabbinic sects and views, such as those of the Sadducees, dating back to the end of the Second Temple period, or whether Karaism represents a novel emergence of similar views.
Karaites have always maintained that, while there are some similarities to the Sadducees, due to the rejection of Rabbinical authority and the Oral Law, there are major differences. The ancestors of the Karaites were a group called Benei Ṣedeq during the Second Temple period. Karaites at one time made up a significant proportion of the Jewish population. Estimates of the Karaite population are difficult to make because they believe on the basis of Genesis 32 that counting Jews is forbidden. In the 21st century, some 30,000–50,000 are thought to reside in Israel, with smaller communities in Turkey and the United States. Another estimate holds that, of the 50,000 worldwide, more than 40,000 descend from those who made aliyah from Egypt and Iraq to Israel; the largest Karaite community today resides in the Israeli city of Ashdod. Arguments amongst Jewish sects regarding the validity of the Oral Law date back to the 1st and 2nd centuries BCE. Accordingly, some scholars trace the origin of Karaism to those who rejected the Talmudic tradition as an innovation.
Judah Halevi, an 11th-century Jewish philosopher and rabbi, wrote a defense for Judaism entitled Kuzari, placing the origins of Karaism in the first and second centuries BCE, during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BCE: After him came Judah b. Tabbāi and Simon b. Shētaḥ, with the friends of both. At this period arose the doctrine of the Karaites in consequence of an incident between the Sages and King Jannai, a priest, his mother was under suspicion of being a'profane' woman. One of the Sages alluded to this, saying to him:'Be satisfied, O king Jannai, with the royal crown, but leave the priestly crown to the seed of Aaron.' His friends prejudiced him against the Sages, advising him to browbeat and scatter or kill them. He replied:'If I destroy the Sages what will become of our Law?"There is the written law,' they replied, whoever wishes to study it may come and do so. He followed their advice and expelled the Sages and among them Simon b. Shētaḥ, his son-in-law. Rabbinism was laid low for some time.
The other party tried to establish a law built on their own conception, but failed, till Simon b. Shētaḥ returned with his disciples from Alexandria, restored tradition to its former condition. Karaism had, taken root among people who rejected the oral law, called all kinds of proofs to their aid, as we see to-day; as regards the Sādōcaeans and Boēthosians, they are the sectarians who are anathemised in our prayer. Abraham Geiger, a 19th-century German scholar who founded Reform Judaism, posited a connection between the Karaites and a remnant of the Sadducees, the 1st-century Jewish sect that followed the Hebrew Bible and rejected the Pharisees' notion of an Oral Torah before it was written. Geiger's view is based on comparison between Karaite and Sadducee halakha: for example, a minority in Karaite Judaism do not believe in a final resurrection or after-life, a position held by the Sadducees; the British theologian John Gill noted, In the times of John Hyrcanus, Alexander Janneus his son, sprung up the sect of the Karaites, in oppositio