An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines, oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc. The widest application for spark ignition internal combustion engines is in petrol road vehicles: cars and motorcycles. Compression ignition Diesel engines ignite the fuel-air mixture by the heat of compression and do not need a spark, they have glowplugs that preheat the combustion chamber to allow starting in cold weather. Other engines may use a heated tube, for ignition. While this was common for early engines it is now rare; the first electric spark ignition was Alessandro Volta's toy electric pistol from the 1780s. Siegfried Marcus patented his "Electrical igniting device for gas engines" on 7 October 1884; the simplest form of spark ignition is. The engine spins a magnet inside a coil, or, in the earlier designs, a coil inside a fixed magnet, operates a contact breaker, interrupting the current and causing the voltage to be increased sufficiently to jump a small gap.
The spark plugs are connected directly from the magneto output. Early magnetos had one coil, with the contact breaker inside the combustion chamber. In about 1902, Bosch introduced a double-coil magneto, with a fixed sparking plug, the contact breaker outside the cylinder. Magnetos are not used in modern cars, but because they generate their own electricity they are found on small engines such as those found in mopeds, snowblowers, etc. where a battery-based electrical system is not present for any combination of necessity, weight and reliability reasons. They are used on piston-engined aircraft engines. Although an electrical supply is available, magneto systems are used because of their higher reliability. Magnetos were used on the small engine's ancestor, the stationary "hit and miss" engine, used in the early twentieth century, on older gasoline or distillate farm tractors before battery starting and lighting became common, on aircraft piston engines. Magnetos were used in these engines because their simplicity and self-contained operation was more reliable, because magnetos weighed less than having a battery and dynamo or alternator.
Aircraft engines have dual magnetos to provide redundancy in the event of a failure, to increase efficiency by and burning the fuel air mix from both sides towards the center. The Wright brothers used a magneto invented in 1902 and built for them in 1903 by Dayton, Ohio inventor, Vincent Groby Apple; some older automobiles had both a magneto system and a battery actuated system running to ensure proper ignition under all conditions with the limited performance each system provided at the time. This gave the benefits of easy starting with reliable sparking at speed. Many modern magneto systems have removed the second coil from the magneto itself and placed it in an external coil assembly similar to the ignition coil described below. In this development, the induced current in the coil in the magneto flows through the primary of the external coil, generating a high voltage in the secondary as a result; such a system is referred to as an'energy transfer system'. Energy transfer systems provide the ultimate in ignition reliability.
The output of a magneto depends on the speed of the engine, therefore starting can be problematic. Some magnetos include an impulse system, which spins the magnet at the proper moment, making easier starting at slow cranking speeds; some engines, such as aircraft but the Ford Model T, used a system which relied on non rechargeable dry cells, to start the engine or for starting and running at low speed. The operator would manually switch the ignition over to magneto operation for high speed operation. To provide high voltage for the spark from the low voltage batteries, a'tickler' was used, a larger version of the once widespread electric buzzer. With this apparatus, the direct current passes through an electromagnetic coil which pulls open a pair of contact points, interrupting the current; the collapsing magnetic field, induces a high voltage across the coil which can only relieve itself by arcing across the contact points. In this mode of operation, the coil would "buzz" continuously, producing a constant train of sparks.
The entire apparatus was known as the'Model T spark coil'. Long after the demise of the Model T as transportation they remained a popular self-contained source of high voltage for electrical home experimenters, appearing in articles in magazines such as Popular Mechanics and projects for school science fairs as late as the early 1960s. In the UK these devices were known as trembler coils and were popular in cars pre-1910, in commercial vehicles with large engines until around 1925 to ease starting; the Model T magneto differed from modern implementations by not providing high voltage directly at the output.
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
Yamaha Motor Company
Yamaha Motor Company Limited is a Japanese manufacturer of motorcycles, marine products such as boats and outboard motors, other motorized products. The company was established in 1955 upon separation from Yamaha Corporation, is headquartered in Iwata, Japan; the company conducts development and marketing operations through 109 consolidated subsidiaries as of 2012. Led by Genichi Kawakami, the company’s first president, Yamaha Motor began production of its first product, the YA-1, in 1955; the 125cc motorcycle won the 3rd Mount Fuji Ascent Race in its class. The company's products includes motorcycles, motorized bicycles, sail boats, personal water craft, swimming pools, utility boats, fishing boats, outboard motors, 4-wheel ATVs, recreational off-road vehicles, go-kart engines, golf carts, multi-purpose engines, electrical generators, water pumps, small snow throwers, automobile engines, surface mounters, intelligent machinery, industrial-use unmanned helicopters, electrical power units for wheelchairs and helmets.
The company is involved in the import and sales of various types of products, development of tourist businesses and management of leisure, recreational facilities and related services. Yamaha’s motorcycle sales are the second largest in the world outboard motor and Yamaha is the world leader in water vehicle sales; the motorcycle division of Yamaha was founded in 1955, was headed by Genichi Kawakami. Yamaha's initial product was a 125 cc two-cycle, single cylinder motorcycle, the YA-1, a copy of the German DKW RT 125; the YA-1 was a competitive success at racing from the beginning, winning not only the 125cc class in the Mt. Fuji Ascent, but sweeping the podium with first and third place in the All Japan Autobike Endurance Road Race that same year. Early success in racing set the tone for Yamaha, as competition in many varieties of motorcycle racing has been a key endeavor of the company throughout its history fueled by a strong rivalry with Honda and other Japanese manufacturers. Yamaha began competing internationally in 1956 when they entered the Catalina Grand Prix, again with the YA-1, at which they placed sixth.
The YA-1 was followed by the YA-2 of 1957, another 125cc two stroke, but with improved frame and suspension. The YD-1 of 1957 was a 250cc two-stroke twin cylinder motorcycle, resembling the YA-2, but with a larger and more powerful motor. A performance version of this bike, the YDS-1 housed the 250cc two-stroke twin in a double downtube cradle frame and offered the first five-speed transmission in a Japanese motorcycle; this period saw Yamaha offer its first outboard marine engine. By 1963 Yamaha's dedication to both the two-stroke engine and racing paid off with their first victory in international competition, at the Belgium GP, where they won the 250cc class. Success in sales was more impressive, Yamaha set up the first of its international subsidiaries in this period beginning with Thailand in 1964, the Netherlands in 1968. 1965 saw the release of the flagship of the company's lineup. It featured a separate oil supply. In 1967 a new larger displacement model was added to the range, the 350cc two stroke twin R-1.
In 1968 Yamaha launched their first four-stroke motorcycle, the XS-1. The Yamaha XS-1 was a 650cc four-stroke twin, a larger and more powerful machine that equaled the displacement and performance of the popular British bikes of the era, such as the Triumph Bonneville and BSA Gold Star. Yamaha continued on with both the two-stroke line and four-stroke twins at a time that other Japanese manufacturers were moving to four cylinder four-stroke machines, a trend led by Honda in 1969 with the legendary CB-750 four-stroke four-cylinder cycle. Not until 1976 would Yamaha answer the other Japanese brands with a multi-cylinder four stroke of their own; the XS-750 a 750cc triple cylinder machine with shaft final drive was introduced seven years after Honda's breakthrough bike. Yamaha's first four-cylinder model, the XS-1100 followed in 1978, again with shaft drive. Despite being heavier and more touring oriented than its rivals it produced an impressive string of victories in endurance racing; the 1970s saw some of the first dedicated off-road bikes for off-road racing and recreation.
Yamaha was an early innovator in dirt-bike technology, introduced the first single-shock rear suspension, the trademarked "Monoshock" of 1973. It appeared in production on the 1974 Yamaha YZ-250, a model which has continued in production, with many updates, until 2015, making it Yamaha's longest continuous model and name. Yamaha continued racing throughout the 1970s with increasing success in several formats; the decade of the 1970s was capped by the XT500 winning the first Paris-Dakar Rally in 1979. By 1980 the combination of consumer preference and environmental regulation made four strokes popular. Suzuki ended production of their GT two stroke series, including the flagship water-cooled two-stroke 750cc GT-750 in 1977. Kawasaki, who had considerable success throughout the 1970s with their two-stroke triples of 250cc, 350cc, 500cc and 750cc ended production of road-going two strokes in 1980. Yamaha continued to refine and sell two-strokes for the street into the 1980s; these bikes were performance oriented, water-cooled twin cylinder machines, designed to achieve excellent performance t
Yamaha XS Eleven
The Yamaha XS Eleven motorcycle called XS11 and XS1100, is a Japanese standard produced from 1978 to 1981, powered by an air-cooled 1,101 cc 4-stroke, DOHC inline four-cylinder engine mounted transversely in a duplex cradle frame with swingarm rear suspension, shaft drive, telescopic forks. The XS Eleven made its debut in 1978 as the largest capacity in production, it featured a rear disc brake, shaft drive and cast wheels. In 1979, Yamaha followed the growing trend of offering a "factory custom" version of the bike, called a "Special" by Yamaha. Pullback handlebars, a stepped seat, a smaller, fatter rear wheel, a smaller capacity tear-drop gas tank adjustable suspension, altered frame created a factory custom, forerunner of the modern cruiser; the XS Eleven Special sold well despite complaints about the poor ergonomics. "What that translates to is a bike with an awkward riding position but excellent road manners. In fact, most of the things that irritated this staff in the way the bike rode and handled could be traced to the handlebar, although as trendy as disco dancing, was not what the ergonomics doctor ordered for precise, comfortable control."For the 1981 model year, a more touring oriented version of the XS Eleven was produced.
This model, dubbed the Venturer was equipped with a fairing made by Pacifico for Yamaha. Venturers included matching hard bags. Additionally, the Venturer included a 6.3 gallon tank for increased range. XS Eleven models were superseded by the 1982 XJ1100 Maxim which used an engine based closely on the XS1100 unit; the XJ1100 Maxim was only built for one year, before being phased out. In Europe, the XS Eleven differed from the North American model by having a larger petrol tank, a lower handlebar and longer exhaust pipes; the European market featured the 1.1 Sport with small cockpit fairing, Martini 1.1 complete with the two piece Mockett fairing, with colour scheme similar to the bike that Mike Hailwood used as his personal transport at the 1978 Isle of Man TT. The XS Eleven was the first four-cylinder four-stroke motorcycle from Yamaha, it exploited well-proven technology, first used by Yamaha in their released XS 750 four-stroke triple. When the XS Eleven was introduced, it earned a reputation as a powerful bike.
In 1978 and 1979 it won Cycle Worlds Ten Best Bikes as the best Touring bike."Nobody gets far riding the XS Eleven before they become acquainted with the fact that it's strong. Cycle Magazine had this to say of the Eleven: "...the XS is a Rolls Royce with a blown Chrysler Hemi motor..." The handling of the XS Eleven was not as well received. "When this behemoth of a motorcycle hits a corner at anything approaching interesting speeds it takes a good deal of muscle to lay it down. While the Yamaha doesn't disgrace itself in corners it doesn't commend itself either." Testers of the day all echoed the same story: "The XS1100 was a solid bullet in a straight line, but cornering at high speeds was done at your own risk." "Cycle warned its readers that the bike could go, stop and steer — just never two at the same time." Which Bike magazine described the XS1100 as having'a bullet proof motor, tea trolley handling'. The XS Eleven went endurance racing in Australia for promotional reasons; the chassis was developed for months and as stated by Cycle World "after which “parts-book engineering”...."
The XS Eleven enjoyed a series of wins and high placed finishes in the Australian motorcycle endurance racing circuit between 1978 and 1981, its success helped by a larger fuel capacity than the competition. Darryl Flack of Motor Sport Retro wrote: "While the new CBX1000 and Suzuki were out and out sports bikes, the shaft-drive XS1100, affectionately called the “Xcessive’, was more of a muscle bike come tourer. Heavier than and not as fast as its rivals, the XS1100 did have one particular ability – winning races.""In the lead up to the Six-Hour, the XS1100 had swept the Adelaide Three-Hour, the Perth Four-Hour and the Surfers Three-Hour. The unlikely XS1100 and Pitman Yamaha rider Greg Pretty had upstaged the biggest, baddest production bikes around, confounding everyone." In the 1979 Castrol 6 hour, XS Elevens finished second third and fourth The XS Eleven's successful racing career was a remarkable achievement considering its shaft drive and long distance touring capabilities. British motorcycle journalist Roland Brown, says in his book Superbikes of the Seventies: "The Yamaha's lack of reputation gives it one advantage these days, though, in that a clean XS such as this one costs less than its more successful contemporary rivals – whose performance advantage, so crucial is far less important now.
Two decades and more after its launch, maybe the XS1100's time has come." In a 1978 test by Cycle World a stock XS1100 ran a quarter mile time of 11.78 s 1/4 mile @114.21 mph. Yamaha XS750 Yamaha XS650
The static compression ratio, of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity. It is a fundamental specification for many common combustion engines. In a piston engine, it is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder and combustion chamber when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at the top of its stroke. For example, a cylinder and its combustion chamber with the piston at the bottom of its stroke may contain 1000 cc of air; when the piston has moved up to the top of its stroke inside the cylinder, the remaining volume inside the head or combustion chamber has been reduced to 100 cc the compression ratio would be proportionally described as 1000:100, or with fractional reduction, a 10:1 compression ratio. A high compression ratio is desirable because it allows an engine to extract more mechanical energy from a given mass of air–fuel mixture due to its higher thermal efficiency.
This occurs because internal combustion engines are heat engines, higher efficiency is created because higher compression ratios permit the same combustion temperature to be reached with less fuel, while giving a longer expansion cycle, creating more mechanical power output and lowering the exhaust temperature. It may be more helpful to think of it as an "expansion ratio", since more expansion reduces the temperature of the exhaust gases, therefore the energy wasted to the atmosphere. Diesel engines have a higher peak combustion temperature than petrol engines, but the greater expansion means they reject less heat in their cooler exhaust. Higher compression ratios will however make gasoline engines subject to engine knocking if lower octane-rated fuel is used; this can reduce efficiency or damage the engine if knock sensors are not present to modify the ignition timing. On the other hand, diesel engines operate on the principle of compression ignition, so that a fuel which resists autoignition will cause late ignition, which will lead to engine knock.
Static compression ratio is calculated by the formula C R = V d + V c V c Where: V d = displacement volume. This is the volume inside the cylinder displaced by the piston from the beginning of the compression stroke to the end of the stroke. V c = clearance volume; this is the volume of the space in the cylinder left at the end of the compression stroke. V d can be estimated by the cylinder volume formula V d = π 4 b 2 s Where: b = cylinder bore s = piston stroke lengthBecause of the complex shape of V c it is measured directly; this is done by filling the cylinder with liquid and measuring the volume of the used liquid. The compression ratio in a gasoline -powered engine will not be much higher than 10:1 due to potential engine knocking and not lower than 6:1; some production automotive engines built for high performance from 1955–1972, used high-octane leaded gasoline or'5 star' to allow compression ratios as high as 13.0:1. A technique used to prevent the onset of knock is the high "swirl" engine that forces the intake charge to adopt a fast circular rotation in the cylinder during compression that provides quicker and more complete combustion.
It is possible to manufacture gasoline engines with compression ratios of over 11:1 that can use 87 /2 fuel with the addition of variable valve timing and knock sensors to delay ignition timing. Such engines may not produce their full rated power using 87 octane gasoline under all circumstances, due to the delayed ignition timing. Direct fuel injection, which can inject fuel only at the time of fuel ignition, is another recent development which allows for higher compression ratios on gasoline engines; the compression ratio can be as high as 14:1 in engines with a'ping' or'knock' sensor and an electronic control unit. In 1981, Jaguar released a cylinder head; the cylinder head design was known as the "May Fireball" head. In 2012, Mazda released new petrol engines under the brand name SkyActiv with a 14:1 compression ratio, to be used in all Mazda vehicles by 2015; the SkyActiv engine achieves this compression ratio with ordinary unleaded gasoline through improved scavenging of exhaust gases, in addition to direct injection.
In a turbocharged or supercharged gasoline engine, the CR is customarily built at 10.5:1 or lower. This is due to the turbocharger/supercharger having compressed the air before it enters the cylinders. Port fuel injected engines run lower boost than direct fuel injected engines because port fuel inj
A manual transmission known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries as a stick shift, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission. A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; the number of forward gear ratios is expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear; this type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission.
In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engine's crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disc is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate; when the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission. As the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk; this makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, so that the gear can be shifted without damaging the transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine. Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio.
Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic though no distinction between the two terms need be made. Contemporary automobile manual transmissions use four to six forward gear ratios and one reverse gear, although consumer automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as seven gears. Transmissions for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment have 8 to 25 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Operating aforementioned transmissions use the same pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. French inventors Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor are credited with the development of the first modern manual transmission, they demonstrated their three-speed transmission in 1894 and the basic design is still the starting point for most contemporary manual transmissions.
This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases, reverse. The gears were engaged by sliding them on their shafts, which required careful timing and throttle manipulation when shifting, so the gears would be spinning at the same speed when engaged; these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that accompanied. Newer manual transmissions on 4+-wheeled vehicles have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, with "synchro-mesh" being a further refinement of the constant mesh principle. In both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a higher gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the engine allowed to slow down until the transmission parts for the next gear are at a proper speed to engage; the vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade and other such factors.
To shift to a lower gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the throttle is used to speed up the engine and thus the relevant transmission parts, to match speeds for engaging the next lower gear. For both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released; some drivers use the clutch only for starting from a stop, shifts are done without the clutch. Other drivers will depress the clutch, shift to neutral engage the clutch momentarily to force transmission parts to match the engine speed depress the clutch again to shift to the next gear, a process called double clutching. Double clutching is easier to get smooth, as speeds that are close but not quite matched need to speed up or slow down only transmission parts, whereas with the clutch engaged to the engine, mismatched speeds are fighting the rotational inertia and power of the engine. Though automobile and light truck transmissions are now universally synchronized, transmissions for heavy trucks and machinery, motor
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who