Oni are a kind of yōkai, supernatural demon, ogre, or troll in Japanese folklore. They are portrayed as hulking figures with one or more horns growing out of their heads. Stereotypically, they are conceived of as red or blue-colored, wearing loincloths of tiger pelt, carrying iron kanabō clubs, they are popular characters in Japanese art and theatre, appear as stock villains in the well-known fairytales of Momotaro, Issun-bōshi, Kobutori Jīsan. Depictions of oni vary but portray them as hideous, gigantic ogre-like creatures with a single horn or multiple horns emerging from their heads, with sharp claws and wild hair, they are depicted wearing tiger-skin loincloths and carrying iron clubs called kanabō. This image leads to the expression "oni with an iron club", that is, to be invincible or undefeatable, their skin may be any number of colors, but red and green are common. They may sometimes be depicted as black-skinned, or yellow-skinned, they may be depicted with a third eye on their forehead, or extra fingers and toes.
An old etymology for "oni" is that the word derives from on, the on'yomi reading of a character meaning "to hide or conceal", due to oni having the tendency of "hiding behind things, not wishing to appear". This explanation is found in the 10th century dictionary Wamyōshō, which reveals that the oni at the time had a different meaning, defined as "a soul/spirit of the dead"; the character for oni, 鬼 in Chinese means a dead or ancestral spirit, not an evil specter. Accordingly, Chinese origins for the concept of oni has been proposed by Takahashi Masaaki; the oni was syncretized with Hindu-Buddhist creatures such as the man-devouring yaksha and the rakshasa, became the oni who tormented sinners as wardens of Jigoku, administering sentences passed down by Hell's magistrate, King Yama. The hungry ghosts called gaki has been sometimes considered a type of oni; some scholars have argued that the oni was a concept of Buddhist mythology. According to Chinese Taoism and esoteric Onmyōdō, the ways of yin and yang, the northeasterly direction is termed the kimon and considered an unlucky direction through which evil spirits passed.
Based on the assignment of the twelve zodiac animals to the cardinal directions, the kimon was known as the ushitora, or "Ox Tiger" direction. One theory is that the oni's bovine horns and tiger-skin loincloth developed as a visual depiction of this term. Temples are built facing that direction, for example, Enryaku-ji was deliberately built on Mount Hiei, in the kimon direction from Kyoto in order to guard the capital, Kan'ei-ji was built towards that direction from Edo Castle. However, skeptics doubt this could have been the initial design of Enryaku-ji temple, since the temple was founded in 788, six years before Kyoto existed as a capital, if the ruling class were so feng shui-minded, the subsequent northeasterly move of the capital from Nagaoka-kyō to Kyoto would have been taboo. Japanese buildings may sometimes have L-shaped indentions at the northeast to ward oni away, for example the walls surrounding the Kyoto Imperial Palace have notched corners in that direction The traditional bean-throwing custom to drive out oni is practiced during Setsubun festival in February.
It involves people casting roasted soybeans indoors or out of their homes and shouting "Oni wa soto! Fuku wa uchi!". This custom has grown from the medieval ritual of tsuina or oni-yarai, an year-end rite to drive away oni. Regionally around Tottori Prefecture during this season, a charm made of holly leaves and dried sardine heads are used as guard against oni. There is a well-known game in Japan called oni gokko, the same as the game of tag that children in western countries play; the player, "it" is instead called the "oni". Oni are featured in Japanese children's stories such as Momotaro, Issun-bōshi, Kobutori Jīsan. In more recent times, oni have lost some of their original wickedness and sometimes take on a more protective function. Men in oni costumes lead Japanese parades to dispel any bad luck, for example. Japanese buildings sometimes include oni-faced roof tiles called onigawara, which are thought to ward away bad luck, much like gargoyles in Western tradition. Many Japanese idioms and proverbs make reference to oni.
For example, the expression oya ni ninu ko wa oni no ko means "a child that does not resemble its parents is the child of an oni", may be used by a parent to chastise a misbehaving child. Citations Bibliography
Tokugawa Hidetada was the second shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1605 until his abdication in 1623. He was the third son of the first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate. Tokugawa Hidetada was born to Tokugawa Ieyasu and the Lady Saigō on May 2, 1579; this was shortly before Lady Tsukiyama, Ieyasu's official wife, their son Tokugawa Nobuyasu were executed on suspicion of plotting to assassinate Oda Nobunaga, Nobuyasu's father-in-law and Ieyasu's ally. By killing his wife and son, Ieyasu declared his loyalty to Nobunaga. In 1589, Hidetada's mother fell ill, her health deteriorated, she died at Sunpu Castle. Hidetada with his brother, Matsudaira Tadayoshi, was raised by Achaa no Tsubone, one of Ieyasu's concubines, his childhood name was Chomaru become Takechiyo. The traditional power base of the Tokugawa clan was Mikawa. In 1590, the new ruler of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi enlisted Tokugawa Ieyasu and others in attacking the domain of the Hōjō in what became known as the Siege of Odawara.
Hideyoshi enlisted Ieyasu for this campaign by promising to exchange the five provinces under Ieyasu's control for the eight Kantō provinces, including the city of Edo. In order to keep Ieyasu from defecting to the Hōjō side, Hideyoshi took the eleven-year-old Hidetada as a hostage. In 1592 Hideyoshi presided over Hidetada's coming of age ceremony, he was named the heir of the Tokugawa family, being the eldest surviving son of Ieyasu, his favorite. In 1593, Hidetada returned to his father's side. In 1590 Hidetada married O-Hime, daughter of Oda Nobukatsu and adopted daughter of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. O-Hime died in 1591, was given the posthumous Buddhist name Shunshoin. In 1595, Hidetada married Oeyo, daughter of Azai Nagamasa and adopted daughter of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, their wedding was held in Fushimi Castle. In 1595, Hidetada married Oeyo of the Oda clan and they had two sons, Tokugawa Iemitsu and Tokugawa Tadanaga, they had two daughters, one of whom, married twice. The other daughter, Kazuko hime, married Emperor Go-Mizunoo.
Knowing his death would come before his son Toyotomi Hideyori came of age, Hideyoshi named five regents—one of whom was Hidetada's father, Ieyasu—to rule in his son's place. Hideyoshi hoped that the bitter rivalry among the regents would prevent any one of them from seizing power, but after Hideyoshi died in 1598 and Hideyori became nominal ruler, the regents forgot all vows of eternal loyalty and were soon vying for control of the nation. Tokugawa Ieyasu was one of the strongest of the five regents, began to rally around himself an Eastern faction. A Western faction rallied around Ishida Mitsunari; the two factions clashed at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu won decisively. Hidetada had led 16,000 of his father's men in a campaign to contain the Western-aligned Uesugi clan in Shinano. Ieyasu ordered Hidetada to march to Sekigahara in anticipation of the decisive battle against the Western faction, but the Sanada Clan managed to tie down Hidetada's force, so he arrived too late to assist in his father's narrow but decisive victory.
Hidetada and Ieyasu's relationship never recovered. On 3 December 1601, Hidetada's first son, Chōmaru, was born to a young maiden from Kyoto named Onatsu. In September 1602, Chōmaru died. In 1603 Emperor Go-Yōzei granted Ieyasu the title of shōgun, thus Hidetada became the heir to the shogunate. To avoid his predecessor's fate, Ieyasu established a dynastic pattern soon after becoming shogun by abdicating in favor of Hidetada in 1605. Ieyasu retained significant power until his death in 1616. Much to the dismay of Ieyasu, in 1612, Hidetada engineered a marriage between Sen, Ieyasu's favorite granddaughter, Toyotomi Hideyori, living as a commoner in Osaka Castle with his mother; when this failed to quell Hideyori's intrigues, Ōgosho Ieyasu and Shogun Hidetada brought an army to Osaka. Father and son once again disagreed on how to conduct this campaign against the recalcitrant Toyotomi forces in Osaka. In the ensuing siege Hideyori and his mother were forced to commit suicide. Hideyori's infant son, that he had with a concubine, was not spared.
Only Sen was spared. After Ieyasu's death in 1616, Hidetada took control of the bakufu, he strengthened the Tokugawa hold on power by improving relations with the Imperial court. To this end he married his daughter Kazuko to Emperor Go-Mizunoo; the product of that marriage, a girl succeeded to the throne of Japan to become Empress Meishō. The city of Edo was heavily developed under his reign. In Genna 9 Hidetada resigned the government to heir, Tokugawa Iemitsu. Like his father before him, Hidetada became Ōgosho or retired shōgun, retained effective power, he enacted draconian anti-Christian measures, which Ieyasu had only considered: he banned Christian books, forced Christian daimyōs to commit suicide, ordered all other Christians to apostatize, executed the fifty-five Christians who refused to renounce Christianity or to go into hiding, in Nagasaki in 1628. Ōgosho Hidetada died in Kan'ei 9, on the 24th day of the 1st month. His Buddhist posthumous name is Daitoku-in (台徳院
Yagyū Munenori was a Japanese swordsman, founder of the Edo branch of Yagyū Shinkage-ryū, which he learned from his father Yagyū "Sekishūsai" Muneyoshi. This was one of two official sword styles patronized by the Tokugawa shogunate. Munenori began his career in the Tokugawa administration as a hatamoto, a direct retainer of the Tokugawa house, had his income raised to 10,000 koku, making him a minor fudai daimyō, with landholdings around his ancestral village of Yagyū-zato, he received the title of Tajima no Kami. Munenori entered the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu at a young age, was an instructor of swordsmanship to Ieyasu's son Hidetada. Still he became one of the primary advisors of the third shōgun Iemitsu. Shortly before his death in 1606, Sekishusai passed the leadership of Yagyū Shinkage-ryū to his grandson Toshiyoshi. Following a period of musha shugyō, Toshiyoshi entered the service of a cadet branch of the Tokugawa clan that controlled the Owari province. Toshiyoshi's school was based in Nagoya and came to be called Owari Yagyū-ryū, while Munenori's, in Edo, the Tokugawa capital, came to be known as Edo Yagyū-ryū.
Takenaga Hayato, the founder of the Yagyū Shingan-ryū, was a disciple of Yagyū Munenori and received gokui of the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū from him. In about 1632, Munenori completed the Heihō kadensho, a treatise on practical Shinkage-ryū swordsmanship and how it could be applied on a macro level to life and politics; the text remains in print in Japan today, has been translated a number of times into English. Munenori's sons, Yagyū Jūbei Mitsuyoshi and Yagyū Munefuyu, were famous swordsmen. Akai kage-bōshi, 1962 – played by Denjirō Ōkōchi Nemuri Kyōshirō 2: Shōbu, 1964 Yagyū ichizoku no inbō, 1978 – played by Yorozuya Kinnosuke'Makai tenshō, 1981 – played by Tomisaburo Wakayama Makai tenshō, 2003 – played by Nakamura Katsuo A Hereditary Book on the Art of War De Lange, William. Famous Samurai: Yagyū Munenori. Floating World Editions. ISBN 978-1-891640-67-4. Tokunaga, Shinichirō. Yagyū Munenori. Seibidō. ISBN 4-415-06534-1. Sugawara, Makoto. Lives of Master Swordsmen; the East Publication. ISBN 4-915645-17-7.
Summary of the book
Seppuku, sometimes referred to as harakiri, is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. It was reserved for samurai, but was practiced by other Japanese people on to restore honor for themselves or for their families. A samurai practice, seppuku was used either voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies, as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed because they had brought shame to themselves; the ceremonial disembowelment, part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tantō, into the belly and drawing the blade from left to right, slicing the belly open. If the cut is performed enough it can sever the descending aorta, causing a rapid death by blood loss; the term "seppuku" is derived from the two Sino-Japanese roots setsu 切 and puku 腹. It is known as harakiri. Harakiri is in reverse order with an okurigana. In Japanese, the more formal seppuku, a Chinese on'yomi reading, is used in writing, while harakiri, a native kun'yomi reading, is used in speech.
Ross notes, It is pointed out that hara-kiri is a vulgarism, but this is a misunderstanding. Hara-kiri is Kun-yomi of the characters. So hara-kiri is a spoken term, but only to commoners and seppuku a written term, but spoken amongst higher classes for the same act; the practice of performing seppuku at the death of one's master, known as oibara or tsuifuku, follows a similar ritual. The word jigai means "suicide" in Japanese; the modern word for suicide is jisatsu. In some popular western texts, such as martial arts magazines, the term is associated with suicide of samurai wives; the term was introduced into English by Lafcadio Hearn in his Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation, an understanding which has since been translated into Japanese. Joshua S. Mostow notes that Hearn misunderstood the term jigai to be the female equivalent of seppuku; the first recorded act of seppuku was performed by Minamoto no Yorimasa during the Battle of Uji in the year 1180. Seppuku was used by warriors to avoid falling into enemy hands, to attenuate shame and avoid possible torture.
Samurai could be ordered by their daimyō to carry out seppuku. Disgraced warriors were sometimes allowed to carry out seppuku rather than be executed in the normal manner; the most common form of seppuku for men was composed of the cutting of the abdomen, when the samurai was finished, he stretched out his neck for an assistant to sever his spinal cord. It was the assistant's job to decapitate the samurai in one swing, otherwise it would bring great shame to the assistant and his family; those who did not belong to the samurai caste were never expected to carry out seppuku. Samurai could carry out the act only with permission. Sometimes a daimyō was called upon to perform seppuku as the basis of a peace agreement; this weakened the defeated clan so that resistance ceased. Toyotomi Hideyoshi used an enemy's suicide in this way on several occasions, the most dramatic of which ended a dynasty of daimyōs; when the Hōjō were defeated at Odawara in 1590, Hideyoshi insisted on the suicide of the retired daimyō Hōjō Ujimasa, the exile of his son Ujinao.
The practice was not standardised until the 17th century. In the 12th and 13th centuries, such as with the seppuku of Minamoto no Yorimasa, the practice of a kaishakunin had not yet emerged, thus the rite was considered far more painful. Seppuku's defining characteristic was plunging either the tachi, wakizashi or tantō into the gut and slicing the abdomen horizontally. In the absence of a kaishakunin, the samurai would remove the blade, stab himself in the throat, or fall with the blade positioned against his heart. During the Edo Period, carrying out seppuku came to involve a detailed ritual; this was performed in front of spectators if it was a planned seppuku, not one performed on a battlefield. A samurai was bathed, dressed in white robes, served his favorite foods for a last meal; when he had finished, the knife and cloth were given to the warrior. Dressed ceremonially, with his sword placed in front of him and sometimes seated on special clothes, the warrior would prepare for death by writing a death poem.
He would be dressed in the shini-shōzoku, a white kimono worn for death. With his selected kaishakunin standing by, he would open his kimono, take up his tantō or wakizashi —which the samurai held by the blade with a portion of cloth wrapped around so that it would not cut his hand and cause him to lose his grip—and plunge it into his abdomen, making a left-to-right cut. Prior to this, he would consume an important ceremonial drink of sake, he would give his attendant a cup meant for sake. The kaishakunin would perform kaishaku, a cut in which the warrio
Yagyū Shinkage-ryū is one of the oldest Japanese schools of swordsmanship. Its primary founder was Kamiizumi Nobutsuna, who called the school Shinkage-ryū. In 1565, Nobutsuna bequeathed the school to his greatest student, Yagyū Munetoshi, who added his own name to the school. Today, the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū remains one of the most renowned schools of Japanese swordsmanship, its name means Yagyū New Shadow School. At the time of its founding by Kamiizumi Nobutsuna, the superiority of a school was determined through duels. Basic postures were distinct; the idea of winning at any price was ingrained in the schools of the time, as were the concepts of Isatsu-no-tachi or Ichi-no-tachi. A great deal of importance was placed on the technology of swords and armor themselves. However, with the arrival of muskets and other elements of modern warfare, these traditionally invincible techniques were no longer sufficient. Nobutsuna, with the creation of the Shinkage-ryū, changed basic postures by raising them slightly.
He changed the manner of holding the sword. The swords themselves were changed. Most he perfected a new method of teaching to make the study and practice of the Way of the Sword easier. Before Nobutsuna, practice was carried out with either a hard wooden sword or one with a dulled steel blade; the practitioners had to therefore stop their blows during teaching to avoid hurting themselves or their students. It is claimed that Kamiizumi created the practice sword called the fukuro shinai, made of strips of bamboo similar to a kendo shinai but covered inside a leather pouch; the shinai allowed striking with quickness and potency without causing serious or disabling wounds as one would with the wooden sword, without having to stop the attacks. Nobutsuna, sensing the changes in the ways of war at the time, re-thought his methods of martial arts, began to advocate the utilization of light armour during training; the face of war was being transformed, as it was necessary to move faster than before. Nobutsuna perfected a style of sword fighting, freer in its movements, more sparse, more restrained, more adapted to brawls and to duels, than to the fields of large scale battles.
Nobutsuna created the ancient schools of sword known as the killing swords. These are characterized by offensive techniques, designed to win at any price, he wanted to establish tatsujin-ken -- the sword of an Expert. The art of the sword of the Shinkage school takes into account and adapts to the opponent's weaponry, contrary to the former sword styles which taught to impose dominance without taking into account the opponent; the strategy of the Shinkage school takes into account the geography of the terrain, the hour of battle, other parameters. For instance, to utilize the technique named empi, one must understand a deeper, secret level of battle. In empi, one uses a technique of spearing an opponent with a thrown sword. To do this, one learns to use the sword not only to defend his position but to have the "power of adaptability" in facing different individuals, much as a captain must consider the winds and change sails in order to travel in the best direction to reach his objective, it is similar to a hunting hawk, which must reconsider the best trajectory in which to strike effectively.
Like the raptor, it is necessary to be able to anticipate, to be able to assess and definitively act. "Move with the mind, in order to move with the body" is one of the central tenets of the school. Another sword style is called Katsujin-ken. Katsujin-ken teaches that, if one's sword does not stop the movement of the enemy one may try to fit to the opponent's rhythm, thus entering into the mind of the adversary to find his weakness; the feudal lord. Although he was not a monk, he kept his head shaved, a sign of renunciation of the everyday world, he left all his property to his student Yagyū Munetoshi. Munetoshi had gained his own renown as a remarkable swordsman before Nobutsuna's passing, he began development of the mutō techniques of using bare hands against the sword and it is he who appended the name of his family onto the name of the school, founding the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū. His son, Yagyū Munenori perfected the techniques of mutō, created the techniques of iaijutsu. Upon Munetoshi's death in 1606, the school split into two.
His grandson Yagyū Toshiyoshi took command of the Owari branch, while Munenori became the head of the Edo branch. Takenaga Hayato, the founder of the Yagyū Shingan Ryū Heiho was a student and received the gokui of the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū under Yagyū Munenori; the Edo branch, although no longer headed by a descendant of the Yagyū family, continues to be practiced by a small, faithful group of practitioners in Osaka under the direction of Sono Seigo. The Owari branch of Nagoya continues under the guidance of a direct descendant of Munetoshi, Yagyū Kōichi Toshinobu. Munenori's son, Yagyū Jūbei Mitsuyoshi, contributed in turn, to the school, he was not only a master of sword, but a strategist, an expert of jujutsu-yawara, kempō and an ascetic who went on musha shugyō, the warrior's ascetic journey. His sword technique was named chie-no-ken; the one who codified the techniques
Edo romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world". From the establishment of the Tokugawa bakufu headquarters at Edo, the town became the de facto capital and center of political power, although Kyoto remained the formal capital of the country. Edo grew from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in 1457 into the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of 1,000,000 by 1721. Edo was devastated by fires, with the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657 being the most disastrous. An estimated 100,000 people died in the fire. During the Edo period, there were about 100 fires begun by accident and quickly escalating and spreading through neighborhoods of wooden machiya which were heated with charcoal fires. Between 1600 and 1945, Edo/Tokyo was leveled every 25 -- 50 years or so by fire, war.
In 1868, when the shogunate came to an end, the city was renamed Tokyo. The emperor moved his residence to Tokyo, making the city the formal capital of Japan: Keiō 4: On the 17th day of the 7th month, Edo was renamed Tokyo. Keiō 4: On the 27th day of the 8th month, Emperor Meiji was crowned in the Shishin-den in Kyoto. Keiō 4: On the eighth day of the ninth month, the nengō was formally changed from Keiō to Meiji and a general amnesty was granted. Meiji 2: On the 23rd day of the 10th month, the emperor went to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. Ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of Edo in 1661. During the Edo period, Roju were senior officials. Machi-bugyō were in charge of protecting the citizens and merchants of Edo, Kanjō-bugyō were responsible for the financial matters of the Shogunate; the city was laid out as a castle town around Edo Castle. The area surrounding the castle known as Yamanote consisted of daimyō mansions, whose families lived in Edo as part of the sankin kōtai system.
It was this extensive samurai class which defined the character of Edo in contrast to the two major cities of Kyoto and Osaka neither of which were ruled by a daimyō or had a significant samurai population. Kyoto's character was defined by the Imperial Court, the court nobles, its Buddhist temples and its history. Areas further from the center were the domain of the chōnin; the area known as Shitamachi, northeast of the castle, was a center of urban culture. The ancient Buddhist temple of Sensō-ji still stands in Asakusa, marking the center of an area of traditional Shitamachi culture; some shops in the streets near the temple have existed continuously in the same location since the Edo period. The Sumida River called the Great River, ran along the eastern edge of the city; the shogunate's official rice-storage warehouses, other official buildings and some of the city's best-known restaurants were located here. The "Japan Bridge" marked the center of the city's commercial center, an area known as Kuramae.
Fishermen and other producers and retailers operated here. Shippers managed ships known as tarubune to and from Osaka and other cities, bringing goods into the city or transferring them from sea routes to river barges or land routes such as the Tōkaidō; this area remains the center of Tokyo's financial and business district. The northeastern corner of the city was considered a dangerous direction in traditional onmyōdō, is protected from evil by a number of temples including Sensō-ji and Kan'ei-ji. Beyond this were the districts of the eta or outcasts, who performed "unclean" work and were separated from the main parts of the city. A path and a canal, a short distance north of the eta districts, extended west from the riverbank leading along the northern edge of the city to the Yoshiwara pleasure districts. Located near Ningyocho, the districts were rebuilt in this more-remote location after the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657, as the city expanded. See Tokyo for photographs of the modern city.
Edo period Edo society Fires in Edo 1703 Genroku earthquake Edokko History of Tokyo Iki Asakusa Forbes, Andrew. 100 Famous Views of Edo. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00HR3RHUY Gordon, Andrew.. A Modern History of Japan from Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511060-9/ISBN 978-0-19-511060-9. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794–1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. Sansom, George.. A History of Japan: 1615–1867. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0527-5/ISBN 978-0-8047-0527-1. Akira Naito, Kazuo Hozumi. Edo, the City that Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. Kodansha International, Tokyo. ISBN 4-7700-2757-5 Alternate spelling from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article. A Trip to Old Edo Fukagawa Edo Museum Map of Bushū Toshima District, Edo from 1682