Newport Power Station
The Newport Power Station was a complex of power stations located on the west bank of the Yarra River 6km south-west of Melbourne, Australia, in the suburb of Newport. Newport A, B, C were coal-fired plants which operated at the site between 1919 and the 1980s, were claimed to be the largest power station in the southern hemisphere in 1953 with 42 boilers and 14 turbo-alternators producing 327 megawatts. Newport D is a gas-fired peaking power plant which has operated since 1981, it uses natural gas to generate steam in a boiler which supplies a three-stage steam turbine coupled to a generator to produce up to 510 MW of electricity. The power station is owned by Ecogen Energy; the output from Ecogen's Newport and Jeeralang power stations is contracted to EnergyAustralia, the country's third-biggest electricity and gas retailer. Newport'A' was opened in 1918 as a coal-fired power station by the Victorian Railways to supply electricity as part of the project for the electrification of its suburban rail system.
There were six turbo-generators. The speed was produced 25 Hz. Steam was supplied by 24 Babcock + Wilcox chain grate boilers at 250 psi; the two smaller generators were replaced with a 30 MW Parsons and a 35 MW single cylinder Parsons alternator, numbered A2+A4. Steam was supplied by the four "M" boilers; the total capacity was 120 MW. Newport A supplied electricity to businesses that required 25 Hz power, supplied bulk electricity to the Melbourne City Council Electric Supply Department, the Melbourne Electric Supply Company, the State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Newport A was transferred to the SECV in 1951. Newport'B' was opened by the SECV in 1923 to supply electricity to Melbourne until the Yallourn power station entered service. There were two Parsons 15 MW generators. Speed 3000 RPM and 50 Hz. No.3 was installed with a 30 MW capacity, No.8, a Stahl turbine with a capacity of 22 MW. Steam was supplied by 10 B+W chain grate boilers at 250 psi; the total capacity of Newport B was 82 MW.
Newport ` C', with a capacity of 120 MW, was opened in 1947 after wartime delays. There were four Parsons 30 MW turbo generators numbered 4, 5, 6+7. Steam was supplied by 8 "D" type ICAL chain grate boilers, each producing 175,000 lb/h of steam at 620 psi and 840 °F; these were the last chain grate boilers used in Victoria and were still in service early 1981. The power station boilers were fueled by black coal from New South Wales, but were converted to burn brown coal briquettes in the 1950s. Use of the plants declined with the opening of newer power stations in Latrobe Valley, becoming used for peak loads in years. Newport'D' is the current power station on the site, its construction was immensely controversial, was the subject of bitter opposition by trade unions and environmentalists throughout the 1970s. After the State Electricity Commission announced in 1967 plans for the construction of a large gas-fired power station in Newport, local residents began holding public meetings to discuss the potential harm to the community from pollution.
In 1974, the Victorian Trades Hall Council banned construction on the site. Stan Williams, secretary of the Federated Engine Drivers and Firemen's Association, declared to the then-Premier of Victoria Rupert Hamer: "The fact is that we're not going to build it at Newport, that's final." After a temporary retreat, the government attempted to restart the project, but the unions voted to reaffirm the ban. Hamer responded by suspending 300 construction projects and announcing a new law that would require secret ballots for construction bans, on pain of deregistration of the union involved; the aggressive response led to a gradual retreat by the union leadership, under added pressure from the poor economic climate. The union leadership agreed to a compromise that a panel led by Louis Matheson would investigate the proposed plant. Matheson was considered unsympathetic to the campaign against the plant, because he had risen to national prominence as Vice-Chancellor of Monash University in the late 1960s, during a time of widespread student protest there.
The panel's findings were mixed. Its interim report stated that a 500 MW plant at Newport would do unacceptable environmental damage, but its final report in April 1977 endorsed the plant, but with only one 500 MW generator unit. There were claims that some panel members changed their votes at the last minute under political pressure; the campaign continued at the grassroots level, but the trade union leadership refused to enforce construction bans. As a result, protesters invaded Trades Hall Council meetings. Protesters clashed with police at the construction site, while campaign meetings continued to draw hundreds of workers and residents. Nonetheless, with the union leadership refusing to enforce a picket or construction ban, construction went ahead. Newport D was built for the SECV by International Combustion Australia Limited of Rydalmere, NSW; as a consequence of the reduction in the planned power output from Newport D from 1,000 MW to 500 MW, Jeeralang Power Station was opened in the Latrobe Valley, operating with gas turbines.
Jeeralang power station is only used to meet peak loads. As a result, the actual capacity factor of Jeeralang station is less than 5
Loy Yang Power Station
The Loy Yang Power Station is a brown coal-fired thermal power station located on the outskirts of the city of Traralgon, in south-eastern Victoria, Australia. It consists of two sections, known as Loy Yang A and Loy Yang B. Both Loy Yang A and B are supplied by the Loy Yang brown coal mine; the Loy Yang power stations are located in the brown coal rich Latrobe Valley, along with the Hazelwood and Yallourn power stations. Loy Yang A has four generating units with a combined capacity of 2,210 MW. In June 2012 AGL Energy acquired the Loy Yang coal mine. Loy Yang B has two units with a capacity of 1,070 MW and is Victoria's newest and most efficient brown coal-fired power station, it can generate around 17% of Victoria's energy needs. Until November 2017, it was jointly owned by Engie, which held a 70% stake, Mitsui & Co Ltd with 30%. Loy Yang B employs up to another 40 contractors. In November 2017, Engie sold Loy Yang B to Chow Tai Fook Enterprises for a reported $1.2 billion, despite some reported that it was acquired by Chow Tai Fook Enterprises' subsidiary Alinta Energy instead.
Loy Yang B supplies 17% of Victoria's power requirements. If Loy Yang A and Loy Yang B are counted together they are the largest power station in Australia, generating 3,300 MW of power. Loy Yang A & B are base load power stations, together produce 50% of Victoria's electricity requirements. Loy Yang was constructed through the 1980s by International Combustion Australia Ltd, contracted by the government owned State Electricity Commission of Victoria, it consists of two separate units, Loy Yang A and Loy Yang B. Constructed in stages, it was planned that the Loy Yang complex would consist of eight generating units, of 525 megawatts each upon completion; the privatization of the SECV resulted in only six generating units being completed, four in Loy Yang A and two in Loy Yang B. Loy Yang A's four units were completed between 1984 and 1988. Loy Yang A consists of three units with Kraftwerk Union alternators and one unit by Brown Boveri Corp, supposed to be the second unit at the gas-fired Newport power station.
During the 2000s the turbine / generator couplings were upgraded on the 3 Kraftwerk Union units to allow an increase in MCR to 560MW. Loy Yang B's two units entered service in 1993 and 1996; the two units have Hitachi turbo generators. All six Loy Yang boilers are of the forced circulation tower type and are made by International Combustion Australia Ltd. Steam is supplied at a temperature of 540 degrees Celsius; the Loy Yang complex was privatised in 1995, as were most of the assets of the SECV. Prior to the Victorian Government's privatisations from the mid-1990s, a 49% stake of Loy Yang B was sold to Mission Energy. Edison Mission bought the complete plant, again sold it to the joint venture International Power Mitsui. In 1995, Loy Yang B was the world's first coal-fired power station to gain quality accreditation to ISO 9001 and the first Australian power station to gain environmental accreditation to ISO 14001. Four giant bucket-wheel excavators, called dredgers, operate 24 hours a day in the Loy Yang open cut mine feeding coal directly to the boilers via conveyor belt, 18 hours of reserve supply is held in a 70,000 tonnes coal bunker.
Each year 30 million tonnes of coal are extracted from the open pit. The open cut coal mine pit is about 200 metres deep, 3 kilometres and 2 kilometres wide at its widest, it is estimated that at current rates of extraction there are sufficient deposits of coal in the entire Latrobe Valley region to last 1300 years. Carbon Monitoring for Action estimates this power station emits 14.4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases each year as a result of burning coal. On 3 September 2007 the Loy Yang complex was the target of climate change activists; the activists locked themselves to conveyor belts and reduced power production for several hours before being cut free. Four people were arrested. In March 2010 it was announced that the operators of Loy Yang A signed a contract with Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals Australia for the supply of electricity to power aluminium smelters at Portland and Point Henry until 2036; the Point Henry Smelter is now closed. In June 2012 AGL Energy acquired the Loy Yang coal mine.
List of power stations in Victoria State Electricity Commission of Victoria Loy Yang Power International Power Australian Energy Market Operator Participant Registration List
Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme
The Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme was a cap-and-trade emissions trading scheme for anthropogenic greenhouse gases proposed by the Rudd government, as part of its climate change policy, due to commence in Australia in 2010. It marked a major change in the energy policy of Australia; the policy began to be formulated in April 2007, when the federal Labor Party was in Opposition and the six Labor-controlled states commissioned an independent review on energy policy, the Garnaut Climate Change Review, which published a number of reports. After Labor won the 2007 federal election and formed government, it published a Green Paper on climate change for discussion and comment; the Federal Treasury modelled some of the financial and economic impacts of the proposed CPRS scheme. The Rudd government published a final White Paper on 15 December 2008, announced that legislation was intended to take effect in July 2010. A bitter political debate within the Coalition Opposition saw Opposition leader Malcolm Turnbull lose the leadership to the anti-CPRS Tony Abbott.
The Rudd government did not call an election and in April 2010, Rudd deferred plans for the CPRS. After the 2010 federal election, the Gillard Government was able to get the Carbon Pricing Mechanism passed into law as part of the Clean Energy Futures Package in 2011, became effective on 1 July 2012. However, after the 2013 federal election there was a change in government, the Abbott Government repealed the CEF package on 17 July 2014. Due to the great deal of policy uncertainty surrounding the scheme, organizations in Australia responded in a rather informal and tepid manner and withheld from making any large-scale investments in emissions reductions technology during the scheme's operation. In the 2007 election year, both the Liberal-led Coalition government and the Labor opposition promised to introduce carbon trading. Opposition leader Rudd commissioned the Garnaut Climate Change Review on 30 April 2007, while Prime Minister John Howard announced his own plan for a carbon trading scheme on 4 June 2007, after the final report of the Prime Ministerial Task Group on Emissions Trading.
Labor won the election on 24 November. The draft Garnaut Report, issued on 4 July 2008, was only one of many inputs into the policy-making process; the Labor government issued a "Green Paper" on 16 July 2008 that described the intended design of the carbon trading scheme. The Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, was a market-based approach to greenhouse gas pollution, to be implemented in 2010; the main concern for the Australian government was getting the design of such a scheme correct, so that it would have complemented the integrated economic policy framework, would have been consistent with the Government’s commercial strategy. The objective of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme was to meet Australia’s emissions reduction targets in the most flexible and cost-effective way; the basis of a Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme was a cap and trade system, was a way of limiting greenhouse gas pollution, as well as giving individuals and businesses incentives to reduce their emissions. The Australian Government would have set a cap on carbon emissions, consistent with longer term goals of reducing Australia’s emissions by 60% compared with 2000 levels by 2050.
There were two definite elements of the cap and trade scheme: the cap itself, the ability to trade. The cap is the limit on greenhouse gas emissions imposed by the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme; the system aims at achieving the environmental outcome of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the idea being that capping emissions creates a price for carbon and the ability to trade ensures that emissions are reduced at the lowest possible price. Setting a limit means that the right to emit greenhouse gases becomes scarce, scarcity entails a price; the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme would have put a price on carbon in a systematic way throughout the economy. The ‘covered’ sectors are sources of emissions subject to the cap, which were specified in the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme. After setting the cap, the Government would have issued permits that are equal to the cap; the Green Paper gives the example “if the cap were to limit emissions to 100 million tonnes of CO2-e in a particular year, 100 million ‘permits’ would be issued that year”.
For every tonne of emissions emitted, a source of emissions would have been required to acquire and surrender a permit. About one thousand firms were expected to have obligations from the Scheme; the price of emissions would increase the cost of those goods and services that are most emissions-intensive. This means that there will be a change across the prices of goods and services across the economy, reflecting how emission-intensive the goods or service is; that therefore provides businesses and consumers with incentives to use and invest in low-emissions technologies. The second essential element of a cap and trade scheme is the ability to trade. Since carbon pollution permits will be tradable, the price of permits will be det
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Latrobe Valley is an inland geographical district and urban area of the Gippsland region in the state of Victoria, Australia. The district lies east of the Melbourne and nestled between the Strzelecki Ranges to the south and the Baw Baw Ranges, part of the Great Dividing Range, to the north. Mount Baw Baw is the highest peak to the north of the Latrobe Valley, due north of Moe; the highest peak to the south is south of Traralgon. The area has three major centres, from west to east, Moe and Traralgon, with minor centres including Churchill, Yinnar and Tyers; the population of the Latrobe Valley is 125,000. The valley draws its name from the Latrobe River. According to Les Blake, in 1841 William Adams Brodribb, an early settler, named the river in honour of Charles La Trobe, Lieutenant Governor of the Port Phillip District. A. W. Reed attributes Brodribb to naming the river in honour of La Trobe. While the Latrobe River flows into Lake Wellington to the east of Sale and includes in its drainage basin a significant part of central Gippsland, the region conventionally known as the Latrobe Valley occupies an inland area between the Strzelecki Ranges and Baw Baw Ranges between Drouin and Rosedale - with three major urban areas Moe and Traralgon, between the Strzelecki Ranges to the south and the westernmost reaches of the Victorian Alps to the north.
It has a temperate climate meaning mild temperatures with large amounts of rain, the occasional frost and snow on neighbouring hills. February is the warmest month in the Latrobe Valley with an average temperature range of 12.5 to 26.4 °C and the coldest month is July with an average temperature range of 3.6 to 13.5 °C. The most rain occurs in late winter and spring, average yearly rainfall is 800 millimetres. Temperatures on Mount Baw Baw, to the north of Moe peak around 10 to 12 °C cooler than the major urban areas during the day. There are three major population centres in the Latrobe Valley, all located within the City of Latrobe local government area: Moe – west Latrobe Valley Morwell – central Latrobe Valley Traralgon – eastern Latrobe ValleyThe primary hospital is the Latrobe Regional Hospital located on the Princes Highway between Morwell and Traralgon. Smaller towns are Tyers, Yinnar, Yallourn North and Boolarra. Key industry sectors include health care, power generation, paper manufacture, timber mills, dairy, information technology and education.
The valley provides 85% of Victoria’s electricity and has a substantial engineering sector supporting the power generation and paper production and food processing industries, etc. The tertiary education sector attracts local and international students. Despite its outside image as a regional economy dominated by mining and electricity, the region employs more hospital and aged care workers than power industry workers and has important service, health care and education sectors. Hospitals are the largest employer in the regional economy at 5% of the workforce, followed by power industry workers at 4.2%, supermarket and grocery store workers at 3%, aged care workers at 2.9%. Logging is an important industry in the hills to the north and south, with a major paper mill located at Maryvale, near Morwell. In the rugged north of the region is located the historic gold-mining town of Walhalla, amid mountains forming the west of Alpine National Park and nearby Baw Baw National Park, which includes a small winter ski resort.
The Latrobe Valley is significant as the centre of Victoria's energy industry the mining and burning of brown coal to produce electricity. The area produces a total of 85% of the electricity for the entire state of Victoria and supplies some electricity to New South Wales and Tasmania; the valley is home to four of the highest electricity producing thermal power stations in Australia. Power plants located in the Latrobe Valley include Hazelwood Power Station, Loy Yang Power Stations A & B, Yallourn Power Station, Jeeralang Power Station and the Energy Brix Power Station. Local government within the Latrobe Valley is administered by the Latrobe City Council and the Baw Baw Shire Council. Latrobe City LGA has a population of 75,000 with four major population centres: Moe, Morwell and Traralgon, with smaller townships including Boolarra, Toongabbie, Traralgon South, Yallourn North, Yinnar, with the administrative headquarters located in Morwell; the Princes Freeway runs through Latrobe Valley, bypassing most major rural cities and connecting the region to both Melbourne and East Gippsland.
The centrally located centre of Moe is 1 hour and 30 minutes drive from the central business district of Melbourne. V/Line runs a rail service from metropolitan Melbourne to the Latrobe Valley and runs services that go through the Latrobe Valley to East Gippsland; some rail services run limited express to the Latrobe Valley – stopping in the major population centres of Warragul, Moe and Traralgon. Other services – including the Gippslander rail service – stop at all stations in the area. Services to the Latrobe Valley run between Melbourne and Traralgon, whilst Gippsland services run between Melbourne and Bairnsdale; the Latrobe Valley/Gippsland rail line is connected to the metropolitan Melbourne Pakenham line. Latrobe Valley Bus Lines are operated by Valley Transit, which runs connecting bus
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, maybe for millions of years. The climate system is comprised of five interacting parts, the atmosphere, cryosphere and lithosphere; the climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system gives off energy to outer space; the balance of incoming and outgoing energy, the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling; as this energy moves through Earth's climate system, it creates Earth's weather and long-term averages of weather are called "climate". Changes in the long term average are called "climate change"; such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter Earth's energy budget.
Examples include cyclical ocean patterns such as the well-known El Nino Southern Oscillation and less familiar Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate change can result from "external forcing", when events outside of the climate system's five parts nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar volcanism. Human activities can change earth's climate, are presently driving climate change through global warming. There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; the field of climatology incorporates many disparate fields of research. For ancient periods of climate change, researchers rely on evidence preserved in climate proxies, such as ice cores, ancient tree rings, geologic records of changes in sea level, glacial geology. Physical evidence of current climate change covers many independent lines of evidence, a few of which are temperature records, the disappearance of ice, extreme weather events.
The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change; the term "climate change" is used to refer to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes. In this sense in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term, "climatic change", was proposed by the World Meteorological Organization in 1966 to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause.
During the 1970s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem. Prior to the 18th century, scientists had not suspected that prehistoric climates were different from the modern period. By the late 18th century, geologists found evidence of a succession of geological ages with changes in climate. In the years since, a great deal of scientific progress has been made understanding the workings of the climate system. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth; this energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms". These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing; some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. There are key threshold factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external". Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself. External forcing mechanisms can be either natural. Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast, slow (e.g. thermal exp