Richard L. Blumenthal is an American attorney and politician who has served as a United States Senator from Connecticut since 2011, he is a member of the Democratic Party. He has been the state's senior senator since 2013 and is ranked as one of the wealthiest members of the Senate, with a net worth of over $100 million, he served as Attorney General of Connecticut from 1991 to 2011. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Blumenthal attended Riverdale Country School, a private school in the Bronx. Blumenthal is a graduate of Harvard College, he studied for a year at Trinity College, Cambridge, in England before attending Yale Law School, where he was editor-in-chief of the Yale Law Journal. While at Yale, he was a classmate of future President Bill Clinton and future Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. From 1970 to 1976, Blumenthal served in the United States Marine Corps Reserve, where he attained the rank of sergeant. After college, Blumenthal served as administrative assistant and law clerk for several Washington, D.
C. figures. From 1977 to 1981, he was United States Attorney for the District of Connecticut. In the early 1980s he worked in private law practice, including serving as volunteer counsel for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, he served in the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1985 to 1987, when he was elected to the Connecticut Senate. He was elected Attorney General of Connecticut in 1990, served for twenty years. During this period he was speculated as a contender for Governor of Connecticut, but he never pursued the office. Blumenthal announced his 2010 run for U. S. Senate after incumbent Democratic Sen. Chris Dodd announced his retirement, he faced professional wrestling magnate Linda McMahon in the 2010 election, winning by a 12-point margin with 55 percent of the vote. He was sworn in on January 5, 2011, took seats on the Senate Armed Services, he became Connecticut's senior senator after the retirement of Joe Lieberman in 2013. He won re-election in 2016 with 63.2% of the vote, becoming the first person to receive more than one million votes in a statewide election in Connecticut.
Blumenthal was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Jane and Martin Blumenthal, the president of a commodities trading firm. His grandfather, Fred "Fritz" Rosenstock, raised cattle on his farm, where Blumenthal visited in his youth. Blumenthal’s father was a Jewish immigrant from Frankfurt, Germany who emigrated alone at 17. Blumenthal attended Riverdale Country School in the Riverdale section of the Bronx before graduating from Harvard College with a A. B. degree magna cum laude as a member of Phi Beta Kappa. As an undergraduate, he was editorial chairman of The Harvard Crimson. Blumenthal was a summer intern reporter for The Washington Post in the London Bureau. Blumenthal was selected for a Fiske Fellowship that allowed him to study at the University of Cambridge in England for one year after graduation from Harvard College. In 1973, Blumenthal received his J. D. degree from Yale Law School, where he was editor-in-chief of the Yale Law Journal. While at Yale, he was classmates with future President Bill Clinton and future Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
One of his co-editors on the Yale Law Journal was future United States Secretary of Labor Robert Reich. He was classmate of future supreme associate justice Clarence Thomas and radio host Michael Medved, his brother, David Blumenthal, is the President of the Commonwealth Fund. Blumenthal received five draft deferments during the Vietnam War, obtaining first educational deferments, deferments based on his occupation. With part-time service in the reserves or National Guard regarded as an alternative for those wishing to avoid serving in Vietnam, in April 1970 Blumenthal enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserve, he served in units in Washington, D. C. and Connecticut from 1970 to 1976, attaining the rank of sergeant. During his 2010 Senate campaign, news reports that Blumenthal had claimed or implied that he'd served "in Vietnam" during the war created a controversy. Blumenthal denied having intentionally misled voters into believing he fought in Vietnam, but acknowledged having "misspoken" about his service record, apologized for remarks about his military service he said had not been "clear or precise".
Blumenthal served as administrative assistant to Sen. Abraham A. Ribicoff, as aide to Daniel P. Moynihan when Moynihan was Assistant to President Richard Nixon, as a law clerk Judge Jon O. Newman, U. S. District Court of the District of Connecticut, to Supreme Court Justice Harry A. Blackmun. At age 31, he became United States Attorney for the District of Connecticut, serving from 1977 to 1981, as the chief federal prosecutor of that state prosecuted many major cases involving drug traffickers, organized crime, white collar criminals, civil rights violators, consumer fraud, environmental pollution. In 1982, he married Cynthia Allison Malkin, daughter of real estate investor Peter L. Malkin and granddaughter of lawyer and philanthropist Lawrence Wien. Before he became Attorney General, Blumenthal was a partner in the law firm of Cummings & Lockwood, subsequently in the law firm of Silver, Golub & Sandak. In December 1982, while still at Cummings & Lockwood, he created and chaired the Citizens Crime Commission of Connecticut, a private, non-profit organization.
From 1981 to 1986, he was a volunteer counsel for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. In 1984, when he was 38, Blumenthal was elected to the Connecticut House of Representatives, representing the 145th district. In 1987, he won a special election to fill a vacancy in the 27th District
Neal Kumar Katyal is an American lawyer and partner at Hogan Lovells, as well as Paul and Patricia Saunders Professor of National Security Law at Georgetown University Law Center. Katyal served as Acting Solicitor General of the United States from May 2010 until June 2011. Katyal served in as an attorney in the Solicitor General's office as Principal Deputy Solicitor General in the U. S. Justice Department. Katyal has argued more Supreme Court cases than any other minority group lawyer in American history. In 2017, American Lawyer Magazine named Katyal its coveted Grand Prize Litigator of the Year for both the 2016 and 2017 years. Katyal was born in the United States on March 1970, to Punjabi Indian immigrant parents, his mother is a pediatrician and his father, who died in 2005, was an engineer. Katyal's sister is an attorney and teaches law at University of California, Berkeley School of Law, he studied at a Jesuit Catholic school in Wilmette, Illinois. He graduated in 1991 from Dartmouth College, where he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Nu fraternity and the Dartmouth Forensic Union.
In 1990 and 1991, while a member of the Dartmouth Forensic Union, he reached the semi-final round of the National Debate Tournament, college's national championship tournament. Katyal attended Yale Law School. In law school, Katyal was an editor of the Yale Law Journal, studied under Akhil Amar and Bruce Ackerman, with whom he published articles in law review and political opinion journals in 1995 and 1996. After receiving his J. D. degree in 1995, Katyal clerked for Judge Guido Calabresi of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer. President Bill Clinton commissioned him to write a report on the need for more legal pro bono work. In 1999 he drafted special counsel regulations, which have guided the Mueller investigation of the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election, he served as Vice-President Al Gore's co-counsel in Bush v. Gore of 2000, represented the deans of most major private law schools in Grutter v. Bollinger, the University of Michigan affirmative-action case that the Supreme Court decided in 2003.
While serving at the Justice Department, Katyal argued numerous cases before the Supreme Court, including his successful defense of the constitutionality of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in Northwest Austin v. Holder. Katyal successfully argued in favor of the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act and won a unanimous decision from the Supreme Court defending former Attorney General John Ashcroft against alleged abuses of civil liberties in the war on terror in Ashcroft v. al-Kidd. Katyal is the only head of the Solicitor General's office to argue in the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit; as Acting Solicitor General, Katyal succeeded Elena Kagan, whom President Barack Obama chose to replace the retiring Supreme Court Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. On May 24, 2011, speaking as Acting Solicitor General, Katyal delivered the keynote speech at the Department of Justice's Great Hall marking Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month. Developing comments he had posted on May 20, Katyal issued the Justice Department's first public confession of its 1942 ethics lapse in arguing the Hirabayashi and Korematsu cases in the US Supreme Court, which had resulted in upholding the internment of American citizens of Japanese descent.
He called those prosecutions—which were only vacated in the 1980s—"blots" on the reputation of his office, which the Supreme Court explicitly considers as deserving of "special credence" when arguing cases, "an important reminder" of the need for absolute candor in arguing the United States government's position on every case. Katyal lectured at Fordham Law School concerning that decision. Katyal was critical of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. While teaching at Georgetown University Law Center for two decades, Katyal was lead counsel for the Guantanamo Bay detainees in the Supreme Court case Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, which held that Guantanamo military commissions set up by the George W. Bush administration to try detainees "violate both the UCMJ and the four Geneva Conventions."Upon leaving the Obama Administration, Katyal returned to Georgetown University Law Center, but became a partner at the global law firm Hogan Lovells. He specializes in constitutional law, national security, criminal defense and intellectual property, as well as running the appellate practice once run by John Roberts.
During law school Katyal clerked one summer at Hogan Lovells, where he worked for Roberts before Roberts's nomination to the US Supreme Court. Katyal appeared on The Colbert Report on July 26, 2006, he appeared on a 2015 episode of the US television drama House of Cards, portraying himself, arguing before the Supreme Court on behalf of a US citizen maimed by a drone strike. Katyal endorsed President Trump's nomination of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court in an op-ed to The New York Times; when that newspaper's public editor criticized the op-ed for failing to disclose Katyal had active cases being considered by the Court, Katyal responded that it would have been obvious he always has cases being heard by the Supreme Court. Katyal formally introduced Judge Gorsuch at the Senate Judiciary Committee confirmation hearings; the US Justice Department awarded Katyal the Edmund Randolph Award, the highest honor the Department can bestow on a civilian. The National Law Journal named Katyal its runner-up for "Lawyer of the Year" in 2006 and in 2004 awarded him its Pro Bono award.
American Lawyer Magazine considered him one of the top 50 litigators nationally. Washingtonian Magazine named him one of the 30
Harvard Law Review
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the Harvard Law Review's 2015 impact factor of 4.979 placed the journal first out of 143 journals in the category "Law".<re>"Journals Ranked by Impact: Law". 2011 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science. Thomson Reuters. 2012.</ref> It is published monthly from November through June, with the November issue dedicated to covering the previous year's term of the Supreme Court of the United States. The journal publishes the online-only Harvard Law Review Forum, a rolling journal of scholarly responses to the main journal's content; the Harvard Law Review Association, in conjunction with the Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the Yale Law Journal, publishes the Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, a followed authority for legal citation formats in the United States. The Harvard Law Review published its first issue on April 15, 1887, making it one of the oldest operating student-edited law reviews in the United States.
The establishment of the journal was due to the support of Louis Brandeis a recent Harvard Law School alumnus and Boston attorney who would go on to become a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. From the 1880s to the 1970s, editors were selected on the basis of their grades; the first female editor of the journal was Priscilla Holmes. The first female African-American president, ImeIme Umana, was elected in 2017. Gannett House, a white building constructed in the Greek Revival style, popular in New England during the mid-to-late 19th century, has been home to the Harvard Law Review since the 1920s. Before moving into Gannett House, the journal resided in the Law School's Austin Hall. Since the change of criteria in the 1970s, grades are no longer the primary basis of selection for editors. Membership in the Harvard Law Review is offered to select Harvard law students based on first-year grades and performance in a writing competition held at the end of the first year except for twelve slots that are offered on a discretionary basis.
The writing competition includes two components: an edit of an unpublished article and an analysis of a recent United States Supreme Court or Court of Appeals case. The writing competition submissions are graded blindly to assure anonymity. Fourteen editors are selected based on a combination of their first-year grades and their competition scores. Twenty editors are selected based on their competition scores; the remaining twelve editors are selected on a discretionary basis. According to the law review's webpage, "Some of these discretionary slots may be used to implement the Review's affirmative action policy." The president of the Harvard Law Review is elected by the other editors. It has been a long tradition since the first issue, that the works of students published in the Harvard Law Review are called "notes," and they are unsigned as part of a policy reflecting "the fact that many members of the Review besides the author make a contribution to each published piece." Prominent alumni of the Harvard Law Review include: Barack Obama, served as president of volume 104 Stephen Breyer, served as articles editor of volume 77 Felix Frankfurter Ruth Bader Ginsburg, served as editor for one year before transferring to Columbia Law School Elena Kagan, served as supervising editor of volume 99 John G. Roberts, Jr. served as managing editor for volume 92 Antonin Scalia, served as notes editor for volume 73 Edward Sanford David J. Barron, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, served as articles editor Michael Boudin, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, served as president of volume 77 Henry Friendly, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as president Merrick Garland, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, served as articles editor Harris Hartz, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, served as case and developments editor Ketanji Brown Jackson, judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, supervising editor of volume 109.
Gregory G. Katsas, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, executive editor of volume 102. William Kayatta, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit Pierre Leval, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as notes editor Debra Ann Livingston, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit James Kenneth Logan, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit Kevin C. Newsom, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, articles editor of volume 110. Nina Pillard, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit James L. Oakes, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Learned Hand, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as an editor but res
Yale Law School
Yale Law School is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, United States. Established in 1824, Yale Law offers the J. D. LL. M. J. S. D. M. S. L. and Ph. D. degrees in law. The school's small size and prestige make its admissions process the most selective of any law school in the United States, with an acceptance rate of 6.7% in the 2017-18 cycle. Its yield rate of 85% is the highest of any law school in the United States. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report every year since the magazine began publishing law school rankings. Considered to be the preeminent law school in the nation, it is one of the most prestigious law schools in the world. Yale Law has produced a significant number of luminaries in law and politics, including United States presidents Gerald Ford, Bill Clinton and former U. S. secretary of state and presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton. Former president William Howard Taft was a professor of constitutional law at Yale Law School from 1913 until he resigned to become chief justice of the United States in 1921.
Alumni include current United States Supreme Court associate justices Clarence Thomas, Samuel Alito, Sonia Sotomayor and Brett Kavanaugh, as well as a number of former justices, including Abe Fortas, Potter Stewart and Byron White. S. senators. Each class in Yale Law's three-year J. D. program enrolls 200 students. Yale's flagship law review is the Yale Law Journal, one of the most cited legal publications in the nation. According to Yale Law School's 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 88.3% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-advantage employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. The institution is known for its scholarly orientation. Another feature of Yale Law's culture since the 1930s, among both faculty and student graduates, has been an emphasis on the importance of spending at least a few years in government service. A similar emphasis has long been placed on service as a judicial law clerk upon graduation, its 7.6:1 student-to-faculty ratio is the third lowest among U.
S. law schools. Yale Law does not have a traditional grading system, a consequence of student unrest in the late 1960s. Instead, it grades first-semester first-year students on a simple Credit/No Credit system. For their remaining two-and-a-half years, students are graded on an Honors/Pass/Low Pass/Fail system; the school does not rank its students. It is notable for having only a single semester of required classes, instead of the full year most U. S. schools require. Unusually, as a result of unique Connecticut State court rules, Yale Law allows first-year students to represent clients through one of its numerous clinics. Students publish nine law journals that, unlike those at most other schools accept student editors without a competition; the only exception is YLS's flagship journal, the Yale Law Journal, which holds a two-part admissions competition each spring, consisting of a four or five-hour "bluebooking exam," followed by a traditional writing competition. Although the Journal identifies a target maximum number of members to accept each year, it is not a firm number.
Other leading student-edited publications include the Yale Journal on Regulation, the Yale Law and Policy Review, the Yale Journal of International Law. In November 2013, it was announced that a $25 million donation would bring student dormitory living back onto campus, with renovations to begin in 2018. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report in every year in which the magazine has published law school rankings. Among U. S. law schools, Yale has the lowest acceptance rate and the highest yield rate—whereas less than 10% of applicants are admitted, about 80% of those who are accepted enroll, either in the Fall following their acceptance or after a deferral. It is ranked as the second best law school in U. S and fourth in the world by the 2016 QS Rankings; the school saw a greater percentage of its students go on to become Supreme Court clerks between the 2000 and 2010 terms than any other law school, more than double the percentage of the second-highest law school.
In addition to producing the most Supreme Court clerks per capita, Yale saw a greater percentage of its graduates accept federal clerkships among the United States Courts of Appeal and District Courts than any other law school. Additionally, a 2010 survey of "scholarly impact," measured by per capita citations to faculty scholarship, found Yale's faculty to be the most cited law school faculty in the United States; the School began in the New Haven law office of Seth P. Staples in the 1800s, who began training lawyers. By 1810 he was operating a law school, he took on a former student, Samuel J. Hitchcock as a law partner, Hitchcock became the proprietor of the New Haven Law School, joined by David Daggett in 1824. (The Y
Abraham "Abe" Fortas was a U. S. Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1965 to 1969. A native of Memphis, Fortas became a law professor at Yale University, an advisor for the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Fortas worked at the Department of the Interior under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, during that time President Harry S. Truman appointed him to delegations that helped set up the United Nations in 1945. In 1948 Fortas represented Lyndon Johnson in the hotly contested Democratic Senatorial Second Primary electoral dispute, he formed close ties with the president-to-be. Fortas represented Clarence Earl Gideon before the U. S. Supreme Court, in a landmark case involving the right to counsel. Nominated by Johnson to the Supreme Court in 1965, Fortas was confirmed by the Senate, maintained a close working relationship with the president. In 1968, Johnson tried to elevate Fortas to the position of Chief Justice, but that nomination faced a filibuster at least in part due to ethics problems that caused Fortas to resign from the Court.
Fortas returned to private practice, sometimes appearing before the justices with whom he had served. Fortas was born in Memphis, the son of Rachael/Ray and Wolf/William Fortas, a cabinetmaker, he was the youngest of five children. His parents were Orthodox Jewish immigrants, his father was born in England, to parents from Russia, his mother was born in Russia. Fortas acquired a lifelong love for music from his father, who encouraged his playing the violin, was known in Memphis as "Fiddlin' Abe Fortas", he attended public schools in Memphis, graduating from South Side High School in 1926 at the age of 16. He next attended Southwestern at Memphis, a liberal arts college now called Rhodes College on a scholarship, graduated first in his class in 1930 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Fortas earned scholarships from both Harvard Law School and Yale Law School but decided to attend Yale, becoming the youngest law student there at 20 years old, he became editor in chief of the Yale Law Journal and graduated cum laude and second in the class of 1933.
One of his professors, William O. Douglas, was impressed with Fortas, Douglas arranged for him to stay at Yale to become an assistant professor of law. Shortly thereafter, Douglas left Yale to run the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission in Washington, D. C. Fortas commuted between New Haven and Washington, both teaching at Yale and advising the SEC. In 1935, Fortas married Carolyn E. Agger, they had no children, after he became an Associate Justice, they lived at 3210 R Street NW in the Georgetown section of Washington, D. C. Fortas was an amateur musician who played the violin in a quartet, called the "N Street Strictly-no-refunds String Quartet" on Sunday evenings, it included prominent musicians passing through town, such as Isaac Stern. Fortas was a good friend of the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico, Luis Muñoz Marín, calling him "a spectacularly great figure". Fortas visited the island frequently lobbied for the island's interests in Congress, participated in drafting the Constitution of Puerto Rico, gave legal advice to Marín's administration whenever requested.
The Puerto Rican actor José Ferrer portrayed Fortas in the film Gideon's Trumpet. Fortas served as general counsel of the Public Works Administration and as Undersecretary of the Interior during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. While he was working at the U. S. Department of the Interior, the Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, introduced him to a young congressman from Texas, Lyndon Johnson. In 1945, Fortas was granted a leave of absence from the Department of Interior to join the Armed Forces of the United States. According to his official biography, within a month, Fortas was discharged because of an arrested case of ocular tuberculosis. In 1945, he was appointed by President Harry Truman as an advisor to the U. S. delegation during the organizational meeting of the United Nations in San Francisco and at the 1946 General Assembly meeting in London. In 1946, after leaving government service, Fortas founded a law firm, Arnold & Fortas, with Thurman Arnold. Former Federal Communications Commission commissioner Paul A. Porter joined the firm in 1947, after the appointment of Fortas to the Supreme Court, the firm was renamed Arnold & Porter.
For many years, it has been one of Washington's most influential law firms, today is among the largest law firms in the world. In 1948, Lyndon Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination for one of the two seats in the U. S. Senate from Texas. Johnson won the Democratic primary by only 87 votes, his opponent, former Governor of Texas Coke R. Stevenson, persuaded a federal judge to issue an order taking Johnson's name off the general election ballot while the primary results were being contested. There were serious allegations of corruption in the voting process, including 200 votes for Johnson, cast in alphabetical order. Johnson asked Fortas for help, Fortas persuaded Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black to overturn the ruling. Johnson won the general election and became a U. S. Senator. During the Red Scare of the late 1940s and early 1950s, Fortas came to widespread notice as the defense attorney for Owen Lattimore. In 1950, Fortas clashed with Senator Joseph McCarthy when representing Lattimore before the Tydings Committee, before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee.
Fortas opposed the creation of a presidential commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; when it became clear that multiple investigations were gearing up simultan
Nicholas deBelleville "Nick" Katzenbach was an American lawyer who served as United States Attorney General during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration. Katzenbach was raised in Trenton, his parents were Edward L. Katzenbach, who served as Attorney General of New Jersey, Marie Hilson Katzenbach, the first female president of the New Jersey State Board of Education, his uncle, Frank S. Katzenbach, served as Mayor of Trenton, New Jersey and as a Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, he was named after his mother's great-great-grandfather, Nicholas de Belleville, a French medical doctor who accompanied Kazimierz Pułaski to America and settled in Trenton in 1778. Katzenbach was raised an Episcopalian, was of German descent, he was accepted into Princeton University. Katzenbach was a junior at Princeton in 1941, enlisting right after Pearl Harbor, served in the United States Army Air Corps in World War II. Assigned as a navigator in the 381st Bomb Squadron, 310th Bomb Group in North Africa, his B-25 Mitchell Bomber was shot down February 23, 1943, over the Mediterranean Sea off North Africa.
He spent over two years as a prisoner of war in Italian and German POW camps, including Stalag Luft III, the site of the "Great Escape", which Katzenbach assisted in. He read extensively as a prisoner, ran an informal class based on Principles of Common Law, he received his B. A. cum laude from Princeton University in 1945. He received an LL. B. cum laude from Yale Law School in 1947, where he served as Articles Editor of the Yale Law Journal. From 1947 to 1949, he was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford. On June 8, 1946, Katzenbach married Lydia King Phelps Stokes, in a ceremony officiated by her uncle, Anson Phelps Stokes, former canon of the Washington National Cathedral, her father was a newspaper correspondent and secretary to Herbert Hoover. Katzenbach was admitted to the New Jersey bar in 1950 and the Connecticut bar in 1955, he was an associate in the law firm of Katzenbach and Rudner in 1950. From 1950 to 1952, he was attorney-advisor in the Office of General Counsel to the Secretary of the Air Force.
Katzenbach was on the faculty of Rutgers Law School from 1950 to 1951. He served in the U. S. Department of Justice as Assistant Attorney General of the Office of Legal Counsel in 1961–1962 and as Deputy Attorney General appointed by President John F. Kennedy in 1962. After the assassination of President Kennedy Katzenbach continued to serve with the Johnson administration On February 11th, 1965 President Johnson appointed Katzenbach the 65th Attorney General of the United States, he held the office until October 2, 1966, he served as Under Secretary of State from 1966 to 1969. In September 2008, Katzenbach published Some of It Was Fun: Working with RFK and LBJ, a memoir of his years in Government service. On June 11, 1963, Katzenbach was a primary participant in one of the most famous incidents of the Civil Rights struggle. Alabama Governor George Wallace stood in front of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama in an attempt to stop desegregation of that institution by the enrollment of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood.
This became known as the "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door". Wallace stood aside only after being confronted by Katzenbach, accompanied by federal marshals and the Alabama National Guard. Katzenbach has been credited with providing advice after the assassination of John F. Kennedy that led to the creation of the Warren Commission. On November 25, 1963, he sent a memo to Johnson's White House aide Bill Moyers recommending the creation of a Presidential Commission to investigate the assassination. To combat speculation of a conspiracy, Katzenbach said the results of the FBI's investigation should be made public, he wrote, in part: "The public must be satisfied that Oswald was the assassin. Four days after Katzenbach's memo, Johnson appointed some of the nation's most prominent figures, including the Chief Justice of the United States, to the Commission. Conspiracy theorists called the memo, one of thousands of files released by the National Archives in 1994, the first sign of a cover-up by the government.
Katzenbach left government service to work for IBM in 1969, where he served as general counsel during the lengthy antitrust case filed by the Department of Justice seeking the break-up of IBM. He and Cravath, Swaine & Moore attorney Thomas Barr led the case for the computer giant for 13 years until the government decided to drop it in 1982. Katzenbach led the opposition against the case filed by the European Economic Community, he retired from IBM in 1986 and became a partner at the firm of Riker, Scherer, Hyland & Perretti in New Jersey. He was named chairman of the failing Bank of Credit and Commerce International in 1991. In 1980, Katzenbach testified in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia for the defense of W. Mark Felt revealed to be the "Deep Throat" of the Watergate scandal and Deputy Director of the FBI. In December 1996, Katzenbach was one of New Jersey's fifteen members of the Electoral College, who cast their votes for the Clinton/Gore ticket. Katzenbach testified on behalf of President Clinton on December 8, 1998, before the House Judiciary Committee hearing, considering whether to impeach President Clinton.
On March 16
Scott Matheson Jr.
Scott Milne Matheson Jr. is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit. He has served on that court since 2010. A native of Salt Lake City, Matheson graduated from Stanford University, attended Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, received his law degree from the Yale Law School. After working in private practice for several years, Matheson became a law professor at the University of Utah S. J. Quinney College of Law, where he served as dean from 1998 to 2006. Matheson was the United States Attorney for the District of Utah from 1993 to 1997. Matheson was raised in Salt Lake City, Utah, his father, Scott M. Matheson, served as governor of Utah from 1977 to 1985, his brother, Jim Matheson, served as a United States Representative from Utah from 2001 to 2015. Matheson earned an Artium Baccalaureus degree from Stanford University in 1975, where he won the Anna Laura Meyers Prize for an outstanding undergraduate economics thesis, a Master of Arts degree in modern history from Magdalen College, Oxford as a Rhodes scholar, a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1980, where he served as a Note Editor for the Yale Law Journal.
After graduating from law school, Matheson worked as an associate attorney at the litigation firm Williams & Connolly in Washington, DC from 1981 to 1985. In 1985, Matheson joined the faculty of the S. J. Quinney College of Law at the University of Utah. There, Matheson taught constitutional law, criminal law, civil procedure. Matheson was extensively involved in law administration and law reform efforts, serving as a vice-chair of the Utah Constitutional Revision Committee, a chair of the Utah Supreme Court Advisory Committee on the Rules of Evidence, a member of the Utah State Bar Commission. Matheson was involved in efforts to expand legal aid in Utah, establishing a Pro Bono Initiative at the S. J. Quinney College of Law and serving on the Board of Trustees of the Legal Aid Society of Salt Lake. During his time as a law professor, Matheson contributed to various other institutions during leaves of absence. From 1988 to 1989, Matheson served as the Deputy County Attorney for Salt Lake County.
From 1989 to 1990, Matheson was a visiting professor in the Frank Stanton Chair on the First Amendment at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. From 1993 to 1997, Matheson was the United States Attorney for the District of Utah. Matheson served as dean of the S. J. Quinney School of Law from 1998 to 2006. After concluding his deanship, Matheson spent his one-year sabbatical as a Public Policy Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC. From 2007 to 2008, Matheson chaired the Utah Mine Safety Commission, formed in response to the Crandall Canyon Mine disaster and charged with improving mine safety and disaster response in the state. Matheson was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Governor of Utah in 2004, losing to Republican Jon Huntsman Jr. with 41.4% of the vote. Matheson is the author of the book Presidential Constitutionalism in Perilous Times and numerous law review articles. On March 3, 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Matheson to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit to replace Michael W. McConnell, who resigned in August 2009 to return to academia.
Matheson's nomination was unanimously approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee. However, sources such as the Fox News Channel and conservative magazine The Weekly Standard alleged that Obama hoped to influence Matheson's brother, Representative Jim Matheson, to vote for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. According to The Salt Lake Tribune, "Rep. Jim Matheson called the claim absurd, as did the White House, Senator Orrin Hatch and pretty much everyone who knows the Mathesons."Hatch, an establishment conservative Republican from Utah, supported Matheson and helped shepherd the nomination through the Senate. On December 22, 2010, the U. S. Senate confirmed the nomination. Matheson received his judicial commission on December 27, 2010. Awad v. Ziriax, 670 F.3d 1111: The court upheld a district court’s grant of a preliminary injunction to prevent the Oklahoma State Election Board from certifying a proposed amendment to the Oklahoma Constitution that would prevent Oklahoma state courts from using or considering Sharia law.
Bandimere v. SEC, 844 F.3d 1168: The court held that the Securities and Exchange Commission’s administrative-law judges were “inferior officers” subject to the Appointments Clause. The court’s decision opened a circuit split with the D. C. Circuit. Raymond J. Lucia Cos. v. SEC, 832 F.3d 277, reh’g denied, 868 F.3d 1021, rev’d, 138 S. Ct. 2044. The Supreme Court granted certiorari on Lucia and agreed with the Tenth Circuit’s holding that the Securities and Exchange Commission’s administrative-law judges were “inferior officers.” Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. v. Sebelius, 723 F.3d 1114, aff’d, 134 S. Ct. 2751: Judge Matheson filed an opinion concurring in part and dissenting in part from the en banc majority’s decision that reversed the district court’s denial of a motion for a preliminary injunction in a challenge to a federal regulation that required employers to provide health insurance for employees that covered certain contraceptives. Little Sisters of the Poor v. Burwell, 794 F.3d 1151, vacated and remanded, 136 S. Ct. 1557: A group of nonprofit religious employers challenged regulations by the Department of Health and Human Services that provided accommodations for religious objectors to a regulatory mandate to pro