Humboldt County, California
Humboldt County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 132,646; the county seat is Eureka. Humboldt County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located on the far North Coast, about 270 miles north of San Francisco. Its primary population centers of Eureka, the site of College of the Redwoods main campus, the smaller college town of Arcata, site of Humboldt State University, are located adjacent to Humboldt Bay, California's second largest natural bay. Area cities and towns are known for hundreds of ornate examples of Victorian architecture. Humboldt County is a densely forested mountainous and rural county with about 110 miles of coastline, situated along the Pacific coast in Northern California's rugged Coast Ranges. With nearly 1,500,000 acres of combined public and private forest in production, Humboldt County alone produces twenty percent of total volume and thirty percent of the total value of all forest products produced in California.
The county contains over forty percent of all remaining old growth Coast Redwood forests, the vast majority of, protected or conserved within dozens of national and local forests and parks, totaling 680,000 acres. The original inhabitants of the area now known as Humboldt County include the Wiyot, Hupa, Chilula and the Eel River Athapaskan peoples, including the Wailaki and Nongatl. Andrés de Urdaneta found the coast near Cape Mendocino followed the coast south to Acapulco in 1565. Spanish traders made unintended visits to California with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Humboldt County was formed in 1853 from parts of Trinity County; the first recorded entry by people of European origin was a landing by the Spanish in 1775 in Trinidad. The first recorded entry of Humboldt Bay by non-natives was an 1806 visit from a sea otter hunting party from Sitka employed by the Russian American Company; the hunting party included Captain Jonathan Winship, an American, some Aleut hunters.
The bay was not visited again by people of European origin until 1849 when Josiah Gregg's party visited. In 1850, Douglas Ottinger and Hans Buhne entered the bay, naming it Humboldt in honor of the great naturalist and world explorer, Alexander von Humboldt, the name was applied to the county as a whole; the area around Humboldt Bay was once inhabited by the Wiyot Indian tribe. One of the largest Wiyot villages, was located on Indian Island in Humboldt Bay. Founded around 900 BC, it contains a shell midden 6 acres in size and 14 feet deep, it was the site of the February 26, 1860 massacre of the Wiyot people, recorded by Bret Harte living in Union, now called Arcata. Between 60 and 200 Wiyot men and children were murdered that night. Tolowot is now a National Historic Landmark. State historic landmarks in Humboldt County include Arcata and Mad River Railroad, California's First Drilled Oil Wells in Petrolia, Camp Curtis, Centerville Beach Cross, the City of Eureka, the town of Ferndale, Fort Humboldt, Humboldt Harbor Historical District, the Jacoby Building, The Old Arrow Tree, Old Indian Village of Tsurai, the Town of Trinidad, Trinidad Head.
On February 5 and 6, 1885, Eureka's entire Chinese population of 300 men and 20 women were expelled after a gunfight between rival Chinese gangs resulted in the wounding of a 12-year-old boy and the death of 56-year-old David Kendall, a Eureka City Councilman. After the shooting, an angry mob of 600 Eureka residents met and informed the Chinese that they were no longer wanted in Eureka and would be hanged if they were to stay in town longer than 3 p.m. the next day. They were shipped to San Francisco. No one was killed in the expulsion. Another Chinese expulsion occurred during 1906 in a cannery on the Eel River, in which 23 Chinese cannery workers were expelled after objections to their presence. However, some Chinese remained in the Orleans area, where some white landowners sheltered and purchased food for the Chinese mineworkers until after racial tension passed. Chinese did not return to the coastal cities until the 1950s; the coastal zone of the county experiences wet, cool winters and dry, mild foggy summers.
In the winter, temperatures range from highs of 40–59 °F to lows of 32–49 °F. Coastal summers are cool to mild, with average highs of 60 -- frequent fogs. Coastal summer temperatures range from highs of 64–70 °F to lows of 46–55 °F. In the populated areas and cities near the coast, the highest temperatures tend to occur at locations just a few miles inland from Eureka and Arcata, in towns like Fortuna, Rio Dell, smaller unincorporated communities located somewhat further away from Humboldt Bay. In these locations summer highs are 70–75 °F; the coastal zone experiences a number of frosty nights in winter and early spring, though snowfall and hard freezes are rare. Coastal winters are wet. Winter rainstorms are frequent, with averages from 30 inches to 100 inches a year varying with elevation. Inland areas of the county experience wet, cool winters. Snowfall is common at elevations over 3,000 ft throughout the winter months, is deep enough at higher elevations to have inspired the opening of a small ski lift operation on Horse Mountain, near Willow Creek, for several decades in the late 1900s.
Summer displays the sharpest difference between the inland climates. Inland regions of Humboldt County experience highs of 80–99 °F depending on
Garberville is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It is located on the South Fork of the Eel River 52 miles south-southeast of Eureka, at an elevation of 535 feet; the population was 913 at the 2010 United States Census. It is 200 miles north of San Francisco and within a fifteen-minute drive to Humboldt Redwoods State Park and a sixty-minute drive to Eureka, the county seat. Garberville is the primary town in the area known as the Mateel Region, consisting of parts of the Mattole and Eel River watersheds in southern Humboldt and northern Mendocino counties. Prior to recorded history the area was populated by southern Sinkyone people. In 1853 a Spanish explorer, Antone Garcia, settled in the area near Town Gulch, which runs through modern-day Garberville; the first post office in Garberville opened in 1874. Jacob C. Garber the town postmaster named the town after himself in 1879. Garberville is located at 40°06′01″N 123°47′42″W; the town is stretched out in a small forested valley bisected by U.
S. Route 101, at an elevation of 535 feet; the nearby King's Peak rises to 4,087 feet. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Csb". Characterized by cold, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; the 2010 United States Census reported that Garberville had a population of 913. The population density was 330.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Garberville was 815 White, 14 African American, 29 Native American, 17 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 7 from other races, 31 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 54 persons; the Census reported that 785 people lived in households, 128 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 390 households, out of which 86 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 102 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 47 had a female householder with no husband present, 33 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 50 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 5 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
172 households were made up of individuals and 49 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01. There were 182 families; the population was spread out with 160 people under the age of 18, 85 people aged 18 to 24, 258 people aged 25 to 44, 285 people aged 45 to 64, 125 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.2 males. There were 434 housing units at an average density of 157.1 per square mile, of which 390 were occupied, of which 175 were owner-occupied, 215 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%. 388 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 397 people lived in rental housing units. Marijuana cultivation has replaced timber as the economic driver of Garberville and neighboring Redway. There is a Cannabis College in Garberville, the town has been called "the marijuana heartland of the U. S." by BBC News.
Reggae on the River, an annual music festival, is held near Garberville. Nearby, the 1925 Tudor Revival Benbow Inn is on the National Register of Historic Places. In the state legislature, Garberville is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. Federally, Garberville is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. A proposal to incorporate Garberville as a city was dropped after county supervisors declined to form a Municipal Advisory Committee due to concerns over the associated costs. A group of local residents once attempted to qualify a "Sequoia County" initiative to secede from both Humboldt and Mendocino County with Garberville as the new county seat, although the campaign ended without gathering enough signatures. A local chapter of the Green Party was formed in 2006; the Southern Humboldt Unified School District was created from 19 separate school districts in 1948 and serves about 800 students in an area of 745 square miles.
The district has one high school and one learning center. Redway School Whitethorn School Agnes Johnson School Casterlin School Ettersburg School South Fork High School Osprey Learning Center Garberville is home to both weekly newspapers in the Mateel Region, the locally owned Independent and Redwood Times, run by Media News Group as a sister publication of the daily Times-Standard from Eureka. Redwood Community Radio, KMUD, broadcasts from Garberville at 91.1 FM. U. S. Route 101 bypasses the town with exits # 639 and # 642 at Redway respectively. Humboldt Transit Authority serves from Garberville as far north as Trinidad. Garberville is served by Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach for out of region public transportation. Garberville Airport is a public airport located 2 miles southwest of town. Garberville's ZIP Code is 95542; the community is inside area code 707. The Garberville Fire Protection District, has three engines and a utility truck, self-contained breathing apparatuses and radios; the Garberville Water Company supplies drinking water to residents and maintains 27 fire hydrants on its water lines.
The Garberville Sanitary District is not the same as the water company, but provides sewers in the core of the fire district. Some release
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl