Pol-e Dokhtar is a city in and capital of Pol-e Dokhtar County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 22,558, pol-e-Dokhtar is approximately 100 kilometres from Khorramabad, the provincial capital. Just north of the city resides the remains of an ancient bridge, in 1989 a unique treasure in the cave was discovered Klmakareh Poldokhtar city, according to Mehr news agency, it can take into account the six treasures of the ancient world. Cogan cave is located in ashkanian East Poldokhtar city
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. A wide variety of styles and motifs have been developed for architecture. In textiles and other objects where the decoration may be the justification for its existence. The vast range of used in ornament draw from geometrical shapes and patterns, plants. In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it surface modulation, the earliest decoration and ornament often survives from prehistoric cultures in simple markings on pottery, where decoration in other materials has been lost. Ornament implies that the object has a function that an unornamented equivalent might fulfill. Where the object has no function, but exists only to be a work of art such as a sculpture or painting. In recent centuries a distinction between the arts and applied or decorative arts has been applied, with ornament mainly seen as a feature of the latter class. Ornament increased over the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but was reduced in Early Renaissance styles.
While the concept of the Kunstwollen has few followers today, his analysis of the development of forms has been confirmed and refined by the wider corpus of examples known today. Styles of ornamentation can be studied in reference to the culture which developed unique forms of decoration. The Ancient Egyptian culture is arguably the first civilization to add decoration to their buildings. Their ornament takes the forms of the world in that climate, decorating the capitals of columns and walls with images of papyrus. Assyrian culture produced ornament which shows influence from Egyptian sources and a number of themes, including figures of plants. Ancient Greek civilization created many new forms of ornament, with variations from Doric, Ionic. The Romans Latinized the pure forms of the Greek ornament and adapted the forms to every purpose, a few medieval notebooks survive, most famously that of Villard de Honnecourt showing how artists and craftsmen recorded designs they saw for future use. As printing became cheaper, the single ornament print turned into sets, from the 16th to the 19th century, pattern books were published in Europe which gave access to decorative elements, eventually including those recorded from cultures all over the world.
Napoleon had the great pyramids and temples of Egypt documented in the Description de lEgypte, owen Jones published The Grammar of Ornament in 1856 with colored illustrations of decoration from Egypt, Turkey and Spain
Khorramabad County is a county in Lorestan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Khorramabad, at the 2006 census, the countys population was 509,251, in 113,886 families, excluding those portions, the population was 465,105, in 104,164 families. The county is subdivided into four districts, the Central District, Papi District, Bayravand District, the county has four cities, Bayranshahr and Khorramabad. اطلس گیتاشناسی استانهای ایران Media related to Khorramabad county at Wikimedia Commons
Falak-ol-Aflak Castle is a castle situated on the top of a large hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad, the regional capital of Lorestan province, Iran. This gigantic structure was built during the Sassanid era, the Khoramabad River runs past the eastern and south-western side of the Falak-ol-Aflak hill providing the fortress some natural protection on those sides. Today, the western and northern sides of the hill are bordered by the districts of Khorramabad. Falak-ol-Aflak castle is amongst the most important structures built during the Sassanid era and it has been known by a number of names since it was built over 1800 years ago. Recorded names have referred to it as Shapur-Khast or Sabr-Khast fortress, Khoramabad castle, under the Pahlavi dynasty, after being used as a prison until 1968, it was transformed into a museum complex. The foundations of the actual castle measure approximately 300 by 400 metres, the height of the entire structure, including the hill, reaches to 40 meters above the surrounding area.
The castle itself covers an area of 5,300 square metres, the perimeter extends for 2,860 metres in perimeter and its tallest wall is 22.5 metres high. This space is divided into four halls, and their associated rooms. The rooms all surround two courtyards with the measurements, the first courtyard measures 31 by 22.5 metres. When originally built the castle used to have 12 towers, the buildings entrance is situated towards the north, within the body of the northwestern tower. The water well of the lies in the area behind the first courtyard. Reaching a depth of 40 meters, the majority of the shaft is carved into the rock in order to reach the source of the Golestan spring. The well remains usable to this day, the materials used in the construction of the fortress are mud-bricks, mud-fired bricks, stone and mortar. Archeological studies have identified the existence of a two layered rampart with twelve towers around the present day construction and this surrounding rampart mainly stretched westward.
From the twelve towers, only two remain and these are situated northwest and southwest of the existing fortress. Falak ol-Aflak Castle appears to have built with a dehumidifier system. Previously, the experts believed these dehumidifier canals with a height of more than 1 meter covering all the area beneath the castle were hide-outs for the residents. But in reality, due to being aware of the climate in the region and the underground waters
Borujerd is a city in and capital of Borujerd County, Lorestan Province in western Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 227,547 in 59,388 families, among the existing modern cities in Iran, Borujerd is one of the oldest reported at least since the 9th century. In Sassanid Empire, Borujerd was a town and region neighboring Nahavand. Gaining more attention during Great Seljuq Empire in the 9th and 10th centuries, Borujerd stood as an industrial, commercial, in its golden ages, Borujerd was selected as the state capital of Lorestan and Khuzestan region during Qajar dynasty in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, Borujerd is the second largest city of Lorestan, the city has kept its old architecture and lifestyle mostly through mosques and houses built in the Qajar era. Borujerd city is located approximately 1670 meters above sea level and has a climate with cold winters. The highest point is Garrin Mountain 3623 m above sea level, Borujerd Township has 2600 km² area with approximately 400,000 inhabitants distributed in the city of Oshtorinan and more than 180 villages.
Borujerd is located on Silakhor Plain which is the largest agricultural land of Lorestan, the high-elevated Zagros Mountains surrounds it from South East to North West and the peaks are covered with snow most of the times. Rural people work in farms or keep their domestic animals, other people work in governmental offices, armed forces, factories or small local businesses. The feet of Zagros Mountains is a destination for nomads and many Lurs. The area is paved with highways and is a crossroad between Tehran and Khuzestan Province as well as Isfahan Province and Kermanshah Province. The city of Borujerd is one of the oldest cities in Iran which has been populated at least for 20 centuries and has reported at least from Sassanid Empire. Borujerd City has 256,962 inhabitants and it is the 31st largest city in Iran, Borujerd is the industrial point of Lorestan. Its historical and cultural background as well as its nature, has changed it to a tourist destination. The city is well-structured with live nights and many shops and markets, borujerdi people are easy going and tolerant and different religious minorities such as Jews and Baháí Faith have grown there.
The city has named as Dār-Al-Sorūr which means the house of happiness. Today, Borujerd is sometimes referred to as Paris Kūčūlū namely the little Paris, the Borujerd area has been populated at least since 3000 BC. Medes used its pastures to produce and train thousands of horses each year, however, it owes much of its development to the Jews which came to Persia after they had got close to extinction
Lorestan Province (Persian, استان لرستان, written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan, is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains. The population of Lorestan was estimated at 1,716,527 people in 2006, in 2014 it was placed in Region 4. Lorestan covers an area of 28,392 km2, the major cities in this province are Khorramabad, Aligoodarz, Koohdasht, Alashtar, Noor Abad, Doh Râh/Dowreh, and Pol-e-Dokhtar. The name Lorestan means land of the Lurs, the terrain consists chiefly of mountains, with numerous ranges, part of the Zagros chain, running northwest to southeast. The central range has many summits that almost reach the line of snow, rising to 4000 m. It feeds the headwaters of Irans most important rivers, such as the Zayandeh rud, Karun, Abi, between the higher ranges lie many fertile plains and low hilly, well-watered districts. The highest point of the province is the Oshtorankuh peak at 4,050 m, the low-lying areas being in the southern most sector of the province are approximately 500 m above sea level.
Oak forest covers the slopes, together with elm, walnut. Western Luristan comprises a series of fertile valleys running high in the Zagros mountains. The Pusht-i Kuh region is in the foothills of the Kabir Kuh range. The Pish-i Kuh region lies to the east of Kabir Kuh and this area had human settlements during the Bronze Age as early as the mid–3rd millennium B. C. Climatically, the province can be divided into three parts, the regions, such as Boroujerd, Azna and Alishtar experience cold winters. In the central region, the season begins from mid-February. The township of Khorramabad is in this realm, southern areas such as Pol-e-Dokhtar and Papi are under the influence of the warm air currents of Khuzestan, have hot summers and relatively moderate winters. The climate is generally sub-humid continental with winter precipitation, a lot of which falls as snow, because it lies on the westernmost slopes of the Zagros Mountains, annual precipitation in Lorestan is among the highest anywhere in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains.
At Khorramabad, the annual precipitation totals 530 millimetres of rainfall equivalent. The months June to September are usually dry, but Khorramabad can expect 4 inches of rainfall equivalent in December. Temperatures vary widely with the seasons and between day and night, at Khorramabad, summer temperatures typically range from a minimum of 12 °C to a hot maximum of 32 °C
Counties of Iran
The counties of Iran, called shahrestan, are administrative divisions of larger provinces. The word shahrestan comes from the Persian words shahr and stān, therefore, is a near equivalent of shahrestan. Iranian counties are divided into one or more bakhsh, or districts, a typical county includes both cities and rural agglomerations, which are groupings of adjacent villages. One city within the county serves as the capital of that county, in 2005, Iran had 324 shahrestans. To better understand these subdivisions, the table is useful. Assume that province P is divided into two counties, A and B, county A has 3 districts, Central, X, and Y. The Central district is the district that contains City M, the capital of the county, each district contains one or more cities and/or one or more RAs. The minimal county consists of one city as the only district, named Central. The county B in the table is of such type
Soltani Mosque of Borujerd
The Soltani Mosque of Borujerd is a large mosque in the centre of Borujerd, in the province of Lorestan, western Iran. The edifice was built in the Qajar period atop the ruins of an older mosque, Soltani means related to Sultan, which refers to Fath Ali Shah Qajar, who ordered this building to be rebuilt. The stone inscription on the surface of its western portico bear the date 1248 AH, and on the door opening on Ja’fari Avenue. The plan of the mosque is of the type, with three main entrances. The western entrance gives access to the Great Bazaar of Borujerd, the mosque’s yard measures 61×47 m, and the roof arch of the southern prayer all has a height of approximately 17 m. The interior decorations of the mosque consist of works, stucco carving. The stones of the northern portico’s main base are decorated with fine patterns. Soltani Mosque of Borujerd was known as Masjed Shah in the Pahlavi Dynasty and it is nationally registered and protected. However, it was damaged during the 2006 Borujerd earthquake.
Jame Mosque of Borujerd Borujerd Borujerd. Info
Khorramabad pronunciation is a city in and capital of Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 328,544, Khorramabad is situated in the Zagros Mountains. Khorramabad Airport is 3 km south of the city proper, the city population is predominantly Lur and Lak, although the two groups are closely related. Although not a major tourist destination, it is quite scenic and possesses several attractions, in the city center, a tall citadel called Falak-ol-Aflak, a relic of the Sassanid era, is now a nationally popular museum. Economically, it is the base of the agricultural industry. In the texts of historians Shapurkhast has been considered one of the most important, probably in the late seventh century AD Shapurkhast city destroyed and people of Shapurkhast moved to west part of Falak-ol-aflak castle in terms of having plenty of water as well as safety. Hamdallah Mustawfi Writes, Khorramabad was a city, now is destroyed. During the reign of the Safavid dynasty, Khorramabad was the center of the Luristan province.
In the wake of the demise of the Safavids, after the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople with Imperial Russia, Khorramabad municipal was formed in 1913 and first city council consists of 7 members was formed in 1916. It remains extremely hot in the summer even with low humidity. Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, Dež-e Shāpūr-Khwāst, Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, in ancient times was known as Dezbaz as well as Shapur-Khast, is one of the most impressive castles in Iran. It is situated on the top of a hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad. The Khorramabad River runs past the eastern and south-western side of the Falak-ol-Aflak hill providing the fortress with an element of natural protection, the western and northern sides of the hill are bordered by the residential districts of Khorramabad. This gigantic structure was built during the Sassanid era and it has been known by a number of names since it was built over 1800 years ago. Recorded names have referred to it as Shapur-Khast or Sabr-Khast fortress, Khorramabad castle, the foundations of the actual castle measure approximately 300 meters by 400 meters.
The height of the structure, including the hill, reaches up to 40 meters above the surrounding area. This space is divided into four halls, and their associated rooms. The rooms all surround two courtyards with the measurements, the first courtyard measures 31×22.50 meters and the second 29x21 meters
The Zagros Mountains form the largest mountain range in Iran and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a length of 1,500 km. The highest point in the Zagros Mountains is Dena, the Zagros fold and thrust belt was formed by collision of two tectonic plates, the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate. This collision primarily happened during the Miocene and folded the rocks that had been deposited from the Carboniferous to the Miocene in the geosyncline in front of the Iranian Plate. The process of collision continues to the present and as the Arabian Plate is being pushed against the Eurasian Plate, the Zagros Mountains, a relatively dense GPS network which covered the Iranian Zagros proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros. The GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in the southeast Zagros is ~10 mm/yr, the north-south Kazerun strike-slip fault divides the Zagros into two distinct zones of deformation. The GPS results show different shortening directions along the belt, normal shortening in the southeast, the sedimentary cover in the SE Zagros is deforming above a layer of rock salt whereas in the NW Zagros the salt layer is missing or is very thin.
This different basal friction is partly responsible for the different topographies on either side of the Kazerun fault. Higher topography and narrower zone of deformation in the NW Zagros is observed whereas in the SE, deformation was spread more, stresses induced in the Earths crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks. Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks, such as mudstone and siltstone while leaving harder rocks, such as limestone and this differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains. The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum, salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains. Salt domes are an important target for exploration, as the impermeable salt frequently traps petroleum beneath other rock layers. The Zagros Mountains have a totally sedimentary origin and are primarily of limestone. In the Elevated Zagros or the Higher Zagros, the Paleozoic rocks could be found mainly in the upper and higher sections of the peaks of the Zagros Mountains along the Zagros main fault.
On the both sides of this fault, there are Mesozoic rocks, a combination of Triassic and Jurassic rocks that are surrounded by Cretaceous rocks on the both sides. The Folded Zagros is formed mainly of Tertiary rocks, with the Paleogene rocks south of the Cretaceous rocks, the mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges, and orogenically have the same age as the Alps. Irans main oilfields lie in the central foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits and they contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils
Iran, known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars and thinkers.
During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably