Last.fm is a music website, founded in the United Kingdom in 2002. Using a music recommender system called "Audioscrobbler", Last.fm builds a detailed profile of each user's musical taste by recording details of the tracks the user listens to, either from Internet radio stations, or the user's computer or many portable music devices. This information is transferred to Last.fm's database either via the music player itself or via a plug-in installed into the user's music player. The data is displayed on the user's profile page and compiled to create reference pages for individual artists. On 30 May 2007, it was acquired by CBS Interactive for UK£140 million; the site offered a radio streaming service, discontinued on 28 April 2014. The ability to access the large catalogue of music stored on the site was removed replaced by links to YouTube and Spotify where available; the current Last.fm website was developed from two separate sources: Last.fm and Audioscrobbler, which were merged in 2005. Audioscrobbler began as a computer science project of Richard Jones when he attended the University of Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science in the United Kingdom, with the term scrobbling defined as the finding and distribution of information involving people and other data.
Jones developed the first plugins, opened an API to the community, after which many music players on different operating system platforms were supported. Audioscrobbler was limited to keeping track of which songs its users played on a registered computer, which allowed for charting and collaborative filtering. Last.fm was founded in 2002 by Felix Miller, Martin Stiksel, Michael Breidenbruecker and Thomas Willomitzer, all of them from Germany or Austria, as an internet radio station and music community site, using similar music profiles to generate dynamic playlists. The site name takes advantage of a domain hack using.fm, the top level domain of Micronesia, popular with FM radio related sites. The "love" and "ban" buttons allowed users to customise their profiles. Last.fm won the Europrix 2002 and was nominated for the Prix Ars Electronica in 2003. The Audioscrobbler and Last.fm teams began to work together, both teams moving into the same offices in Whitechapel, by 2003 Last.fm was integrated with Audioscrobbler profiles.
Input could come through a Last.fm station. The sites shared many community forums, although a few were unique to each site; the old Audioscrobbler site at the audioscrobbler.com domain name was wholly merged into the new Last.fm site on 9 August 2005. Audioscrobbler.net was launched as a separate development-oriented site on 5 September 2005. However, at the bottom of each of the Last.fm pages there was an Audioscrobbler "slogan", which changes each time the page is refreshed. Based on well-known sayings or advertisements, these appeared at the top of the Audioscrobbler website pages and were all created and contributed by the original site members. An update to the site was made on 14 July 2006, which included a new software application for playing Last.fm radio streams and for logging of tracks played with other media players. Other changes included the improvement of the friends system and updating it to require a two-way friendship, the addition of the Last.fm "Dashboard" where users can see on one page relevant information for their profile, expanded options for purchasing music from online retailers and a new visual design for the web site.
The site began expanding its language base on 15 July 2006, with a Japanese version. The site is available in German, French, Polish, Swedish, Russian and Simplified Chinese. In late 2006, the site won Best Community Music Site at the BT Digital Music Awards in October. Last.fm teamed with EMI on Tuneglue-Audiomap. In January 2007 it was nominated for Best Website at the NME Awards. At the end of April 2007, rumours of negotiations between CBS and Last.fm emerged, suggesting that CBS intended to purchase Last.fm for about £225 million. In May 2007 it was announced that Channel 4 Radio was to broadcast a weekly show called Worldwide Chart reflecting what Last.fm users around the world were listening to. On 30 May 2007, it was announced that Last.fm had been bought by CBS for £140 million with Last.fm's current management team staying in place. In July 2008, the "new generation" Last.fm was launched featuring a new layout, color scheme, several new features, as well as some old ones removed. This was, met with dissatisfaction amongst some users, who complained about the "ugly and non-user-friendly layout", slowness.
Still, a month after the redesign a CBS press release credited the redesign with generating a 20% growth in the site's traffic. On 22 February 2009, Techcrunch claimed that " RIAA asked social music service Last.fm for data about its user's listening habits to find people with unreleased tracks on their computers. And Last.fm, owned by CBS handed the data over to the RIAA." This led to several public postings from both Last.fm and Techcrunch, with Last.fm denying passing any personal data to RIAA. The request was purportedly prompted by the leak of U2's then-unreleased album No Line On The Horizon, its subsequent widespread distribution via peer-to-peer file sharing services such as BitTorrent. Three months on 22 May 2009, Techcrunch claimed that it was CBS, the parent company of Last.fm, that handed over the data. Last.fm again denied that this was the case, saying that CBS couldn't have handed over the data withou
Yahoo! Search is a web search engine owned by Yahoo, headquartered in California; as of October 2018, it is the second largest search engine worldwide across all platforms with 2.32% market share. As of July 2018, Microsoft Sites handled 24.2 percent of all search queries in the United States. During the same period of time, Oath had a search market share of 11.5 percent. Market leader Google generated. "Yahoo Search" referred to a Yahoo-provided interface that sent queries to a searchable index of pages supplemented with its directory of websites. The results were presented to the user under the Yahoo! brand. None of the actual web crawling and data housing was done by Yahoo! itself. In 2001, the searchable index was powered by Inktomi and was powered by Google until 2004, when Yahoo! Search became independent. On July 29, 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would henceforth power Yahoo! Search; the roots of Search date back to 1995 with Yahoo! Directory. Seeking to provide its own search engine results, Yahoo! acquired their own search technology.
In 2002, they bought Inktomi, a "behind the scenes" or OEM search engine provider, whose results are shown on other companies' websites and powered Yahoo! in its earlier days. In 2003, they purchased Overture Services, Inc. which owned the AlltheWeb and AltaVista search engines. Though Yahoo! Owned multiple search engines, they didn't use them on the main yahoo.com website, but kept using Google's search engine for its results. Starting on April 7, 2003, Yahoo! Search became its own web crawler-based search engine, they combined the capabilities of search engine companies they had acquired and their prior research into a reinvented crawler called Yahoo Slurp. The new search engine results were included in all of Yahoo's websites that had a web search function. Yahoo! started to sell the search engine results to other companies, to show on their own websites. Their relationship with Google was terminated at that time, with the former partners becoming each other's main competitors. In October 2007, Yahoo!
Search was updated with a more modern appearance in line with the redesigned Yahoo! home page. In addition, Search Assist was added. In July 2008, Yahoo! Search announced the introduction of a new service called Yahoo! Search BOSS; this service opens the doors for developers to use Yahoo!'s system for indexing information and images and create their own custom search engine. In January 2010, Microsoft announced a deal in which it would take over the functional operation of Yahoo! Search, set up a joint venture to sell advertising on both Yahoo! Search and Bing known as the Microsoft Search Alliance. A complete transition of all Yahoo! Sponsored ad clients to Microsoft adCenter occurred in October 2010. On March 12, 2014, Yahoo announced a partnership with Yelp to integrate its reviews and user-contributed photos into Yahoo! Search. In November 2014, Mozilla signed a five-year partnership with Yahoo, making Yahoo Search the default search engine for Firefox browsers in the US. In April 2015, the Microsoft partnership was modified, now only requiring Bing results on the "majority" of desktop traffic, opening the ability for Yahoo to enter into non-exclusive deals for search services on mobile platforms and the remainder of desktop traffic.
The amendment gives either company the ability to terminate the contract with four months' notice. In October 2015, Yahoo subsequently reached an agreement with Google to provide services to Yahoo Search through the end of 2018, including advertising and image search services; the team at Yahoo Search blogged about search announcements, features and enhancements. The Yahoo Search Blog, as stated provided A look inside the world of search from the people at Yahoo; this included index updates named their Yahoo Search Assist feature. Yahoo Search provided their search interface in at least 38 international markets and a variety of available languages. Yahoo! has a presence in Europe and across the Emerging Markets. Yahoo Search indexed and cached the common HTML page formats, as well as several of the more popular file-types, such as PDF, Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint, Word documents, RSS/XML and plain text files. For some of these supported file-types, Yahoo Search provided cached links on their search results allowing for viewing of these file-types in standard HTML.
Using the Advanced Search interface or Preferences settings, Yahoo Search allowed the customization of search results and enabling of certain settings such as: SafeSearch, Language Selection, Number of results, Domain restrictions, etc. For a Basic and starter guide to Yahoo Search, they provided a Search Basics tutorial. In 2005, Yahoo began to provide links to previous versions of pages archived on the Wayback Machine. In the first week of May 2008, Yahoo launched a new search mash up called Yahoo Glue, in beta testing. On June 20, 2007, Yahoo introduced; when activated this selection-based search feature enabled users to invoke search using only their mouse and receive search suggestions in floating windows while remaining on Yahoo properties such as Yahoo Mail. This feature was only active on Yahoo web pages within the Yahoo Publisher Network. Yahoo Shortcuts required the content-owner to modify the underlying HTML of his or her webpage to call out the specific keywords to be enhanced; the technology for context-aware selection-based search on Yahoo pages was first devel
Yahoo! Music Radio
Yahoo! Music Radio was an Internet radio service offered by Clear Channel Communications' iHeartRadio through Yahoo! Music; the service offered by LAUNCH Media, developed by Todd Beaupré and Jeff Boulter, debuted on November 11, 1999, was purchased by Yahoo! on June 28, 2001. LAUNCHcast combined with CBS Radio beginning in 2009 iHeartRadio in 2012; the service closed in 2013 or 2014. LAUNCHcast allowed users to create personal radio stations or playlists of songs tailored to their musical tastes. To create a personal station, users rated music on a 100-point scale; the service used those ratings to create a personal station of songs based on a user's favorite genres, artists and songs. The generated playlist contained a combination of recommended songs; the ratio of rated/recommended songs could be specified by each user, but by default it was 50/50. A recommendation engine suggested songs that might have matched a user's particular musical taste according to the following similarity criteria: Songs from the same artist Songs from the same album Songs from the same genre Songs recommended by users with similar musical tastes Songs recommended by Yahoo!
Users were not required to participate in the ratings system to listen to music. Pre-programmed stations based on theme, genre, or artist were available throughout the Yahoo Music website. Music videos could be rated, allowing users to create personal music video channels as well. For legal reasons, specific songs could not be played. However, videos could be; the service could generate a personal video channel based on a single selection. Users have the option to turn off explicit lyrics while listening to their customized stations. Users could listen to other users' stations; when LAUNCHcast plus was implemented in January 2003, music was available for streaming for free at "Low" or "Medium" quality. Between tracks, free accounts would hear commercial advertising for the Yahoo service and its partners and affiliates; the advertisements were 30 seconds. In 2007 Yahoo added permanent banner ads to the LAUNCHcast player; because LAUNCHcast was only compatible with Internet Explorer, an alternative was to use the Yahoo Music Engine, called Jukebox in version 2 of the same software.
The Jukebox was unable to stream music anymore following September 2008, although it remained available for download well into the following year. Limited skipping was available, at up to 5 skips per hour. Banning a song skipped the song automatically, but this was removed. If the skips were not used in the previous hour, they did not roll over. Free accounts were limited to playing up to 1000 songs/mo without any special restrictions. A song could be skipped to bypass an undesired track, but skipped songs counted against the monthly allowance. If a free account user exceeded the monthly limit, the user would no longer be able to listen to LAUNCHcast radio for the remainder of the month, although they could listen to their personal station with no skips and at a lower bandwidth. Like skips, songs did not roll over to the next month; that wasn't the case. Free users had access to only specific stations labeled "free"; such stations had a yellow headphones icon. Pausing was only possible after 30 seconds into the song, although a song could be skipped before the 30 seconds by pressing "stop" and starting the station again.
On January 29, 2003, Yahoo has introduced a premium version of the LAUNCHcast service called LAUNCHcast Plus. Some users subscribed to this service on a monthly or annual basis, or it came as bundled software from some ISPs such as Verizon Yahoo online services. In addition to the features offered by the free account, LAUNCHcast Plus users received the following additional benefits: "High" quality sound No commercials or banner ads Access to all LAUNCHcast pre-programmed stations Unlimited skipping Unlimited monthly listening Access to all artists and albums The ability to designate other user's stations as "influencers" of one's own personal radio station The ability to create "moods" Pausing whenever you wantLAUNCHcast Plus was only offered in the US and Canada through Yahoo. On November 2, 2008, Verizon Yahoo announced via e-mail that certain services would be discontinued including LAUNCHcast Plus. In an e-mail delivered in January 2009, Yahoo states "the LAUNCHcast Plus premium service will be closing on February 12, 2009.".
LAUNCHcast Plus was available to Verizon subscribers at no charge previously. With the rise of royalty rates, Yahoo signed a deal with CBS Radio that eliminated LAUNCHcast as it had existed, replacing it with 150 pre-programmed stations as well as CBS's local music, news/talk, sports stations, went by the name LAUNCHcast powered by CBS Radio. Yahoo Q&A pages attempted to downplay loss of functionality those changes entailed. Personalized stations ceased to exist, though for a short time Yahoo! did save previous users' song and album ratings. Since the new format organized radio stations via genre, listeners had limited range in what music they hear unless they switch from station to station; the change eliminated the feature that suggested songs and artists based on the user's ratings. Listeners had the option to listen to those stations
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number
Online music store
An online music store is an online business which sells audio files over the Internet sound recordings of music songs or classical pieces, in which the user pays on a per-song or subscription basis. It may be differentiated from music streaming services in that the online music store sells the purchaser the actual digital music file, while streaming services offer the patron partial or full listening without the owning the source file. However, online music stores offer partial streaming previews of songs, with some songs available for full length listening. Online music stores show a picture of the album art or of the performer or band for each song; some online music stores sell recorded speech files, such as podcasts and video files of movies. The first free, high fidelity online music archive of downloadable songs on the Internet was the Internet Underground Music Archive in 1993. IUMA was started by Rob Lord, Jeff Patterson and Jon Luini from the University of California, Santa Cruz. In 1998, Miami entrepreneur Ivan J. Parron founded and launched Ritmoteca.com as one of the early online music store business models.
It allowed visitors to visually search through a jukebox-style catalog of over 300,000 songs organized by albums, listen to a 30-second music clips or music video and purchase the MP3 format via downloading. It sold single songs for $0.99 and entire album downloads for $9.99. The company's graphical user interface was attractive enough to garner distribution deals with Universal Music Group, Sony Music Entertainment, Bertelsmann Music Group and Warner Music Group; these agreements gave the company online digital distribution rights for artists such as U2, Britney Spears, Enrique Iglesias and Jay-Z. The company concept had been for the consumer to download an MP3 file and "burn" it onto a CD, so that the CD could be listened to on a CD player. However, early MP3 players from companies like Creative Labs began to be available on the market, which meant that users could listen to MP3 files directly; the realization of the market for downloadable music grew widespread with the development of Napster, a music and file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning that made a major impact on the Internet scene during the year 2000.
Some services have tethered downloads. Napster was founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer file sharing Internet service that emphasized sharing audio files music, encoded in MP3 format; the original company ran into legal difficulties over copyright infringement, ceased operations and was acquired by Roxio. In its second incarnation Napster became an online music store until it was acquired by Rhapsody from Best Buy on December 1, 2011. Companies and projects followed its P2P file sharing example such as Gnutella, Kazaa and many others; some services, like LimeWire, Grokster, eDonkey2000, were brought down or changed due to similar circumstances. The major record labels decided to launch their own online stores, allowing them more direct control over costs and pricing and more control over the presentation and packaging of songs and albums. Sony Music Entertainment's service did not do as well. Many consumers felt the service was difficult to use. Sony's pricing of US$3.50 per song track discouraged many early adopters of the service.
Furthermore, as MP3 Newswire pointed out in its review of the service, users were only renting the tracks for that $3.50, because the patron did not own the audio file. After a certain point the files could not be played again without repurchase; the service failed. Undaunted, the record industry tried again. Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment teamed up with a service called Duet renamed pressplay. EMI, AOL/Time Warner and Bertelsmann Music Group teamed up with MusicNet. Again, both services struggled, hampered by high prices and heavy limitations on how downloaded files could be used once paid for. In the end, consumers chose instead to download music using illegal, free file sharing programs, which many consumers felt were more convenient and easier to use. Non-major label services like eMusic and Listen.com sold the music of independent labels and artists. The demand for digital audio downloading skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod.
These players enabled music fans to take their music with them. Amazon launched its MP3 service for the US in September 2007, expanding it to most countries where Amazon operates There are an increasing amount of new services popping up in the 2000s that enable musicians to sell their music directly to fans without the need for a third party; these type of services use e-commerce-enabled web widgets that embed into many types of web pages. This turns each web page into the musician's own online music store. Furthermore there has been a boom in "boutique" music stores that cater to specific audiences. On October 10, 2007, English rock band Radiohead released the album In Rainbows as a download. Listeners were allowed to purchase the album for whatever price they wanted to pay allowing them to download the album for free. About one-third of people who downloaded the album paid nothing, with the average price paid being £4. After three months online the album was taken down by the band and physically released it in the CD format.
As of April 2008, the largest online music store is the iTunes Store, with around 80% of the market. On 3 April 2008, the i
Media player (software)
A media player is a computer program/software for playing multimedia files like audios, videos and music. Media players display standard media control icons known from physical devices such as tape recorders and CD players, such as play, fastforward and stop buttons. In addition, they have progress bars to locate the current position in the duration of the media file. Mainstream operating systems have at least one built-in media player. For example, Windows comes with Windows Media Player while macOS comes with QuickTime Player and iTunes. Linux distributions may come with a media player, such as SMPlayer, Audacious, Banshee, MPlayer, Rhythmbox, Totem, VLC Media Player, xine. Android OS comes with Google Play Music as default media player and many apps like Poweramp, Beautiful Music Player, VLC Media Player. Different media players may have different goals and feature sets. Video players are a group of media players that have their features geared more towards playing digital video. For example, Windows DVD Player plays DVD-Video discs and nothing else.
Media Player Classic can play individual audio and video files but many of its features such as color correction, picture sharpening, set of hotkeys, DVB support and subtitle support are only useful for video material such as films and cartoons. Audio players, on the other hand, specialize in digital audio. For example, AIMP plays audio formats. MediaMonkey can play both audio and video format but many of its features including media library, lyric discovery, music visualization, online radio, audiobook indexing and tag editing are geared toward consumption of audio material. In addition, watching video files on it can be a trying feat. General-purpose media players do exist. For example, Windows Media Player has exclusive features for both audio and video material, although it cannot match the feature set of Media Player Classic and MediaMonkey combined. 3D video players are used to play 2D video in 3D format. A high-quality three-dimensional video presentation requires that each frame of a motion picture be embedded with information on the depth of objects present in the scene.
This process involves shooting the video with special equipment from two distinct perspectives or modelling and rendering each frame as a collection of objects composed of 3D vertices and textures, much like in any modern video game, to achieve special effects. Tedious and costly, this method is only used in a small fraction of movies produced worldwide, while most movies remain in the form of traditional 2D images, it is, possible to give an otherwise two-dimensional picture the appearance of depth. Using a technique known as anaglyph processing a "flat" picture can be transformed so as to give an illusion of depth when viewed through anaglyph glasses. An image viewed through anaglyph glasses appears to have both protruding and embedded objects in it, at the expense of somewhat distorted colours; the method itself is old enough, dating back to mid-19th century, but it is only with recent advances in computer technology that it has become possible to apply this kind of transformation to a series of frames in a motion picture reasonably fast or in real time, i.e. as the video is being played back.
Several implementations exist in the form of 3D video players that render conventional 2D video in anaglyph 3D, as well as in the form of 3D video converters that transform video into stereoscopic anaglyph and transcode it for playback with regular software or hardware video players. A home theater PC or media center computer is a convergence device that combines some or all the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, audio playback, sometimes video recording functionality. Although computers with some of these capabilities were available from the late 1980s, the "Home Theater PC" term first appeared in mainstream press in 1996. Since 2007, other types of consumer electronics, including gaming systems and dedicated media devices have crossed over to manage video and music content; the term "media center" refers to specialized computer programs designed to run on standard personal computers. Comparison of video player software Comparison of audio player software
Digital rights management
Digital rights management tools or technological protection measures are a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. DRM technologies try to control the use and distribution of copyrighted works, as well as systems within devices that enforce these policies; the use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Proponents of DRM argue that it is necessary to prevent intellectual property from being copied just as physical locks are needed to prevent personal property from being stolen, that it can help the copyright holder maintain artistic control, that it can ensure continued revenue streams; those opposed to DRM contend there is no evidence that DRM helps prevent copyright infringement, arguing instead that it serves only to inconvenience legitimate customers, that DRM helps big business stifle innovation and competition. Furthermore, works can become permanently inaccessible if the DRM scheme changes or if the service is discontinued.
DRM can restrict users from exercising their legal rights under the copyright law, such as backing up copies of CDs or DVDs, lending materials out through a library, accessing works in the public domain, or using copyrighted materials for research and education under the fair use doctrine. The Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Free Software Foundation consider the use of DRM systems to be an anti-competitive practice. Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, the creation and distribution of tools used for such circumvention; such laws are part of the United States' Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the European Union's Copyright Directive. The rise of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and organizations within the music and movie industries. While analog media lost quality with each copy generation, in some cases during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality.
The rise of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media in a physical, analog or broadcast form into a universal, digital form for portability or viewing later. This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media much easier. In 1983, a early implementation of Digital Rights Management was the Software Service System devised by the Japanese engineer Ryuichi Moriya. and subsequently refined under the name superdistribution. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder; the underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would be encouraged to do so. Common DRM techniques include restrictive licensing agreements: The access to digital materials and public domain is restricted to consumers as a condition of entering a website or when downloading software.
Encryption, scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, designed to control access and reproduction of information, including backup copies for personal use. DRM technologies enable content publishers to enforce their own access policies on content, such as restrictions on copying or viewing; these technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content such as by fair use. DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry. Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, e-book publishers and vendors, such as OverDrive use DRM, as do cable and satellite service operators, to prevent unauthorized use of content or services. However, Apple dropped DRM from all iTunes music files around 2009. Industry has expanded the usage of DRM to more traditional hardware products, such as Keurig's coffeemakers, Philips' light bulbs, mobile device power chargers, John Deere's tractors. For instance, tractor companies try to prevent farmers from making DIY repairs under usage of DRM-laws as DMCA.
Computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be'recovered' when the game is uninstalled; this not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes, but can prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatting the computer's hard drive, tasks which, depending on how the DRM is implemented, count a game's subsequent reinstall as a new installation, making the game unusable after a certain period if it is only used on a single computer. In mid-2008, the Windows version of Mass Effect marked the start of a wave of titles making use of SecuROM for DRM and requiring authentication with a server; the use of t