Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
Shanklin is a popular seaside resort and civil parish on the Isle of Wight, located on Sandown Bay. Shanklin is the southernmost of three settlements which occupy the bay, is close to Lake and Sandown; the sandy beach, its Old Village and a wooded ravine, Shanklin Chine, are its main attractions. The esplanade along the beach is occupied by hotels and restaurants for the most part, is one of the most tourist-oriented parts of the town; the other is the Old Village, at the top of Shanklin Chine. Together with Lake and Sandown to the north, Shanklin forms a built up area of 21,374 inhabitants; the main shopping centre consists of two roads, Regent Street and High Street, which together comprise the largest retail area in the south of the Isle of Wight. Near Regent Street are the Co-op and Lidl. In Regent Street itself are many local shops, including two arts and crafts shops, several clothing and sports shops, three newsagents and three bakeries; the High Street has some local shops, but is dominated by tourist shops and restaurants.
Shanklin railway station is the terminus of the Island Line from Ryde, opened on 23 August 1864. The railway was extended south to Ventnor in 1866, but this section was closed in 1966; the line from Ryde to Shanklin is now operated by former London Underground tube trains. In October 2004 a direct link was revived in the form of a bus service named the "Rail link"; this was replaced by the Southern Vectis number 3 bus. Bus services to nearby towns and suburbs are run by Southern Vectis on routes 2, 3, 22 and 24, principally from the bus stands at the Co-op supermarket. Destinations served include Newchurch, Ryde, Sandown and Winford. In the summer, an open top bus route called "The Sandown Bay Tour" is run, serving the main tourist areas of Shanklin and running to Sandown. Shanklin has one theatre, Shanklin Theatre, just off the top end of the High Street. In July and August 1819 the poet John Keats lodged at Eglantine Cottage in the resort's High Street, where he completed the first book of Lamia and began a drama, Otho the Great, with his friend Charles Armitage Brown.
In July 1868 the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow stayed at the Crab Inn in Shanklin's Old Village during his last visit to Europe and left a poem about it on a stone by the pub. It is not held to be amongst his best work.. The 1980s indiepop band Trixie's Big Red Motorbike were from Shanklin, recorded some of their records there. Victoria Cross recipient and Deputy Governor of the Isle of Wight, Colonel Henry Gore-Browne retired to Shanklin before his death in 1912. According to Joseph Jacobs's 1890 version of The Three Little Pigs, the version of the story on which all versions are based, the Three Pigs and the Wolf live near Shanklin. Shanklin is on the coast of Sandown Bay, therefore is part of the long beach which spans between Yaverland in the North to Luccombe in the South; the section of beach situated next to Shanklin is split into Small Hope Hope Beach. Above Hope Beach is the esplanade which boasts some traditional seaside attractions including an amusement arcade, a crazy golf course, a children's play area, with slides, ball pools, bouncy castles, swings etc. available to be hired for a child's birthday party.
There are several seafront hotels, a cliff lift from the seafront to the top of the cliff, a putting course, several cafes and restaurants and pubs, a large, clean beach. Shanklin used to have a pier, but this was destroyed in the Great Storm of 1987; the pier had a theatre at which many famous performers appeared, including Paul Robeson, Richard Tauber and Arthur Askey. The Summerland Amusement Arcade on the seafront was a seaplane hangar positioned at Bembridge where it housed Fairey Campania seaplanes of the Nizam of Hyderabad's Squadron. Large areas of the seafront were damaged or destroyed during the Bombing raids of World War II, but were rebuilt after the war, causing the current seafront to be a varied mixture of Victorian, inter-war and post-war architecture. Shanklin Sailing Club is situated at the North end of the Esplanade. Founded in 1931 as'Shanklin Amateur Sailing Club', the club has a fleet of Sprint 15 catamarans and holds races three days a week during the season. Further along the beach is the Fisherman's Cottage pub.
This is at the bottom of Shanklin Chine, from which the town takes its name "Chynklyng Chine" and in the Domesday Book of 1086 Sencliz from "Scen-hlinc". The Chine is open to the public for a small fee and continues up to Rylstone Gardens in the Old Village, it contains a small section of the pipe of the "Operation Pluto" pipeline which ran across the Isle of Wight and out from Shanklin and another branch from Sandown to supply fuel to the D-Day beaches. America Wood is a Site of Special Scientific Interest located between Whiteley Bank, it is owned by the Woodland Trust It takes a bit of stamina and determination to get into America Wood, on the outskirts of Shanklin, since it has little accessible parking. However, the more active Isle of Wight visitor can make use of public footpaths and bridleways that lead into the wood. There is an ‘open’ feel to the site with storm damage during the Great Storm of 1987 and the Burns' Day storm of 1990 felling trees and creating lots of open sections. There is one large glade, recovering from the storms.
The woods is situated just west of Ninham. Dunnose is a large cape, situated southwest of the town. An imposing and high ge
Arreton is a village and civil parish in the central eastern part of the Isle of Wight, England. It is about 3 miles south east of Newport; the settlement has had different spellings over the years. For example, the village was called Adrintone in the 11th century, Arreton in the 12th century, Artone in the 13th century and Adherton in the 14th century, Adderton in the 16th century, Aireton in the 17th century; the village has two inns with a long history. The White Lion Inn has been in business for two centuries, was a staging inn on the A3056 road between Newport and Sandown. At one time, there was a Red Lion Inn nearby; the Arreton Barns Craft Village commercial complex contains a pub called "The Dairyman's Daughter", named after a best selling book about a girl from Arreton by Rev. Legh Richmond. Arreton is home to the Shipwreck Centre and Maritime Museum, which moved to the Arreton Barns Complex from Bembridge after 26 years, it is housed in a "Grade II stone barn" at Jacob's Yard in the Arreton Barns Centre.
Visitors to the Shipwreck Centre can buy a variety of souvenirs and salvaged objects, including Copper ingots from a Victorian steamer ship which capsized off the coast nearby. St. George's Church, Arreton is renowned; the war memorial was designed by Percy Stone. On the road to the church is the 17th century Stile Cottage, used to store ales for the church. Opposite the church is the Island Brass Rubbing Centre, Lavender Cottage and a wood carving of St. George and the dragon by local sculptor Paul Sivell. Arreton Manor, the local manor house, was rebuilt between 1612 by Sir Humphrey Barnet. Arreton Manor is mentioned in the Domesday Book and has been owned by at least eight monarchs, the earliest being King Alfred the Great who left it in his will to his youngest son Aethelweard. King Charles I reviewed troops on the lawn in 1629, Queen Victoria planted a tree in the garden. There were several ancient mills in Arreton; the mill at Horringford was a paper mill. To the north of the village lies Arreton Down, a Site of Special Scientific Interest.
There is a zoo south of Arreton, at Hale Common, known as Amazon World Zoo. Southern Vectis bus route 8 passes through the village on its way between Newport and Ryde via Sandown and Bembridge; the Downs Tour serves the village during the summer. Evidence of habitation during Bronze Age Britain are the "two round barrows, the larger, some 9 feet high, known locally as Michael Morey's Hump"; the Arreton church of St. George was first begun in the Norman era; the monks of Quarr helped to extend the Church of St. George around 1160. A tower was added in 1299. In the fourteenth century, a brass effigy of Harry Hawles, Steward of the Island on behalf of Montecute, Earl of Salisbury, was added to the church's interior; the brass effigy is missing its head and the coat of arms. There is a note marking Hawle's resting place that reads: Here is ybried under this grave Harry Hawles, his soul god save Long tyme steward of the yle of wyght have m'cy on hym, god ful of myght. A renowned bowling green in Arreton Parish flourished during the 17th centuries.
"I have seen," wrote Sir John Oglander, "with my Lord Southampton at St. George's Down at bowls some thirty or forty knights and gentlemen, where our meeting was twice every week and Thursday, we had an ordinary there and card-tables." Arreton appears as the central location, fictionalised as "Arden", in the 1889 Maxwell Gray novel, The Reproach of Annesley. The parish of Arreton was at one time one of the largest on the Isle of Wight. In 1894, Arreton was divided into the parishes of South Arreton. In 1898, part of South Arreton was transferred to Godshill, part of Godshill was transferred to South Arreton in return. North Arreton was absorbed into Whippingham in 1907. Arreton Athletic, the village's local football team, play in Division 3 of the Isle of Wight Saturday Football League. Watson Bull and Porter sponsor the team; the club secretary is a Mr Robert Butler. The team is captained by both Mr Neil Badham and Mr Darren Plumbley. Current team affairs can be followed on the club's official website.
Arreton is part of the electoral ward called Newchurch. At the 2011 Census the population of this ward was 3,610. Parishes: Arreton, A History of the County of Hampshire, Volume 5, pp. 139–51. Date accessed: 15 November 2006. Amazon Zoo World website Arreton Manor Arreton in the Domesday Book
Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight. Cowes is located on the west bank of the estuary of the River Medina, facing the smaller town of East Cowes on the east bank; the two towns are linked by a chain ferry. The population was 9,663 in the 2001 census; the population at the 2011 census was 10,405. Charles Godfrey Leland's 19th century verses describe the towns poetically as "The two great Cowes that in loud thunder roar/This on the eastern, that the western shore". Cowes has been seen as a home for international yacht racing since the founding of the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1815, it gives its name to the world's oldest regular regatta, Cowes Week, which occurs annually in the first week of August. Powerboat races are held. Much of the town's architecture is still influenced by the style of ornate building that Prince Albert popularised; the name Westcowe was attested in 1413 as the name of one of two sandbanks, on each side of the River Medina estuary, so-called after a supposed likeness to cows.
The name was subsequently transferred to fortifications built during the reign of Henry VIII on the east and west banks of the river to dispel a French invasion, referred to as cowforts or cowes. They subsequently gave their names to the towns of Cowes and East Cowes, replacing the earlier name of Shamblord; the town's name has been subject to dispute in the past, sometimes being called Cowes, West Cowes. For example, a milestone from the 17th century exists, calling the town Cowes, but up until the late 19th Century the Urban District Council bore the name West Cowes. In 1895 West Cowes Urban District Council applied for permission to change the name of the town to Cowes and this was granted on 21 August 1895. Whilst the name Cowes has become well established on infrastructure related to the town, the name West Cowes remained on Admiralty charts, used by sailors, until 2015, when it was corrected following a letter from a Cowes resident. Red Funnel, the Southampton-based ferry company that provides routes from Southampton to both Cowes and East Cowes, has continued to use the name West Cowes for the town in information and publicity and as the name for the town's terminal.
In earlier centuries the two settlements were much smaller and known as East and West Shamblord or Shamelhorde, the East being the more significant settlement. The Isle of Wight was a target of attempted French invasions, there were notable incursions. Henrician Castles were built in both settlements in the sixteenth century; the west fort in Cowes still survives to this day, albeit without the original Tudor towers, as Cowes Castle. The fort built in East Cowes is believed to have been similar but was abandoned c. 1546 and since destroyed. The seaport at Cowes, Isle of Wight was the first stop on English soil before crossing the Atlantic Ocean with many ships loaded with Germans and Swiss passengers leaving from Rotterdam going to the New World destination of the port City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; these Germans and Swiss passengers where going to become British subjects in Colonial America, the English Captain's made a written record of the stop in Cowes, England. It is believed that the building of an 80-ton, 60-man vessel called Rat o' Wight on the banks of the river Medina in 1589 for the use of Queen Elizabeth I sowed the seed for Cowes to grow into a world-renowned centre of boat-building.
However, seafaring for recreation and sport remained the exception rather than the rule until much later. It was not until the reign of keen sailor George IV that the stage was set for the heyday of Cowes as'The Yachting Capital of the World.' In 1826 the Royal Yacht Squadron organised a three-day regatta for the first time and the next year the king signified his approval of the event by presenting a cup to mark the occasion. This became known as Cowes Regatta and it soon grew into a four-day event that always ended with a fireworks display; the opium clippers Nina and Wild Dayrell were built in Cowes. In Cowes the 18th-century house of Westbourne was home to a collector of customs whose son, born there in 1795, lived to become Dr Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School. Northwood House was the home of the Ward family, it was donated under trust to the town in the grounds becoming Northwood Park. William George Ward was a close friend of the poet Tennyson and in whose memory the poet wrote six lines.
Cowes and East Cowes became a single urban district in 1933. During an air raid of World War II on 4/5 May 1942, the local defences had been fortuitously augmented by the Polish destroyer Błyskawica, which put up such a determined defence that, in 2002, the crew's courage was honoured by a local commemoration lasting several days to mark the 60th anniversary of the event. In 2004 an area of Cowes was named Francki Place in honour of the ship's commander; the Friends of the ORP Błyskawica Society is active in Cowes. There is a Błyskawica Memorial. Industry in both Cowes and East Cowes has always centred on the building and design of marine craft and materials associated with boat-making, including the early flying boats, sail-making, it is the place. Major present-day employers include BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies, which occupies the site of the old Somerton Aerodrome at Newport Road, Cowes; the population of the town increases during Cowes Week, the busiest time of the year for local businesses.
The town was reported to be doing well despite the economic downturn. Cowes has a Non-League football club Cowes Sports F. C. wh
Back of the Wight
Back of the Wight is an area on the Isle of Wight in England. The area has a distinct historical and social background and geographically isolated by the chalk hills to the North and until poor transport infrastructure. Agricultural, the Back of the Wight is made up of small villages spread out along the coast, including Brighstone and Mottistone; the geographical boundaries of the Back of the Wight are imprecise and vary according to interpretation, however speaking it comprises all the land located South of the Downs and East of Freshwater Bay until the curve in the Downs meets the sea near St. Catherine's Point; the main part of the Back of the Wight is formed of a large bay 18 miles long. The shore is edged by cliffs averaging around 300 feet high from Freshwater to Compton, broken at two points, Grange Chine and Brook Chine, which provide the only easy, natural access to the sea through steep gorges. Stretching out from this coast are three ledges of resistant rock, the Brook and Atherfield ledges, on which many ships have been wrecked over the years.
Past Compton and Brighstone, the coast is wild and there are only four access points inland, Whale and Ladder Chine and the greatest of them all, Blackgang Chine, once a home of smugglers and experienced a massive landslide during the early-20th century, leaving a much larger chine in its place. Blackgang Chine is home to a theme park of the same name, the first theme park to be constructed in the United Kingdom; the most obvious natural features on land are the downs that enclose the area and cut it off from the rest of the island. Brighstone Forest, which covers the top of Brighstone Down, is the largest on the island. At St. Catherine's Point, the Back of the Wight ends and the Undercliff of Ventnor begins. Like the Geology of the Isle of Wight as a whole the geology of the area is varied; these Wealden rocks date from around 120 million years ago, thus younger than similar rocks elsewhere in the UK. Most of the settlements in the area are villages or hamlets that have evolved around farms or water courses.
Settlement in the area has never been great and the villages are old in construction. Many exist because of medieval manors such as Mottistone Manor; the main settlements are: Brighstone, near the centre Brook Shorwell Mottistone Chale Freshwater, on the edge of the area There is little evidence of the region having been settled in pre-history. That there were once dinosaurs is proved by the numerous types of bones and fossils that have been excavated from the cliffs, including some species unique to the island. At the time the fossils were laid down, between 125 and 110 million years ago, the island was at a latitude similar to that of North Africa. There is an abundance of fossils on the island of crustaceans and nautiloids such as Trilobites and Ammonites. In AD 43 the Romans invaded the island. Although most of their presence was elsewhere, they did built a villa at Rock, Brighstone to make use of the clean waters of the Buddle Brook. During the 4th century the Empire broke up and the coast began to suffer from raids by Vikings and Germanic tribes, which laid waste to the area.
In Saxon times the island was colonised by Jutes until the reign of King Arwald, who died in battle when the kingdom of Wessex invaded and converted the island at sword point by killing the inhabitants and re-settling it with Saxons. Saint Wilfred and the church were converted the survivors; the island had been the last pagan part of England. The Back of the Wight had a meagre and fragile economy at the time so this increased the hardships on the area by killing many of the population. During medieval times the people of the Back of the Wight were poor compared to the new prosperity of towns such as Yarmouth and Brading; the people lived a harsh existence exposed to the pirates. They scraped a livelihood from fishing and salvage. Shipwrecks were a great help to these people and some say that the emphasis was on cargo not people. There has never been any proof of islanders wrecking, but given how harsh their lives were it would not be surprising. In 1313, in a famous case the St Mary of Bayonne, from Gascony, ran ashore at Chale Bay.
The lord of Chale raised some men and demanded the 53 barrels of wine the ship was carrying. When King Edward II found out, he had them fined; the wine was destined for the church cried sacrilege. As a result of this incident, the first lighthouse on Wight was built at Chale, the St Catherine's Oratory, where the lord's family paid for a light and prayers for his soul; this is the oldest medieval lighthouse in England. Its ruins are now known as the Pepperpot, a half-built lighthouse nearby is known as the Salt Shaker. From this period onwards the area lived in fear of French invasions. In the 18th century there were a succession of stormy winters that increased the number of wrecks on the Back's coast. Salvage and theft were combined with thriving local smuggling. Many buildings in the area are formed of parts of these ships; the Coastguard were established on the Island at this time. They were hated because they fought the smuggl
Gatcombe is a village in the civil parish of Chillerton and Gatcombe, on the Isle of Wight. It is located about two and a half miles south in the centre of the island; the parish church of St Olave's was dedicated in 1292. Gatcombe parish was established in 1560; the civil parish was renamed from "Gatcombe" to "Chillerton and Gatcombe" in 1 April 2013. A carved wooden effigy of Edward Estur, a local knight who fought in the Crusades, is in the church. In 1907, a contract was signed that ensured that properties older than 1907 in Gatcombe and nearby Chillerton would receive free water, while newer homes receive it at a reduced rate. In 2009 Southern Water proposed that all households should pay the same rate, claiming that the reasoning behind the initial pact is now invalid, as the costs for the original project have since been paid off. Public transport is provided by Southern Vectis, which runs a line between Ventnor. St Olave's Church, Isle of Wight, Kent Collins, Roughwood website, 4 October 2002
Fishbourne, Isle of Wight
Fishbourne is a village between Wootton and Ryde, on the Isle of Wight. The name "Fishbourne" might mean "stream of fish" or "fish spring."It is positioned on the eastern bank of Wootton Creek, includes the terminal for the Wightlink car ferry from Portsmouth. Fishbourne, together with the adjoining Kite Hill area, became a civil parish in 2006 and has a parish council; the parish includes the Benedictine monastery including Quarr Abbey. The Royal Victoria Yacht Club and the'Fishbourne Inn' are located near the ferry terminal. Public transport is provided by Southern Vectis bus routes 4 and 9, which stop on the main road, operate to East Cowes and Ryde. Fishbourne is part of the electoral ward called Fishbourne; this ward covers much of the Binstead district of Ryde parish and at the 2011 Census had a total population of 3,185. Fishbourne - The Willis Fleming Historical Trust Fishbourne Parish Council