The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks
They were led or supported by left-wing groups such as some factions of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, Left Socialist Revolutionaries and anarchists. The uprisings started in 1918 and continued during and after the Civil War until around 1924, the Bolsheviks increasingly abandoned attempts to invite these groups to join the government and instead suppressed them with force. The Bolsheviks called the war an interimperialist war and called for the defeat of their own imperialist government. Within the Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionists, there did exist factions that opposed the war and the government. In the July Days of 1917, the Menshevik and Socialist Revolutionary parties supported suppression of the Bolsheviks, the Bolshevik Party came to power in the October Revolution of November 1917 through simultaneous election in the most prominent soviets and an organized uprising supported by military mutiny. Several of the reasons for which much of the population supported the Bolsheviks were to end the war and have a social revolution, exemplified by the slogan Peace, Land.
The Bolsheviks invited Left SRs and Martovs Menshevik Internationalists to join the government, the Mensheviks and Right SRs walked out. The Left SRs were given four Commissar positions and held posts within the Cheka. The Left SRs still diverged with the Bolsheviks on the issue of the war, the only party banned at first was the pogromist Union of the Russian People, generally known as The Black Hundreds. The White Russian general Aleksei Maksimovich Kaledin immediately started a rebellion of the Don Cossacks and this was the beginning of the White Movement and Russian Civil War, which would lead to the deaths of nearly ten million people. The Bolsheviks were willing to use whatever means necessary to win as fast as possible and they portrayed rebellions started during the civil war as helping the Whites. Kaledin was supported by the Kadets, SRs, and some Mensheviks, like the Socialist Revolutionaries, were divided. Some supported the Bolsheviks, holding positions in the government, some were neutral.
The Constituent Assembly had been a demand of the Bolsheviks against the Provisional Government, after the October Revolution the elections were run by the body appointed by the previous Provisional Government. It was based on universal suffrage, but used party lists from before the Left-Right SR split, the anti-soviet Right SRs took the majority of the seats but this reflected the opposite of reality, the majority of SRs and the people were pro-soviet. Lenins Theses on the Constituent Assembly argued in Pravda that because of conflicts, conflicts with Ukraine. He argued the Constituent Assembly must unconditionally accept sovereignty of the government or it would be dealt with by revolutionary means. On December 30,1917, the SR Nikolai Avksentiev and some followers were arrested for organizing a conspiracy and this was the first time Bolsheviks used this kind of repression against a socialist party
Military Revolutionary Committee
The Military Revolutionary Committee, was the name for military organs created by Bolsheviks Party organizations under the soviets in preparation for the October Revolution. The committees were powerful directing bodies of revolt and securing the Soviet power and they executed a role of provisional extraordinary organs of Proletariat power. The most notable ones were those of the Petrograd Soviet, the Moscow Soviet, the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee was created on 29 October 1917. The idea for organization of the armed revolt battle center belongs to Lenin, the MRC were elected from representatives of the Bolsheviks party, factory or soldier committees, Bolshevik Military Organizations, Red Guards, and others. The committees were of various such as gubernial, county, volost, while in the Army were frontlines, corps, division. On occasions the functions of the Military Revolutionary Committee were performed by revolutionary committees, the military revolutionary committees were not uniform in terms of their social and party composition, however most of them were predominantly represented by bolsheviks.
The first headquarters of armed uprising became the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee that was created by the Petrograd Soviet on October 25,1917, during the Triumphant advance of Soviet power there was a mass establishment of MRCs. Many MRCs appeared on initiative of the delegates of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets. Big squad of commissars, agitators was sent to various regions by the Petrograd MRC on direction of the Central Committee of RSDLP. The Bolsheviks party composed the committees of experienced organizers, in the weeks following the October insurrection, military revolutionary committees based on the MRC of Petrograd were set up throughout the other soviets and helped cement Bolshevik control. These other MRCs were formed by locals but agents from the Petrograd MRC were often in positions to give advice or direction. By the end of October 1917, representatives from the Petrograd MRC were on assignments in at least forty-four cities as well as 113 military units throughout Russia, Lenin on Freedom of the Press.
British Journal of Political Science, Vol.4, No, Bolsheviks and Their Allies after 1917, The Ideological Pattern. Vol.34 Questionnaires of councils of the Central Industrial district
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary and political theorist. He served as head of government of the Russian Republic from 1917 to 1918, of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1918 to 1924, under his administration and the wider Soviet Union became a one-party socialist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism, born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brothers execution in 1887. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empires Tsarist regime and he moved to Saint Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior figure in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya, after his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent party theorist through his publications.
In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, Lenins government was led by the Bolsheviks—now renamed the Communist Party—with some powers initially held by elected soviets. It redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign orchestrated by the state security services, tens of thousands were killed and others interned in concentration camps. Anti-Bolshevik armies, established by both right and left-wing groups, were defeated in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922, responding to wartime devastation and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin promoted economic growth through a mixed economic system. Seeking to promote world revolution, Lenins government created the Communist International, waged the Polish–Soviet War, in increasingly poor health, Lenin expressed opposition to the growing power of his successor, Joseph Stalin, before dying at his Gorki mansion. He became a figurehead behind Marxism-Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement.
Lenins father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs, his origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he was Russian, Mordvin. Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility, Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated and from a prosperous background, she was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the governments plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, the couple had two children and Alexander, before Lenin—who would gain the childhood nickname of Volodya—was born in Simbirsk on 10 April 1870, and baptised several days later. They were followed by three children, Olga and Maria.
Two siblings died in infancy, Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria – a Lutheran – was largely indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Every summer they holidayed at a manor in Kokushkino
It was composed of a jury, a public prosecutor, and two substitutes, all nominated by the Convention, and from its judgments there was no appeal. Herman as president and Fouquier-Tinville as public prosecutor, the tribunal terrorized the royalists, too, it came to be used for personal ends, particularly by Robespierre, who employed it for the condemnation of his adversaries. Although Robespierre was the principal purveyor of the tribunal, we possess only one of these lists bearing his signature, the Revolutionary Tribunal was suppressed on 31 May 1795. Among its most celebrated victims may be mentioned Marie Antoinette, the Hebertists, » This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 25 October 1917. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and this immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the worlds first self-proclaimed socialist state. The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces, Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917. The following day, the Winter Palace, was captured, the long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. The Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary party, the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the body rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, as the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 25th, in Russian, however, переворот has a similar meaning to revolution and means upheaval or overturn, so coup is not necessarily the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use and it is known as the November Revolution having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The Great October Socialist Revolution was the name for the October Revolution in the Soviet Union after the 10th anniversary of the Revolution in 1927. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicolas II of Russia, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension. It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular, a nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased, gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914.
In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, at the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913, russias national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles, the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. In these months alone, more than a million took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution, by October 1917, there had been over 4,000 peasant uprisings against landowners. When the Provisional Government sent punitive detachments, it only enraged the peasants
Siege of Sidney Street
The Siege of Sidney Street of January 1911, known as the Battle of Stepney, was a gunfight in the East End of London between a combined police and army force and two Latvian revolutionaries. An investigation by the Metropolitan and City of London Police forces identified Gardsteins accomplices, the police were informed that the final two members of the gang were hiding at 100 Sidney Street in Stepney. The police evacuated local residents from the environs, and on the morning of 3 January a firefight broke out, armed with inferior weapons, the police sought assistance from the army. The siege lasted for six hours. Towards the end of the stand-off, the building caught fire, one of the agitators in the building was shot before the fire took control. While the London Fire Brigade were damping down the ruins—in which they found the two bodies—the building collapsed, killing a fireman, Superintendent Charles Pearson, the siege marked the first time the police had requested military assistance in London to deal with an armed stand-off.
It was the first siege in Britain to be caught on camera, some of the footage included images of the Home Secretary, Winston Churchill. His presence caused a row over the level of his operational involvement. At the subsequent trial in May 1911 of those arrested for the Houndsditch jewellery robbery, all but one of the accused were acquitted, the events were fictionalised in film—in The Man Who Knew Too Much and The Siege of Sidney Street —and novels. The murdered policemen and the fireman who died are commemorated with memorial plaques, in the 19th century Tsarist Russia was home to about five million Jews, the largest Jewish community at the time. Subjected to religious persecution and violent pogroms, many emigrated and between 1875 and 1914 around 120,000 arrived in the United Kingdom, the influx reached its peak in the late 1890s when large numbers of Jewish immigrants—mostly poor and semi-skilled or unskilled—settled in the East End of London. Some of the expatriates were revolutionaries, many of whom were unable to adapt to life in the politically less oppressive London, a leading article in The Times described the Whitechapel area as one that harbours some of the worst alien anarchists and criminals who seek our too hospitable shore.
And these are the men who use the pistol and the knife, one event, the Tottenham Outrage of January 1909, by two revolutionary Russians in London—Paul Helfeld and Jacob Lepidus—was an attempt to rob a payroll van, which left two dead and twenty injured. The event used an often employed by revolutionary groups in Russia. The influx of émigrés, and the rates of violent crime associated with it, led to popular concerns. The government passed the Aliens Act 1905 in an attempt to reduce immigration, the journalist Robert Winder, in his examination of immigration into Britain, opines that the Act gave official sanction to xenophobic reflexes which might. By 1910 Russian émigrés met regularly at the Anarchist Club in Jubilee Street, many of its members were not anarchists, and the club became a meeting and social venue for the Russian émigré diaspora, most of whom were Jewish. The small group of Latvians who became involved in the events at Houndsditch, members of the group were probably revolutionaries who had been radicalised by their experiences in Russia
Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party
The Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party is a social-democratic political party in Latvia. It has a history but is not represented in the current parliament of Latvia. The Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded on 17 June 1918, once Latvia became independent, LSDSP was one of the two most influential political parties. LSDSP held 57 out of 150 seats in the 1920 Constitutional Assembly and it won the most seats in each of four parliamentary elections of that period. The leader of the LSDSP, Pauls Kalniņš, was speaker of the Latvian parliament from 1925 to 1934, the party itself, would often be in opposition because of many smaller right-wing parties forming coalition governments, typically led by the Latvian Farmers Union. The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1923 and 1940, and was admitted into the modern Socialist International in 1994. The LSDSP was banned after the 1934 coup by Kārlis Ulmanis, together with all political parties. When many Latvians left Latvia during World War II, the LSDSP was restored as an organization, operating in Sweden in 1945.
When Latvia became independent again in 1991, the LSDSP returned to Latvia, in the early 1990s, it struggled with internal splits. At one point, Latvia had 3 social democratic parties, two of them being descendants of the LSDSP, and the third being the reformed faction of the former Communist Party of Latvia, all three parties merged, under the name of the LSDSP. It was less successful in the legislative election, held on 5 October 2002, where it got only 4% of the vote. The decline of the LSDSPs popularity continued as the party lost the seat in Riga in the 2005 municipal election. The parliamentary election of 2006 brought even more dissatisfying results for the LSDSP, as the party got 3. 5% of votes, the party is led by Aivars Timofejevs, as of November 2011
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Communist Party of Latvia
Communist Party of Latvia was a political party in Latvia. The party was founded at a congress in June 1904, initially the party was known as the Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party. During its second party congress in 1905 it adopted the programme of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as its own. At the Fourth Congress of the RSDLP in 1906, the LSDSP entered the RSDLP as a territorial organisation, the party held its fourth congress in Brussels January 26 to February 8,1914. In May 1918 Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded by the Menshevik elements who had expelled from the LSD. The party briefly governed the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic in 1919, the youth wing of the party was the Young Communist League of Latvia. The LKP was a member of the Comintern from 1919, in the aftermath of the Latvian War of Independence, the LKP was banned in Latvia. Its leadership resided in exile in the USSR, while the organisation in Latvia operated clandestinely, either through underground cells, or via proxy organisations, such as Red leftist trades unions.
In 1928 the party started operating more openly, and contested the 1928 Saeima elections through a proxy list known as the Left Trade Unions, the list won five seats, but was banned in 1930. They reformed the following year to contest the elections as the Trade Union Workers and Peasants Group. However, in 1933 the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the party, after the Soviet occupation of Latvia in June 1940 and the ousting of the Ulmanis government, the LKP and LDJS were legalised again and could operate openly. It was the party allowed to contest the Soviet staged 1940 elections. The party merged into the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, as the Latvian branch of CPSU it was renamed as Communist Party of Latvia (Latvian, Latvijas Komunistiskā partija. When the CPSU was renamed the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1952, Article 6 of the Latvian SSR Constitution made the LKPs monopoly on political power in Soviet Latvia explicit. In 1990, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia voted to remove Article 6 from the Constitution, on 14 April 1990, a pro-independence faction under Ivars Ķezbers split off from the LKP to form the Independent Communist Party of Latvia.
The main body of the LKP, under the chairmanship of Alfrēds Rubiks, remained loyal to Moscow, that same year, on 14 September, Ķezberss party was officially renamed the Democratic Labour Party of Latvia and adopted nominally social-democratic platform. In October of that year, the newspaper of the Communist Party of Latvia Cīņa, was shut down. Later, an organization by the name of the League of Communists of Latvia was created by Albert Lebedev, registration to this organization was denied
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers, that ended Russias participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk, after two months of negotiations, the treaty was forced on the Bolshevik government by the threat of further advances by German and Austrian forces. According to the treaty, Soviet Russia defaulted on all of Imperial Russias commitments to the Triple Entente alliance, in the treaty, Bolshevik Russia ceded the Baltic States to Germany, they were meant to become German vassal states under German princelings. Russia ceded its province of Kars Oblast in the South Caucasus to the Ottoman Empire, Russia agreed to pay six billion German gold marks in reparations. Historian Spencer Tucker says, The German General Staff had formulated extraordinarily harsh terms that shocked even the German negotiator, Congress Poland was not mentioned in the treaty, as Germans refused to recognize the existence of any Polish representatives, which in turn led to Polish protests.
When Germans complained that the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was too harsh on them, the treaty was effectively terminated in November 1918, when Germany surrendered to the Allies. By 1917, Germany and Imperial Russia were stuck in a stalemate on the Eastern Front of World War I, at the time, the Russian economy nearly collapsed under the strain of the war effort. The large numbers of war casualties and persistent food shortages in the urban centers brought about civil unrest, known as the February Revolution. The Russian Provisional Government that replaced the Tsar, decided to continue the war on the Entente side, the pro-war Provisional Government was opposed by the self-proclaimed Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, dominated by leftist parties. Its Order No.1 called for a mandate to soldier committees rather than army officers. The Soviet started to form its own power, the Red Guards. The position of the Provisional Government led the Germans to offer support to the Russian opposition, the Communist Party in particular, in April 1917, Germany allowed Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin to return to Russia from his exile in Switzerland and offered him financial help.
Throughout 1917, Bolsheviks spread defeatist and revolutionary propaganda, called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government, following the disastrous failure of the Kerensky Offensive, discipline in the Russian army deteriorated completely. Soldiers would disobey orders, often under the influence of Bolshevik agitation and German soldiers occasionally left their positions and fraternized. The defeat and ongoing hardships of war led to anti-government riots in Petrograd headed by the Bolsheviks, several months later, on 7 November, Red Guards seized the Winter Palace and arrested the Provisional Government in what is known as the October Revolution. The newly established Soviet government decided to end Russias participation in the war with Germany, on 26 October 1917, Vladimir Lenin signed the Decree on Peace, which was approved by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers and Peasants Deputies. The Decree called upon all the belligerent nations and their governments to start negotiations for peace.
Leon Trotsky was appointed Commissar of Foreign Affairs in the new Bolshevik government, on 15 December 1917, an armistice between Soviet Russia and the Central Powers was concluded and fighting stopped