Pacific Northwest Trail
The Pacific Northwest Trail is a 1200-mile hiking trail running from the Continental Divide in Montana to the Pacific Ocean on Washington’s Olympic Coast. Along the way, the PNT crosses three national parks, seven national forests, two other national scenic trails, against the grain of several mountain ranges, including the Continental Divide, Whitefish Divide, Selkirks, Kettles and Olympics; the Pacific Northwest Trail was designated as the Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail by Congress in 2009. The route was first conceived by Ron Strickland in 1970. Between 1970 and 1976, extensive fieldwork was performed by Strickland and others, including early supporters along the PNT corridor who lent extensive knowledge of local trail systems to the effort. In that time, the Pacific Northwest Trail was cobbled together using preexisting trails and Forest Service roads. In 1977, Strickland founded the Pacific Northwest Trail Association, an organization responsible for education and information and advocacy for the PNT.
That same year, the first five successful thru-hikes of the Pacific Northwest Trail were completed. Two of those hikers would appear on the cover of Backpacker Magazine, in a 1979 issue which introduced the Pacific Northwest Trail to an international audience. In 1979, the first short guide for the PNT was published by Signpost Magazine, which would become Washington Trails Association; the guide consisted of two pages that described the route, came unaccompanied by maps. In 1983, Ron Strickland would hike the entire length of the PNT alongside the PNTA's first cartographer, Ted Hitzroth, they used the information collected on their journey to develop the first full-length guidebook for the PNT, published in 1984. Throughout the 80's and 90's, the trail gained in popularity. Regional volunteer groups emerged to help the PNTA maintain and improve the PNT in their areas, including SWITMO in the Puget Sound area, the Yaak Trail Club, who helped select and maintain the route through northwest Montana's Yaak Valley.
In 2000, the Pacific Northwest Trail received its first federal designation, when the Clinton administration designated the trail as a Millennium Trail. More federal recognition would come in the following years. In 2002, the North Cascades National Park / Ross Lake National Recreation Area segment was designated a National Recreation Trail; the Olympic National Park segment received this designation in 2003, the Glacier National Park segment received the same designation in 2005. In 2008, Congressman Norm Dicks and Senator Maria Cantwell introduced Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail legislation to Congress; the marked up version of the legislation for the designation passed the full Natural Resource Committee of the US Senate on September 11, 2008, was inserted into the Public Lands Omnibus Bill. Congress passed the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act of 2009 on March 25 of that year, the Pacific Northwest Trail became the Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail with President Obama's signature on March 30.
The Public Lands Omnibus Act of 2009 placed the trail under the management of the Department of Agriculture, with the United States Forest Service serving as the trail administrator. A comprehensive management plan for the Pacific Northwest Trail is under development. In 2017, the Pacific Northwest Trail Association celebrated its 40th anniversary, as well as the 40th anniversary of the first five thru-hikes of the trail. Beginning at Chief Mountain Customs on the United States–Canada border in central Montana, the Pacific Northwest Trail traverses the high mountains and valleys of Glacier National Park, where it shares mileage with the Continental Divide Trail, it enters Flathead National Forest, travels across the Flathead River into Polebridge, Montana, up the Whitefish Divide, into Kootenai National Forest, through the Ten Lakes Wilderness Study Area and Ten Lakes Scenic Area on its way to the Idaho state line. In Idaho Panhandle National Forest, the PNT crosses the Moyie River Valley, winds its way through the forest lands and farmlands of the Kootenai River Valley, up Parker Ridge to the Selkirk Crest down Lions Head and over Lookout Mountain to Upper Priest Lake.
From there, the trail climbs toward the Washington state line. In Washington, the PNT enters Colville National Forest in the Salmo-Priest Wilderness crosses the Pend Oreille River on the Metaline Falls Bridge, before continuing over Abercrombie Mountain and reaching the Columbia River, in the town of Northport. Next, the trail wanders along the Kettle Crest, through Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest and into the range lands and orchards of the Okanogan River Valley. From the city of Oroville, the PNT follows the Similkameen River to Palmer Lake, where the trail travels through Loomis State Forest, begins its ascent into the Pasayten Wilderness, where the PNT shares tread with the Pacific Crest Trail. After traversing the Pasayten, the trail crosses Ross Lake National Recreation Area and North Cascades National Park; the trail exits the park via Hannegan Pass, continues through the Mt. Baker Wilderness. From Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, the trail uses a mix of federal and private timber lands to reach the shores of Puget Sound.
Along the dikes and through the farmlands of Skagit County, the trail traverses Fidalgo Island, crosses the bridge at Deception Pass State Park and continues across Whidbey Island to the Washington State Ferry Terminal in Coupeville, Washington. After a thirty-minute ferry ride, the trail picks up in the quaint seaside community of Port Townsend and the confluence of three trails: the Larry Scott Trail, the Olymp
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It is part of the National Trails System of the United States, it extends for some 3,700 miles from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. The trail is administered by the National Park Service, but sites along the trail are managed by federal land management agencies, local and private organizations; the trail is not a hiking trail, but provides opportunities for hiking and horseback riding at many locations along the route. The trail is the second longest of the 23 National National Historic Trails. Beginning at the Camp Dubois recreation in Illinois, it passes through portions of Missouri, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington; the official headquarters for the trail is located at the National Park Service Midwest Regional Headquarters, in Omaha, Nebraska. The visitor center features exhibits about the explorers and their historic trip, as well as information about sites along the trail.
In 1948 the National Park Service proposed a "Lewis and Clark Tour-way" along the Missouri River from St. Louis to Three Forks, Montana. Jay "Ding" Darling proposed the development of the expedition route as a recreational trail. Following a 1966 report by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, the National Trails System Act of 1968 listed the route for study as a possible National Scenic Trail. In 1978 the law was amended by the National Parks and Recreation Act to provide for a new category of trail, National Historic Trails, one of, to be the Lewis and Clark trail. From 2003 to 2006, the National Park Service commemorated the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with the Corps of Discovery II traveling exhibit. Bassman, John H.. A navigation companion for the Lewis & Clark Trail. Volume 1, camp locations and daily summaries of expedition activities. United States: John H. Bassman. National Park Service. Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Comprehensive Plan for Management and Use. United States: United States Department of the Interior.
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Lewis and Clark Trust lewisandclarktrail.org
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument is a U. S. National Monument that includes the area around Mount St. Helens in Washington, it was established on August 27, 1982 by U. S. President Ronald Reagan following the 1980 eruption; the 110,000 acre National Volcanic Monument was set aside for research and education. Inside the Monument, the environment is left to respond to the disturbance. Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was the United States' first such monument managed by the U. S. Forest Service. At dedication ceremonies on May 18, 1983, Max Peterson, head of the USFS, said, "we can take pride in having preserved the unique episode of natural history for future generations." Since many trails, information stations and picnic areas have been established to accommodate the increasing number of visitors each year. Beginning in 1983, visitors have been able to drive to Windy Ridge, only 4 miles northeast of the crater. Mountain climbing to the summit of the volcano has been allowed since 1986.
The Mount St. Helens Visitor Center at Silver Lake, about 30 miles west of Mount St. Helens and five miles east of Interstate 5, opened in 1987 and has been operated by the Washington State Park System since October 2000. Exhibits include the area's culture and history, the natural history and geology of the volcano and the eruption, including the recovery of the area's vegetation and animal life; the Center includes a gift shop and outdoor trails. By the end of 1989, the Center had hosted more than 1.5 million visitors. A small admission fee is charged; the Center was operated by the U. S. Forest Service; the Johnston Ridge Observatory is located 52 miles east of Castle Rock, Washington, at the end of Washington State Route 504, four miles from the mountain. Exhibits focus on the geologic history of the volcano, eyewitness accounts of the explosion, the science of monitoring volcanic activity. Two movies and ranger-led programs are available every hour. A half-mile paved trail provides views of the lava dome, pumice plain, landslide deposit, with access to hiking trails in the restricted area.
The observatory is located near the site of volcanologist David A. Johnston's camp on the morning of May 18, 1980, opened in 1993; the Coldwater Ridge Visitor Center in the Coldwater Lake area opened in 1993, operated by the Forest Service, but closed in November 2007 due to a lack of funding. The center reopened as the Science and Learning Center at Coldwater in May 2013, operating as an educational facility and conference center in cooperation with the Mount St. Helens Institute, it is open to the public on weekends from 10am to 6pm. Many of the exhibits have been removed, but the gift shop and some signage still exist; the Winds of Change Trail #232, a short, barrier-free interpretive trail, departs from the Science and Learning Center. The southern and eastern sides of Mount St. Helens are accessible only by U. S. Forest Service roads; the main roads are: U. S. Forest Service Road 25 – Monument entrance from U. S. Route 12 to Road 90. U. S. Forest Service Road 26 – Road 99 to Norway Pass to Road 25.
U. S. Forest Service Road 81 – SR 503/Road 90 to Merrill Lake, Kalama Horse Camp, Climber's Bivouac. U. S. Forest Service Road 83 – Road 90 to Ape Cave, Ape Canyon, Lava Canyon lahar, Smith Creek. U. S. Forest Service Road 90 – Monument entrance from State Route 503. U. S. Forest Service Road 99 – Road 25 to Bear Meadows, Meta Lake and Miner's Car, Windy Ridge. Bear Meadows is an alpine viewpoint northeast of Mt. St. Helens, it is located on U. S. Forest Service Road 99. Gary Rosenquist camped here with friends on May 17–18, 1980, he started taking his famous eruption photographs from this location. The sequence of eruption photos show give a time lapse view of the developing eruption; as the lateral blast developed, he and his friends abandoned their campsite fearing for their lives. He continued taking photos; the eruption's lateral blast narrowly missed the site as it was deflected by a ridge just west of the meadow. In an interview with KIRO-TV in 1990, a friend called that ridge "the line of death."
Windy Ridge is the closest view point accessible to the general public. Beginning in the summer of 1983, visitors have been able to drive to Windy Ridge, on U. S. Forest Service Road 99, only 4 miles northeast of the crater. From this vantage point overlooking Spirit Lake, people see not only the evidence of a volcano's destruction, but the remarkable, gradual recovery of the land as revegetation proceeds and wildlife returns. Ape Cave is a lava tube located in Gifford Pinchot National Forest just to the south of Mount St. Helens in Washington state, its passageway is the longest continuous lava tube in the continental United States and the third longest lava tube in North America at 2.5 miles. Ape Cave is a popular hiking destination with beautiful views of the Mount St. Helens lahar region. Lava tubes are an unusual formation in this region, as volcanoes of the Cascade Range are stratovolcanos and do not erupt with pahoehoe; the cave was discovered circa 1951 by Lawrence Johnson, a logger, when he noticed a tree that "looked wrong."
After investigating the tree, he discovered. A few days Johnson brought the Reese family back to the cave, Harry Reese was lowered to the floor and became the first person to explore the interior. Subsequent explorations were conducted by members of the Mount St. Helens Apes, a local Boy Scout troop. Ape Cave Trail No. 239, which runs along the interior of the cave, is a National Recreatio
Hanford Reach National Monument
The Hanford Reach National Monument is a national monument in the U. S. state of Washington. It was created in 2000 from the former security buffer surrounding the Hanford Nuclear Reservation; the area has been untouched by development or agriculture since 1943. Because of that it is considered an involuntary park; the monument is named after the Hanford Reach, the last non-tidal, free-flowing section of the Columbia River in the United States, is one of eight National Monuments administered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. President Bill Clinton established the monument by presidential decree in 2000. In May 2017, the Interior Department announced that Hanford Reach was one of 27 National Monuments under review for possible rescinding of their designation. Ancestors of the Wanapum People, Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Colville, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation and the Nez Perce used the land for hunting and resource collecting. Geographically, the area is part of the Columbia River Plateau, formed by basalt lava flows and water erosion.
The shrub-steppe landscape is dry, receiving between 5 and 10 inches of rain per year. The sagebrush-bitterbrush-bunchgrass lands are home to a wide variety of plants and animals, the Hanford Reach provides one of the Northwest's best salmon spawning grounds. Forty-eight rare, threatened, or endangered animal species have found refuge on the monument, as well as several insect species found nowhere else in the world. There are two main habitats in the Hanford Reach National Monument: river. Islands, gravel bars, oxbow ponds and backwater sloughs provide support to forty-three species of fish. Large numbers of fall Chinook salmon spawn in the Hanford reach. Federally threatened species such as the Upper Columbia River Spring Chinook, the Middle Columbia River Steelhead and the Upper Columbia River Steelhead use the reach for migration purposes; the refuge is famous for the elk located on the Arid Lands Ecology Area. Herd numbers vary by time of year with 150 seen during the spring/summer and 350 to 375 during the fall.
The elk population reaches its peak in the winter with an average of 670. Archaeologists believed. During the mid-19th century, first hand accounts mentioned the disappearance of the species. Rocky Mountain elk were reintroduced into the region during the 1930s; the dry, desert region is home to forty-two mammal species. Mice are the most abundant and include the deer mouse, western harvest mouse, northern grasshopper mouse. Mammals that inhabit this refuge include coyotes, beavers, mule deer, river otters, minks and badgers. Hanford Reach is home to nine nuclear reactors. Plutonium from the reactor was used in the first nuclear explosion at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range in New Mexico and in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan; the reactor’s significance has led to many distinctions including a place on the National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark, National Register of Historic Places, Nuclear Historic Landmark, National Civil Engineering Landmark and National Historic Landmark.
The monument is open from two hours before sunrise to two hours after sunset. Columbia River Corridor – shore and open water is open to the public. McGee Ranch and Riverlands – public day use. Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, located at 46°41′18″N 119°37′39″W – access permitted for ecological research, closed to the public. Vernita Bridge – open to the public. Wahluke Slope – open to the public; the Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act is a bill, introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress which would change some of the access to this site. The bill would require the United States Secretary of the Interior to provide public access to the summit of Rattlesnake Mountain in the Hanford Reach National Monument in the state of Washington; the bill is supposed to help with tourism and scientific undertakings. It was sent to the Senate. Several sites in the adjacent Hanford Site including the B Reactor are part of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park and are accessible on public tours.
Fws.gov: Official Hanford Reach National Monument website Landsat image overlaid with map White House Press Release Washington State precipitation map Pacific Northwest National Laboratory resource cards
Nez Perce National Historical Park
The Nez Perce National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park comprising 38 sites located throughout the states of Idaho, Montana and Washington, which included traditional aboriginal lands of the Nez Perce people. The sites are associated with the resistance of Chief Joseph and his band, who in June 1877 took off from Oregon in an attempt to reach freedom in Canada and avoid being forced on to a reservation, they were pursued by U. S. Army cavalry fought numerous skirmishes against them; the park was established in 1965, a museum was opened at the park headquarters in Spalding, Idaho, in 1983. The 38 sites span three main ecoregions. Numerous animal species inhabit the park, including several; the park commemorates the history and stories of the Nez Perce. It includes sites associated with the Nez Perce War of 1877, when the people resisted takeover by the United States, the flight of Chief Joseph and his band; the park is administered overall by the National Park Service, a number of the sites are managed by other federal and state agencies as well as local communities.
The park was established by Congress in 1965. Construction of the planned headquarters site and museum at Spalding were delayed by land acquisition and federal funding problems. Soon after construction began in September 1979, Native American graves were discovered at the site. Remains and artifacts were preserved in consultation with the Nez Perce. Construction of the visitor center and museum was restarted; the museum opened in June 1983. The Nez Perce National Historic Park does not follow the format of most national parks, in that it is composed of dozens of sites spread over four states; the 38 sites are linked by the history of the Nez Perce people, rather than by geographic location. Twenty-six of the sites are on or near the Nez Perce Indian Reservation in Idaho and can be toured in one day. Adjacent states hold the other twelve sites. Several of the sites are connected by the Nez Perce National Historic Trail, managed by the United States Forest Service, it preserves the route taken by Chief Joseph and his band when they tried to reach Canada in 1877.
The sites include: Battle of Bear Paw – Blaine County, Montana Battle of the Clearwater – Idaho County, Idaho Battle of White Bird Canyon – Idaho County, Idaho Big Hole National Battlefield – Beaverhead County, Montana Camas Meadows Battle Sites – Clark County, Idaho Camas Prairie – Idaho County and Lewis County, Idaho Camp Chopunnish – Idaho County, Idaho Joseph Canyon – Wallowa County and Asotin County, Washington Old Chief Joseph Gravesite – Wallowa County, Oregon Weippe Prairie – Weippe, Idaho The NPNHP sites cover three main ecoregions. The first, found at the sites in the Palouse grasslands and Missouri Basin, is shortgrass prairie; these flat or rolling prairies include rivers and streams, have an altitude of about 1,000 to 3,500 feet. The second, found in the plateaus of the Columbia and Snake rivers, is sagebrush steppe at around 3,000 ft in altitude; the third, found in the sites in the Blue Mountains, Salmon River Mountains, southwestern Montana and northern Rocky Mountains, is conifer and alpine meadows.
These high-elevation sites have lower temperatures and greater precipitation than the other ecoregions. Numerous species of mammals, reptiles and invertebrates inhabit the various park sites. Several of these species are classified in terms of their status as "threatened," "endangered" or "sensitive" at the state level. Montana Arctic grayling, mountain plover, swift fox, great grey owl, boreal owl and several fish species are all sensitive species that inhabit the park, while gray wolf and bald eagles are sometimes seen. Managers of the park have several ecological concerns including issues of invasive plant species, the degradation of animal habitat due to human activity, the protection of endangered species, dealing with effects of climate change. "Master Plan Nez Perce National Historic Park". National Park Service. 1968. Retrieved 2012-12-10. Ted Catton. "Administrative History-Nez Perce National Historic Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-12-10. John Dishon McDermott. "Forlorn Hope-A Study of the Battle of White Bird Canyon Idaho and the Beginning of the Nez Perce Indian War".
National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-12-10. Robert Applegate. "Museum Management Plan-Nez Perce National Historical Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-12-10. Official website
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area is a U. S. National Recreation Area under the supervision of the National Park Service, it encompasses the 130-mile long Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake between Grand Coulee Dam and Northport, Washington, in eastern Washington state; the Grand Coulee Dam was built on the Columbia River in 1941 as part of the Columbia River Basin project. Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area provides opportunities for fishing, canoeing, hunting and visiting historic Fort Spokane and St. Paul's Mission. Crescent Bay Lake in Grant County just southwest of Lake Roosevelt falls under the jurisdiction of the National Recreation Area, it was established in 1947 as the Coulee Dam Recreational Area and renamed for President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1997. Lake Roosevelt NRA Visitation statistics