Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1990 a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic comprised sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group; the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia became industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR.
By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives; the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "Union Republic is a sovereign state that has united in the Union" and "each Union Republic shall retain the right to secede from the USSR". On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers, established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin, supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would become the presidency of the Russian Federation; the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords; the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States as a loose confederation.
On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation, with President Yeltsin re-establishing the sovereign and independent state. With the lowering at 12 midnight of the red flag with hammer and sickle design of the now former USSR from the towers of the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics, which by that time was the only functioning chamber of the parliamentary Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR; the 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik communists established the Soviet state on 7 November 1917 after the interim Russian Provisional Government, most led by opposing democratic socialist Alexander Kerensky, which governed the new Russian Republic after the overthrow of the Russian Empire government of the Romanov imperial dynasty of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, was now itself overthrown during the following October Revolution, the second of t
The Republic of Sakha is a federal Russian republic. It had a population of 958,528 at the 2010 Census ethnic Yakuts and Russians. Comprising half the Far Eastern Federal District, it is the largest subnational governing body by area in the world at 3,083,523 square kilometers, its capital is the city of Yakutsk. It is known for its extreme and severe climate, with the lowest temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere being recorded in Verkhoyansk and Delyankir, regular winter averages being below −35 °C in Yakutsk; the hypercontinental tendencies result in warm summers for much of the republic. Borders: internal: Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Magadan Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai. Water: Arctic Ocean. Highest point: Peak Pobeda, Mus-Khaya Mountain Peak Maximum N->S distance: 2,500 km Maximum E->W distance: 2,000 km Sakha stretches to the Henrietta Island in the far north and is washed by the Laptev and Eastern Siberian Seas of the Arctic Ocean.
These waters, the coldest and iciest of all seas in the Northern Hemisphere, are covered by ice for 9–10 months of the year. New Siberian Islands are a part of the republic's territory. After Nunavut was separated from Canada's Northwest Territories, Sakha became the largest subnational entity in the world, with an area of 3,083,523 square kilometers smaller than the territory of India. Sakha can be divided into three great vegetation belts. About 40% of Sakha lies above the Arctic circle and all of it is covered by permafrost which influences the region's ecology and limits forests in the southern region. Arctic and subarctic tundra define the middle region, where lichen and moss grow as great green carpets and are favorite pastures for reindeer. In the southern part of the tundra belt, scattered stands of dwarf Siberian pine and larch grow along the rivers. Below the tundra is the vast taiga forest region. Larch trees dominate in the north and stands of fir and pine begin to appear in the south.
Taiga forests cover about 47% of Sakha and 90% of the cover is larch. The Sakha Republic is the site of Pleistocene Park, a project directed at recreating Pleistocene tundra grasslands by stimulating the growth of grass with the introduction of animals which thrived in the region during the late Pleistocene — early Holocene period. Sakha Republic is the only subject of Russia. Sakha spans three time zones: Yakutsk Time Zone. Covers the republic's territory to the west of the Lena River as well as the territories of the districts located on both sides of the Lena River. Vladivostok Time Zone. Covers most of the republic's territory located between 140 ° E longitude. Districts: Oymyakonsky, Ust-Yansky, Verkhoyansky. Magadan Time Zone. Covers most of the republic's territory located east of 140°E longitude. Districts: Abyysky, Momsky, Srednekolymsky, Verkhnekolymsky. Navigable Lena River, as it moves northward, includes hundreds of small tributaries located in the Verkhoyansk Range. Other major rivers include: Vilyuy River Lena River tributary Olenyok River Aldan River Lena River tributary Kolyma River Indigirka River Alazeya River Amga River Aldan River tributary Olyokma River Lena River tributary Markha River Vilyuy River tributary Tyung River Vilyuy River tributary Maya River Aldan River tributary Anabar River Yana River Morkoka River Markha River tributary Uchur River Aldan River tributary Linde River Lena River tributary Nyuya River Lena River tributary Selennyakh River Indigirka River tributary There are over 800,000 lakes in the republic.
Major lakes and reservoirs include: Lake Mogotoyevo Lake Nedzheli Lake Nerpichye Vilyuyskoye Reservoir Sakha's greatest mountain range, the Verkhoyansk Range, runs parallel and east of the Lena River, forming a great arc that begins in the Sea of Okhotsk and ends in the Laptev Sea. The Chersky Range has the highest peak in Sakha, Peak Pobeda; the second highest peak is Peak Mus-Khaya reaching 3,011 m. The Stanovoi Range borders Sakha in the south; the Republic's extensive coastline contains a number of peninsulas. The soil contains large reserves of oil, coal, gold, tin and many others. Sakha p
Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
The Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, abbreviated as Nakhichevan ASSR, was an autonomous republic within the Azerbaijan SSR, itself a republic within the Soviet Union. It was formed on 16 March 1921 and became a part of the Azerbaijan SSR proper on 9 February 1924. In the 1940s, when the Azerbaijani Latin alphabet was being replaced by Cyrillic, the previous flag was replaced by a Soviet flag with "Нахчыван МССР" in gold and a dark blue bar along the fess. In the final year of World War I, Nakhchivan was the scene of more bloodshed between Armenians and Azerbaijanis, who both laid claim to the area. By 1914, the Armenian population had decreased to 40% while the Azeri population increased to 60%. After the February Revolution, the region was under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic; when the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Nagorno-Karabakh and Qazakh were contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
In June 1918, the region came under Ottoman occupation. The Ottomans razed 45 of their villages to the ground. Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans agreed to pull their troops out of the Transcaucasus to make way for the forthcoming British military presence. Under British occupation, Sir Oliver Wardrop, British Chief Commissioner in the South Caucasus, made a border proposal to solve the conflict. According to Wardrop, Armenian claims against Azerbaijan should not go beyond the administrative borders of the former Erivan Governorate, while Azerbaijan was to be limited to the governorates of Baku and Elisabethpol; this proposal was rejected by both Azeris. As disputes between both countries continued, it soon became apparent that the fragile peace under British occupation would not last. In December 1918, with the support of Azerbaijan's Musavat Party, Jafargulu Khan Nakhchivanski declared the Republic of Aras in the Nakhchivan uyezd of the former Erivan Governorate assigned to Armenia by Wardrop.
The Armenian government did not recognize the new state and sent its troops into the region to take control of it. The conflict soon erupted into the violent Aras War. British journalist C. E. Bechhofer described the situation in April 1920: By mid-June 1919, Armenia succeeded in establishing control over Nakhchivan and the whole territory of the self-proclaimed republic; the fall of the Aras republic triggered an invasion by the regular Azerbaijani army and by the end of July, Armenian troops were forced to leave Nakhchivan City to the Azeris. Again, more violence erupted leaving some ten thousand Armenians dead and forty-five Armenian villages destroyed. Meanwhile, feeling the situation to be hopeless and unable to maintain any control over the area, the British decided to withdraw from the region in mid-1919. Still, fighting between Armenians and Azeris continued and after a series of skirmishes that took place throughout the Nakhchivan district, a cease-fire agreement was concluded. However, the cease-fire lasted only and by early March 1920, more fighting broke out in Karabakh between Karabakh Armenians and Azerbaijan's regular army.
This triggered conflicts in other areas including Nakhchivan. In July 1920, the 11th Soviet Red Army invaded and occupied the region and on 28 July, declared the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with "close ties" to the Azerbaijan SSR. In November, on the verge of taking over Armenia, the Bolsheviks, in order to attract public support, promised they would allot Nakhchivan to Armenia, along with Karabakh and Zangezur; this was fulfilled when Nariman Narimanov, leader of Bolshevik Azerbaijan issued a declaration celebrating the "victory of Soviet power in Armenia," proclaimed that both Nakhchivan and Zangezur should be awarded to the Armenian people as a sign of the Azerbaijani people's support for Armenia's fight against the former DRA government: Vladimir Lenin, although welcoming this act of "great Soviet fraternity" where "boundaries had no meaning among the family of Soviet peoples," did not agree with the motion and instead called for the people of Nakhchivan to be consulted in a referendum.
According to the formal figures of this referendum, held at the beginning of 1921, 90% of Nakhchivan's population wanted to be included in the Azerbaijan SSR "with the rights of an autonomous republic." The decision to make Nakhchivan a part of modern-day Azerbaijan was cemented 16 March 1921 in the Treaty of Moscow between Bolshevist Russia and Turkey. The agreement between the Soviet Russia and Turkey called for attachment of the former Sharur-Daralagez uyezd to Nakhchivan, thus allowing Turkey to share a border with the Azerbaijan SSR; this deal was reaffirmed on 23 October, in the Treaty of Kars. Article V of the treaty stated the following: So, on 16 March 1921 the Nakhchivan ASSR was established. On 9 February 1924, the Soviet Union placed the Nakhchivan ASSR under the jurisdiction of the Azerbaijan SSR, its constitution was adopted on 18 April 1926. As a constituent part of the Soviet Union, tensions lessened over the ethnic composition of Nakhchiv
Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
The Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, abbreviated as Dagestan ASSR or DASSR and unofficially known as Soviet Dagestan or just Dagestan, was an autonomous Soviet socialist republic in the Russian SFSR of the former Soviet Union. This "Land of Mountains" was known for having a "mountain of peoples," with more than thirty ethnic groups indigenous to the territory. Although as part of its strategy to promote local languages and to discourage pan-Turkic and pan-Islamic movements, a half-dozen of these ethnicities were provided with schooling in their native language at some point in Soviet history, Russian language became the most widespread second language and the lingua franca in urban areas; the minor planet 2297 Daghestan, discovered in 1978 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh, is named after the Dagestan ASSR. Republic of Dagestan List of leaders the Dagestan ASSR First Secretary of the Dagestan Communist Party
There have been three major Yakut writing systems in use since the early 20th century. The first systematic alphabet was developed by Semyon Novgorodov, was based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Novgorodov's alphabet was developed in 1917, continued in use until 1929. In addition to the characters shown below, Novogorodov introduced four letters to represent the diphthongs found in Yakut: /ɯa͡/ – ꭠ, /ie͡/ – ꭡ, /uo͡/ – ꭣ, /yø͡/ – w. Vowel and consonant length was indicated with the colon. While this alphabet was in use, various changes were implemented, including the addition of capital letters. After 1929, Novgorodov's alphabet was replaced by a form of Latin script based on the Uniform Turkic Alphabet; this was in turn replaced in 1939 by an alphabet using the Cyrillic script. Prior to the Novgorodov alphabet, various ad hoc phonetic Latin and Cyrillic-based systems had been developed. Only the Cyrillic Yakut alphabet is in use; this script consists of the usual Russian characters but with 5 additional letters: Ҕҕ, Ҥҥ, Өө, Һһ, Үү.
Omniglot entry Minority Languages of Russia entry Yakut keyboard for iOS
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, shortened to Moldavian ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing modern territory of Transnistria. It was an artificial political creation inspired by Moscow in context of reanimation of largely discredited ideas of the "World Revolution". In such manner Bolshevik leadership tried to radicalize pro-Soviet feelings in Bessarabia with a goal to return it in the presence of favorable conditions and creation of geopolitical "place d'armes" to execute a breakthrough in the Balkan direction; the active propagandist of idea in creation of Moldavian autonomy on territory of Ukrainian Transnistria was Russian revolutionary and a native of Bessarabia Grigory Kotovsky. In February of 1924 a memorandum directed to the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and signed by Grigory Kotovsky, Bădulescu Alexandru, Pavel Tcacenco, Solomon Tinkelman, Alexandru Nicolau, Alter Zalic, Ion Dic Dicescu, Theodor Diamandescu, Teodor Chioran, Vladimir Popovici, all signatories being Bolshevik activists.
The memorandum emphasized on the fact that on the left bank of Dniester compactly live from 500,000 to 800,000 Moldavians and that creation of Moldavian republic would play a role of powerful political and propaganda factor in solving the "Bessarabian question". Establishing the republic became a matter of dispute. Despite the objections of Soviet commissar of foreign relations Chicherin who argued that the new establishment would only strengthen the position of Romanians towards Bessarabia and able to activate "expansionist claims of Romanian chauvinism", Kremlin launched a campaign to create the autonomy attracting to it Bessarabian refugees and Romanian political emigrants who lived in Moscow and the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. On the other hand, Kotovski held that a new republic would spread Communist ideas into neighboring Bessarabia, with a chance that Romania and the entire Balkan region would be revolutionized. For the Soviets the republic was to be a way for winning over Bessarabians of Romania and the first step towards a revolution in Romania.
This purpose is explained in an article of the newspaper Odessa Izvestia in 1924, in which a Russian politician, Vadeev says that "all the oppressed Moldavians from Bessarabia look at the future Republic like at a lighthouse, which spreads the light of freedom and human dignity," as well as in a book published in Moscow, which claimed that "once the economic and cultural growth of Moldavia has begun, aristocracy-led Romania will not be able to maintain its hold on Bessarabia." While the creation of ethnic-based autonomous republics was a general Soviet policy at that time, with the creation of the Moldavian ASSR, the Soviet Union hoped to bolster its claim to Bessarabia. On March 7, 1924, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine recognized a political prudence in creation of autonomy, yet to the final untangling of the question it was decided to return after a careful ascertainment of situation in the region; the debated question was about a form in meeting the interests of Moldovan population.
Whereas in process of carried work it became clear that statistical data on the number of Moldovans presented by the Kotovsky's commission is inflated compared to official, on 18 April 1924 the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine approved to consider creation of the autonomy inappropriate. However, in Moscow this position was ignored; the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee yet went further and about a week on 24 April 1924 it created the VUTsVK Central Commission on affairs of national minorities. Accepted on 29 July, the decision of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party contained categorical indication for the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine on allocation of the Moldovan population into a special Autonomous republic as part of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic and obligated it to report after a month about the course of the relevant work; the decision about creation of the Autonomous Moldavian Socialist Soviet Republic was accepted by the 8th convocation of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee at its 3rd session on 12 October 1924.
The Moldavian ASSR was created from a territory administered as part of the Odessa and Podolia regions of Ukraine. It accounted for 2 % of the population of the Ukrainian SSR at the time; the oblast had four districts, all of them having a Moldavian majority: Rîbnița – 48,748 inhabitants, of which 25,387 Moldavians – 52% Dubăsari – 57,371 inhabitants, of which 33,600 Moldavians- 58% Tiraspol – entirely Moldavians Ananyiv – 45,545 inhabitants, of which 24,249 Moldavians- 53%On 8 October 1924 the oblast was elevated to the status of autonomous republic and included several other territories, including some with little Moldavian population, such as the Balta district, which had only 2.52% Moldavians. The official capital was proclaimed the "temporarily occupied city of Kishinev". Meanwhile, a provisional capital was established in Balta and moved to Tiraspol in 1929, where it remained until the MASSR was integrated into the newly created Mo