Sōja is a city located in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. As of October 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 67,059 and a population density of 320 persons per km²; the total area is 212.00 km². In the 7th century, Ki Castle was built atop the mountain Kijōyama. Long in ruins and partial reconstruction began in 1999; the city was founded on March 31, 1954. On March 22, 2005, the villages of Yamate and Kiyone were merged into Sōja. Sōja is surrounded by all within Okayama Prefecture. Okayama Kurashiki Ibara Takahashi Yakage Kibichūō Takahashi River Shinpon River Makidani River Ki castle mountain Mount Fuku Mount Karube Sōja has been twinned with Chino, Nagano in Japan since 1984. Sōja City official website
Saitō Dōsan known as Saitō Toshimasa, was a Japanese samurai during the Sengoku period. He was known as the Viper of Mino for his ruthless tactics, his honorific title from the Imperial Court was Yamashirō-no-kami and since he was a monk he was called Saitō Yamashirō-nyudō-no-kami. A monk, he became a seller of oil, he became a daimyō through gekokujō of Toki Yorinari in Mino Province. The Saito fortress was located at Inabayama, he married Omi a daughter of Akechi Mitsutsugu. He defeated Oda Nobuhide at the Battle of Kanōguchi in 1547; however Dosan was defeated by Oda Nobuhide and was forced to give his daughter in marriage to Nobunaga. Dōsan became the father-in-law of Oda Nobunaga. In 1556, Saitō Dōsan fell in battle against forces led by his own adopted son, Saitō Yoshitatsu in the Battle of Nagara-gawa. In desperation, Dosan is alleged to have named Nobunaga as lord of Mino in his will and sent this document to Nobunaga. Nobunaga, was unable to provide help. Dōsan's head was taken by a retainer of Yoshitatsu's son Tatsuoki.
His remains were interred in Sōfuku-ji, but they were moved to Jōzai-ji because the Nagara River kept overflowing and covering his burial mound. Both temples are located in Gifu. Saitō Dōsan is known for having a large number of pseudonyms and for changing his name; some believe that this is because there were two Saitō Dōsan and son, the son adopted his father's name after his death. Other names of Saitō Dōsan are Minemaru, Hōrenbō, Matsunami Shogorō, Nishimura Kankurō Masatoshi, Shinkurō, Nagai Norihide, Saitō Sakondayu Toshimasa; the name Saitō was adopted from the former shugodai of Mino, overcome by the Nagai clan in the 1520s. Father: Matsuda Motomune Wife: Omi no Kata, daughter of Akechi Mitsutsugu Concubine: Miyoshi no Kata Children: Saitō Yoshitatsu born to Miyoshi no Kata Magoshiro Saitō Nagatatsu Nōhime Saitō clan Kunitori Monogatari
Kita is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "North Ward." As of 2016, the ward has an estimated population of 119,074 people. Bukkyo University Kyoto Sangyo University Ritsumeikan University, Kinugasa Campus Otani University The community had a North Korean school, Kyoto Korean No. 3 Elementary School. Kyoto Museum for World Peace Ōtani University Museum Museum of Furuta Oribe Daitoku-ji a famous Rinzai sect temple. Kamigamo Shrine, one of the oldest shrines in Japan. Kinkaku-ji, the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan's most famous temples. Media related to Kita-ku, Kyoto at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Ichinomiya is a historical term referring to the Japanese Shinto shrines with the highest shrine rank in a province or prefecture. Most of the old provinces of Japan had one or more ichinomiya, which gave rise to place names, such as the city of Ichinomiya, Aichi. Shrines of the lower rank are called ninomiya, shinomiya, so forth. Ichinomiya developed from the system of ranking of shrines within a province. List of Shinto shrines Modern system of ranked Shinto Shrines Twenty-Two Shrines Sannomiya Kokubunji Fuchū National Association of Ichinomiya
The Yodo River called the Seta River and the Uji River at portions of its route, is the principal river in Osaka Prefecture on Honshū, Japan. The source of the river is Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture to the north; the Yodo River called the Seta River in Shiga Prefecture, begins at the southern outlet of the lake in Ōtsu. There is a dam. Further downstream, the Seta flows into Kyoto Prefecture and changes its name to the Uji River, merges with two other rivers, namely the Katsura River and the Kizu River in Kyoto Prefecture; the Katsura has its headwaters in the mountains of Kyoto Prefecture, while the Kizu comes from Mie Prefecture. From the three-river confluence, the river is called the Yodo River, which flows south, through Osaka, on into Osaka Bay. In Osaka, part of the river has been diverted into an artificial channel, it serves as a source of water for irrigation and powers hydroelectric generators. The Uji River, or the Yodo River in Kyoto Prefecture, is a popular fishing spot during the summer and fall months.
The Uji River has a prominent place in the so-called "Uji chapters" of the Tale of Genji, a novel written by the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the early eleventh century. 34°40′59″N 135°25′11″E 34°58′55″N 135°54′22″E
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Japanese castles were fortresses constructed of wood and stone. They evolved from the wooden stockades of earlier centuries, came into their best-known form in the 16th century. Castles in Japan were built to guard important or strategic sites, such as ports, river crossings, or crossroads, always incorporated the landscape into their defenses. Though they were built to last and used more stone in their construction than most Japanese buildings, castles were still constructed of wood, many were destroyed over the years; this was true during the Sengoku period, when many of these castles were first built. However, many were rebuilt, either in the Sengoku period, in the Edo period that followed, or more as national heritage sites or museums. Today there are more than one hundred castles extant, or extant, in Japan; some castles, such as the ones at Matsue and Kōchi, both built in 1611, remain extant in their original forms, not having suffered any damage from sieges or other threats. Hiroshima Castle, on the opposite end of the spectrum, was destroyed in the atomic bombing, was rebuilt in 1958 as a museum.
The character for castle,'城', by itself read as shiro, is read as jō when attached to a word, such as in the name of a particular castle. Thus, for example, Osaka Castle is called Ōsaka-jō in Japanese. Conceived as fortresses for military defense, Japanese castles were placed in strategic locations, along trade routes and rivers. Though castles continued to be built with these considerations, for centuries, fortresses were built as centres of governance. By the Sengoku period, they had come to serve as the homes of daimyōs, to impress and to intimidate rivals not only with their defences but with their sizes and elegant interiors. In 1576, Oda Nobunaga was among the first to build one of these palace-like castles: Azuchi Castle was Japan's first castle to have a tower keep, it inspired both Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle and Tokugawa Ieyasu's Edo Castle. Azuchi served as the governing center of Oda's territories, as his lavish home, but it was very keenly and strategically placed. A short distance away from the capital of Kyoto, which had long been a target of violence, Azuchi's chosen location allowed it a great degree of control over the transportation and communication routes of Oda's enemies.
Before the Sengoku period, most castles were called yamajirō. Though most castles were built atop mountains or hills, these were built from the mountains. Trees and other foliage were cleared, the stone and dirt of the mountain itself was carved into rough fortifications. Ditches were dug, to present obstacles to attackers, as well as to allow boulders to be rolled down at attackers. Moats were created by diverting mountain streams. Buildings were made of wattle and daub, using thatched roofs, or wooden shingles. Small ports in the walls or planks could be used to deploy bows or fire guns from; the main weakness of this style was its general instability. Thatch caught fire more than wood, weather and soil erosion prevented structures from being large or heavy. Stone bases began to be used, encasing the hilltop in a layer of fine pebbles, a layer of larger rocks over that, with no mortar; this support allowed larger and more permanent buildings. The first fortifications in Japan were hardly what one associates with the term "castles".
Made of earthworks, or rammed earth, wood, the earliest fortifications made far greater use of natural defences and topography than anything man-made. These kōgoishi and chashi were never intended to be long-term defensive positions, let alone residences; the Yamato people began to build cities in earnest in the 7th century, complete with expansive palace complexes, surrounded on four sides with walls and impressive gates. Earthworks and wooden fortresses were built throughout the countryside to defend the territory from the native Emishi and other groups; these were built as extensions of natural features, consisted of little more than earthworks and wooden barricades. The Nara period fortress at Dazaifu, from which all of Kyūshū would be governed and defended for centuries afterwards, was constructed in this manner, remnants can still be seen today. A bulwark was constructed around the fortress to serve as a moat to aid in the defense of the structure; this was called a mizuki, or "water fort".
The character for castle or fortress, up until sometime in the 9th century or was read ki, as in this example, mizuki. Though basic in construction and appearance, these wooden and earthwork structures were designed to impress just as much as to function against attack. Chinese and Korean architecture influenced the design of Japanese buildings, including fortifications, in this period; the remains or ruins of some of these fortresses, decidedly different from what would come can still be seen in certain parts of Kyūshū and Tōhoku today. The Heian period saw a shift from the need to defend the entire state from