Florida East Coast Railway
The Florida East Coast Railway is a Class II railroad operating in the U. S. state of Florida owned by Grupo México. The FEC was a Class I railroad owned by Florida East Coast Industries from 2000 to 2016, FOXX Holdings between 1983 and 2000, the St. Joseph Paper Company prior to 1983. Built in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Flagler, he visited Florida with his first wife, Mary. A key strategist who worked with John D. Rockefeller building the Standard Oil Trust, Flagler noted both great potential and a lack of services during his stay at St. Augustine, he subsequently began what amounted to his second career, developing resorts and communities all along Florida's shores abutting the Atlantic Ocean. The FEC is best known for building the railroad to Key West, completed in 1912; when the FEC's line from the mainland to Key West was damaged by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, the State of Florida purchased the remaining right-of-way and bridges south of Dade County, they were rebuilt into road bridges for vehicle traffic and became known as the Overseas Highway.
However, a greater and lasting Flagler legacy was the developments along Florida's eastern coast. During the Great Depression, control was purchased by heirs of the du Pont family. After 30 years of fragile financial condition, the FEC, under leadership of a new president, Ed Ball, took on the labor unions. Ball claimed the company could not afford the same costs as larger Class 1 railroads and needed to invest saved funds in its infrastructure, the condition of, fast becoming a safety issue; the company—using replacement workers—and some of its employees engaged from 1963 until 1977 in one of the longest and more violent labor conflicts of the 20th century. Federal authorities had to intervene to stop the violence, which included bombings and vandalism. However, the courts ruled in the FEC's favor with regard to the right to employ strikebreakers. During this time Ball invested in numerous steps to improve the railroad's physical plant, installed various forms of automation; the FEC was the first US railroad to operate two-man train crews, eliminate cabooses, end all of its passenger services by 1968.
In modern times, the company's primary rail revenues come from its rock trains. In January 2018, passenger rail service Brightline began using FEC tracks for its route from West Palm Beach to Fort Lauderdale; the Florida East Coast Railway was developed by Henry Morrison Flagler, an American tycoon, real estate promoter, railroad developer and John D. Rockefeller's partner in Standard Oil. Formed at Cleveland, Ohio as Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler in 1867, Standard Oil moved its headquarters in 1877 to New York City. Flagler and his family relocated there as well, he was joined by Henry H. Rogers, another leader of Standard Oil who became involved in the development of America's railroads, including those on nearby Staten Island, the Union Pacific, in West Virginia, where he built the remarkable Virginian Railway to transport coal to Hampton Roads, Virginia. Flagler's non-Standard Oil interests went in a different direction, when in 1878, on the advice of his physician, he traveled to Jacksonville, Florida for the winter with his first wife, quite ill.
Two years after she died in 1881, he married Ida Alice Shourds. After their wedding, the couple traveled to St. Augustine, Florida in 1883. Flagler found the city charming, he recognized Florida's potential to attract out-of-state visitors. Though Flagler remained on the Board of Directors of Standard Oil, he gave up his day-to-day involvement in the firm in order to pursue his Florida interests; when Flagler returned to Florida, in 1885 he began building a grand St. Augustine hotel, the Ponce de Leon Hotel. Flagler realized that the key to developing Florida was a solid transportation system, purchased the 3 ft narrow gauge Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Halifax River Railway on December 31, 1885, he discovered that a major problem facing the existing Florida railway systems was that each operated on different gauge systems, making interconnection impossible. He converted the line to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge in 1890 and the small operation was incorporated in 1892; the earliest predecessor of the FEC was the narrow gauge St. John's Railway, incorporated in 1858, which constructed a now-abandoned line between St. Augustine and Tocoi, a small settlement on the east bank of the St. Johns River, midway between Palatka and Green Cove Springs.
In 1883, Henry Flagler, now retired from Standard Oil, moved to St. Augustine, built the mentioned Ponce de Leon and the Alcazar Hotels, purchased the Casa Monica, just east of the Alcazar, changing the name to Cordova; the east coast of Florida was undeveloped at that time, Flagler found it difficult to obtain the construction materials he needed. His purchase of the JStA&HR Railway was intended to make it faster and easier to supply his building projects; the JStA&HR Railway served the northeastern portion of the state and was the first operation in the Flagler Railroad system. Before Flagler bought the line, the railroad stretched only between South Jacksonville and St. Augustine and lacked a depot sufficient to accommodate travelers to his St. Augustine resorts, he built a modern depot facility as well as schools, h
Henry Morrison Flagler was an American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil, first based in Ohio. He was a key figure in the development of the Atlantic coast of Florida and founder of what became the Florida East Coast Railway, he is known as Palm Beach, Florida. Flagler was born in Hopewell, New York, the son of Isaac Flagler, a Presbyterian minister and his wife, the widowed Elizabeth Caldwell Harkness, she had brought two sons to the marriage with Flagler from her previous marriage to the widower Dr. David Harkness of Milan, Ohio, his son by his first marriage, Stephen V. Harkness, became Elizabeth's stepson. Together David and Elizabeth had a son Daniel M. Harkness before his death, he was of paternal German descent from the Palatinate region. The immigrant ancestor was Zacharra Flegler who first settled in Walworth and left for America arriving in New York in 1710 settling in Dutchess County, it was a grandson Solomon Flagler. Solomon had eleven children including Henry's father. Flagler attended local schools through eighth-grade.
His half-brother Daniel had left Hopewell to live and work with his paternal uncle Lamon G. Harkness, who had a store in Republic, Ohio, he recruited Henry Flagler to join him, the youth went to Ohio at age 14, where he started work in 1844 at a salary of US$5 per month plus room and board. By 1849, Flagler was promoted to the sales staff at a salary of $40 per month, he joined Daniel in a grain business started with his uncle Lamon in Bellevue, Ohio. In 1862, Flagler and his brother-in-law Barney York founded the Flagler and York Salt Company, a salt mining and production business in Saginaw, Michigan, he found that salt mining required more technical knowledge than he had and struggled in the industry during the Civil War. The company collapsed. Flagler returned to Bellevue having lost his initial $50,000 investment and an additional $50,000 he had borrowed from his father-in-law and Daniel. Flagler believed that he had learned a valuable lesson: invest in a business only after thorough investigation.
After the failure of his salt business in Saginaw, Flagler returned to Bellevue in 1866 and reentered the grain business as a commission merchant with the Harkness Grain Company. During this time he worked to pay back his stepbrother Stephen Harkness. Through this business, Flagler became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, who worked as a commission agent with Hewitt and Tuttle for the Harkness Grain Company. By the mid-1860s, Cleveland had become the center of the oil refining industry in America and Rockefeller left the grain business to start his own oil refinery. Rockefeller worked in association with inventor Samuel Andrews. Needing capital for his new venture, Rockefeller approached Flagler in 1867. Flagler's stepbrother Stephen Harkness invested $100,000 on the condition that Flagler be made a partner; the Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler partnership was formed with Flagler in control of Harkness' interest. The partnership grew into the Standard Oil Corporation, it was Flagler's idea to use the rebate system to strengthen the firm's position against competitors and the transporting enterprises alike.
Flagler was in a special position to make those deals due to his connections as a grain merchant. Though the refunds issued amounted to no more than fifteen cents on the dollar, they put Standard Oil in position to undercut other oil refineries. By 1872, it led the American oil refining industry. In 1877, Flagler and his family moved to New York City, becoming the center of commerce in the US. In 1885, Standard Oil moved its corporate headquarters to New York City to the iconic 26 Broadway location. By the end of the American Civil War, Cleveland was one of the five main refining centers in the U. S.. By 1869, there was three times more kerosene refining capacity than needed to supply the market, the capacity remained in excess for many years. In June 1870, Flagler and Rockefeller formed Standard Oil of Ohio, which became the most profitable refiner in Ohio. Standard Oil grew to become one of the largest shippers of kerosene in the country; the railroads were fighting fiercely for traffic and, in an attempt to create a cartel to control freight rates, formed the South Improvement Company in collusion with Standard and other oil men outside the main oil centers.
The cartel received preferential treatment as a high-volume shipper, which included not just steep rebates of up to 50% for their product but rebates for the shipment of competing products. Part of this scheme was the announcement of increased freight charges; this touched off a firestorm of protest from independent oil well owners, including boycotts and vandalism, which led to the discovery of Standard Oil's part in the deal. A major New York refiner, Charles Pratt and Company, headed by Charles Pratt and Henry H. Rogers, led the opposition to this plan, railroads soon backed off. Pennsylvania revoked the cartel's charter, non-preferential rates were restored for the time being. Undeterred, though vilified for the first time by the press and Rockefeller continued with their self-reinforcing cycle of buying competing refiners, improving the efficiency of operations, pressing for discounts on oil shipments, undercutting competition, making secret deals, raising investment pools, buying rivals out.
In less than four months in 1872, in what was known as "The Cleveland Conquest" or "T
Delray Beach, Florida
Delray Beach is a coastal city in Palm Beach County, United States. The population of Delray Beach was estimated at 68,749 in 2017; that is up from 60,522 according to the 2010 United States Census. Delray Beach is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,012,331 people in 2015; the earliest known human inhabitants of what is now Delray Beach were the Jaega people. Tequesta Indians passed through or inhabited the area at various times, an 1841 U. S. military map shows a Seminole camp located in the area now known as Lake Ida. Few other recorded details of these local indigenous settlements have survived. In 1876, the United States Life Saving Service built the Orange Grove House of Refuge to rescue and shelter ship-wrecked sailors; the house derived its name from the grove of mature sour orange and other tropical fruit trees found at the site chosen for the house of refuge, but no record or evidence of who planted the trees was discovered. The first non-indigenous group to build a settlement was a party of African Americans from the panhandle of Florida, who purchased land a little inland from the Orange Grove House of Refuge and began farming around 1884.
By 1894 the black community was large enough to establish the first school in the area. In 1894 William S. Linton, a Republican U. S. Congressman for Saginaw, bought a tract of land just west of the Orange Grove House of Refuge, began selling plots in what he hoped would become a farming community; this community was named after Linton. In 1896 Henry Flagler extended his Florida East Coast Railroad south from West Palm Beach to Miami, with a station at Linton; the Linton settlers established a post office and a store, began to achieve success with truck farming of winter vegetables for the northern market. A hard freeze in 1898 was a setback, many of the settlers left, including William Linton. In an attempt to change the community's luck, or to leave behind a bad reputation, the settlement's name was changed in 1901 to Delray, after the Detroit neighborhood of Delray, which in turn was named after the Mexican-American War's Battle of Molino del Rey. Settlers from The Bahamas, sometimes referred to as'Nassaws', began arriving in the early 1900s.
After 1905, newspaper articles and photographs of Delray events reveal that Japanese settlers from the nearby Yamato farming colony began participating in Delray civic activities such as parades, going to the movies, shopping. The 1910 census shows Delray as a town of 904 citizens. Twenty-four U. S. states and nine other countries are listed as the birthplace of its residents. Although still a small town, Delray had a remarkably diverse citizenry. In 1911, the area was chartered by the State of Florida as an incorporated town. In the same year and tomato canning plants were built. Pineapples became the primary crop of the area; this is reflected in the name of the present day Pineapple Grove neighborhood near downtown Delray Beach. Prior to 1909, the Delray settlement land was within Dade County; that year, Palm Beach County was carved out of the northern portion of the region. In 1915, Palm Beach County and Dade County contributed nearly equal portions of land to create what is now Broward County between the two, leaving Delray situated within the southeastern portion of Palm Beach County.
By 1920, Delray's population had reached 1,051. In the 1920s, drainage of the Everglades west of Delray lowered the water table, making it harder to grow pineapples, while the extension of the Florida East Coast Railway to Key West resulted in competition from Cuban pineapples for the markets of the northern United States; the Florida land boom of the 1920s brought renewed prosperity to Delray. Tourism and real estate speculation became important parts of the local economy. Delray issued bonds to raise money to install water and sewer lines, paved streets, sidewalks. Several hotels were built. At that time Delray was the largest town on the east coast of Florida between West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale; the collapse of the land boom in 1926 left Delray saddled with high bond debts, reduced income from property taxes. Delray was separated from the Atlantic Ocean beach by the Florida East Coast Canal. In 1923 the area between the canal and the ocean was incorporated as Delray Beach. In 1927 Delray and Delray Beach merged into one town named Delray Beach.
Beginning in the mid-1920s, a seasonal Artists and Writers Colony was established in Delray Beach and the adjacent town of Gulf Stream. At the time, the city of Palm Beach did not welcome Hollywood personalities or all types of artists, so the Delray winter colony drew a more eclectic and bohemian populace. Throughout the 1930s and'40s, Delray became a popular winter enclave for artists and authors famous cartoonists. Two nationally syndicated cartoonists – H. T. Webster and Fontaine Fox of "Toonerville Trolley" fame – had offices upstairs in the Arcade Building over the Arcade Tap Room. Other well-known artists and writers of the era who had homes in Delray Beach include: Herb Roth, W. J. “Pat” Enright, Robert Bernstein, Wood Cowan, Denys Wortman, Jim Raymond, Charles Williams, Herb Niblick, Hugh McNair Kahler, Clarence Budington Kelland, Nina Wilcox Putnam, Edna St. Vincent Millay; these seasonal visitors helped soften the effect of the real estate downturn and The Great Depression on the city.
During the Depression, not much money was available since the two banks had failed, but progress
Palm Beach County, Florida
Palm Beach County is a county in the state of Florida, directly north of Broward County. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,320,134, making it the third-most populous county in Florida; the largest city and county seat is West Palm Beach. Named after one of its oldest settlements, Palm Beach, the county was established in 1909, after being split from Dade County; the county's modern-day boundaries were established in 1963. Palm Beach County is one of the three counties in South Florida that make up the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the area had been increasing in population since the late 19th century, with the incorporation of West Palm Beach in 1894 and after Henry Flagler extended the Florida East Coast Railway and built the Royal Poinciana Hotel, The Breakers, Whitehall. In 1928, the Okeechobee hurricane caused thousands of deaths. More the county acquired national attention during the 2000 presidential election, when a controversial recount occurred.
As of 2004, Palm Beach County is Florida's wealthiest county, with a per capita personal income of $44,518. It leads the state in agricultural productivity. Around 10,200 years ago, Native Americans began migrating into Florida. An estimated 20,000 Native Americans lived in South Florida, their population diminished by the 18th century, due to warfare and diseases from Europe. In 1513, Juan Ponce de León, who led a European expedition to Florida earlier that year, became the first non-Native American to reach Palm Beach County, after landing in the modern-day Jupiter area. Among the first non-Native American residents were African Americans, many of whom were former slaves or immediate descendants of former slaves. Runaway African slaves started coming to what was Spanish Florida in the late 17th century and they found refuge among the Seminoles. During the Seminole Wars, these African-American slaves fought with the Seminoles against White settlers and bounty hunters. Portions of the Second Seminole War occurred in Palm Beach County, including the Battle of Jupiter Inlet in 1838.
The oldest surviving structure, the Jupiter Lighthouse, was built in 1860, after receiving authorization to the land from President Franklin Pierce in 1854. During the American Civil War, Florida was a member of the Confederate States of America. Two Confederate adherents removed the lighting mechanism from the lighthouse. One of the men who removed the light, Augustus O. Lang, was the first White settler in Palm Beach County, he built a palmetto shack along the eastern shore of Lake Worth in 1863 after abandoning the cause of the Confederacy. After the Civil War ended, the Jupiter Lighthouse was relit in 1866. Thirteen years a National Weather Service office was established at the lighthouse complex. However, the office was moved to Miami in 1911 after that city's population began to grow. In October 1873, a hurricane caused a shipwreck between the New River; the crew nearly died due to starvation because of the desolation of the area. In response, five Houses of Refuge were built along the east coast of Florida from the Fort Pierce Inlet southward to Biscayne Bay.
Orange Grove House of Refuge No. 3 was built near Delray Beach in 1876. Henry Flagler, instrumental in the county's development in the late 19th century and early 20th century, first visited in 1892, he subsequently purchased land on both sides of Lake Worth. Other investors followed suit, causing a small boom and bringing in existing businesses and resulting in the establishment of many new businesses; the Royal Poinciana Hotel, constructed by Flagler to accommodate wealthy tourists, opened for business in February 1894. About a month the Florida East Coast Railway, owned by Flagler, reached West Palm Beach. On November 5, 1894, Palm Beach County's oldest city, West Palm Beach, was incorporated. In 1896, another hotel built by Flagler was opened, the Palm Beach Inn renamed The Breakers, he constructed his own winter home beginning in 1900. Flagler died there after falling down a flight of marble stairs; the Florida Legislature voted to establish Palm Beach County in 1909, carving it out of what was the northern portion of Dade County and including all of Lake Okeechobee.
The southernmost part of Palm Beach County was separated to create the northern portion of Broward County in 1915, the northwestern portion became part of Okeechobee County in 1917, southern Martin County was created from northernmost Palm Beach County in 1925. The boundaries remained the same until 1963, when about three-quarters of Lake Okeechobee was removed from Palm Beach County and divided among Glades, Hendry and Okeechobee Counties; this was the final change to the county's boundaries. Early on September 17, 1928, the Okeechobee hurricane made landfall near West Palm Beach as a category-4 storm and crossed Lake Okeechobee shortly thereafter. Coastal cities were devastated West Palm Beach, where more than 1,711 homes were destroyed. Further inland, wind-driven storm surge in Lake Okeechobee inundated adjacent communities Belle Glade and South Bay. Hundreds of square miles were flooded, including some areas with up to 20 feet of water. Numerous houses were damaged after crashing into other obstacles.
At least 2,500 deaths occurred. Damage in South Florida totaled $25 million. In response to the storm, the Herbert Hoover Dike was constructed to prevent a similar disaster; as a result of this hurrican
Blight refers to a specific sign affecting plants in response to infection by a pathogenic organism. Blight is a rapid and complete chlorosis, browning death of plant tissues such as leaves, twigs, or floral organs. Accordingly, many diseases that exhibit this symptom are called blights. Several notable examples are: Late blight of potato, caused by the water mold Phytophthora infestans de Bary, the disease which led to the Great Irish Famine Southern corn leaf blight, caused by the fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus Drechs, anamorph Bipolaris maydis Shoemaker, incited a severe loss of corn in the United States in 1970. Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica Barr, has nearly eradicated mature American chestnuts in North America. Fire blight of pome fruits, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora Winslow et al. is the most severe disease of pear and is found in apple and raspberry, among others. Bacterial leaf blight of rice, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae Dowson.
Early blight of potato and tomato, caused by species of the ubiquitous fungal genus Alternaria Leaf blight of the grasses Bur oak blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Tubakia iowensis. On leaf tissue, symptoms of blight are the initial appearance of lesions which engulf surrounding tissue. However, leaf spots may, in advanced stages, expand to kill entire areas of leaf tissue and thus exhibit blight symptoms. Blights are named after their causative agent, for example Colletotrichum blight is named after the fungi Colletotrichum capsici, Phytophthora blight is named after the water mold Phytophthora parasitica. Media related to Blight at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of blight at Wiktionary
Florida Atlantic University
Florida Atlantic University is a public university in Boca Raton, with five satellite campuses in the Florida cities of Dania Beach, Fort Lauderdale, in Fort Pierce at the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. FAU belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida and serves South Florida, which has more than five million people and spans more than 100 miles of coastline. Florida Atlantic University is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with high research activity; the university offers more than 170 undergraduate and graduate degree programs within its 10 colleges. Programs of study cover arts and humanities, the sciences, nursing, business, public administration, social work, architecture and computer science. Florida Atlantic opened in 1964 as the first public university in southeast Florida, offering only upper-division and graduate level courses. Initial enrollment was only 867 students, increasing in 1984 when the university admitted its first lower-division undergraduate students.
As of 2018, enrollment has grown to over 30,000 students representing 140 countries, 50 states, the District of Columbia. Since its inception, Florida Atlantic has awarded more than 110,000 degrees to nearly 153,160 alumni. In recent years, FAU has undertaken an effort to increase its academic and research standings while evolving into a more traditional university; the university has raised admissions standards, increased research funding, built new facilities, established notable partnerships with major research institutions. Changes include an on-campus stadium, additional on-campus housing, the establishment of a College of Medicine in 2010. On July 15, 1961, to meet the burgeoning educational demands of South Florida, the state legislature passed an act authorizing the establishment of a new university in the City of Boca Raton. Florida Atlantic University was built on a 1940s-era army airbase. During World War II, the airfield served as the Army Air Corps' sole radar training facility; the base was built on 5,860 acres of adjacent land.
A majority of the land was acquired from Japanese-American farmers from the failing Yamato Colony. The land was seized through eminent domain, leaving many Japanese-Americans little recourse in the early days of World War II; the airbase was used for radar training, anti-submarine patrols along the coast, as a stop-over point for planes being ferried to Africa and Europe via South America. The airfield was composed of four runways, still visible on the Boca Campus today and used for parking. By early 1947, the military decided to transfer future radar training operations to Keesler Air Force Base in Mississippi; the departure of the air force in 1947 would leave Boca Raton Army Airfield abandoned. Florida Atlantic University opened on September 14, 1964, with an initial student body of 867 students in five colleges; the first degree awarded was an honorary doctorate given to President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 25, 1964, at the dedication and opening of the university. At the time of its opening, there were 120 faculty out of a total of 350 employees.
On-campus housing for students was first added in September 1965. Florida Atlantic's history is one of continuing expansion as the university's service population has grown; the university served only upper-division and graduate level students, because Florida intended the institution "to complement the state's community college system, accepting students who had earned their associate degrees from those institutions."Florida Atlantic began its expansion beyond a one-campus university in 1971, when it opened its Commercial Boulevard campus in Fort Lauderdale. Due to a expanding population in South Florida, in 1984 Florida Atlantic opened its doors to lower-division undergraduate students; the following year, the university added its third campus, in downtown Fort Lauderdale on Las Olas Boulevard. In 1989, the Florida Legislature recognized demands for higher education in South Florida by designating Florida Atlantic as the lead state university serving Broward County. To fill this role, the university would establish a campus in Dania Beach in 1997 and another campus in the City of Davie in western Broward County in 1990.
Florida Atlantic purchased 50 acres of land in Port St. Lucie in 1994 to establish a campus on the Treasure Coast; this would be the institution's fifth campus. The university continued its expansion in 1999 when it opened its Jupiter Campus, named for the late John D. MacArthur; this campus houses the university's honors college. Florida Atlantic University and the University of Miami's Miller School of Medicine established a medical training program within the Charles E. Schmidt College of Biomedical Science in 2004. Plans called for the construction of a new teaching hospital in coordination with Boca Raton Community Hospital on the main campus. Following successive budgets deficits in 2007, the hospital delayed its participation indefinitely. However, Florida Atlantic established its own College of Medicine in 2010; the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution joined the university in 2007, creating Florida Atlantic's seventh campus. To bring HBOI into the university family the Florida Legislature allocated $44 million to Florida Atlantic to acquire the institution.
Florida Atlantic has changed since its opening in 1964. As of 2013, there were more than 30,000 students attending classes on seven campuses spread across 120 miles; the university employs more than 3,200 faculty and staff. The unive
Japanese Americans are Americans who are or of Japanese descent those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century. According to the 2010 census, the largest Japanese American communities were found in California with 272,528, Hawaii with 185,502, New York with 37,780, Washington with 35,008, Illinois with 17,542, Ohio with 16,995. Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America and the city of Torrance holds the densest Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states. People from Japan began migrating to the US in significant numbers following the political and social changes stemming from the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Large numbers went to Hawaii and the West Coast. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the US ended immigration of Japanese unskilled workers, but permitted the immigration of businessmen and spouses of Japanese immigrants in the US.
The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of nearly all Japanese. The ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Original immigrants belonged to an immigrant generation, the Issei, their US-born children to the Nisei Japanese American generation; the Issei comprised those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were—by definition—born in the US; this generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age and English-language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a third distinct generation of Japanese Americans, the Sansei. Significant Japanese immigration did not occur again until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan and other countries.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized United States citizenship to "free white persons", which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote and faced additional restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States and Korematsu v. United States; the Korematsu case originated the "strict scrutiny" standard, applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe; the numbers involve on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, is similar to the amount of immigration to the US from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the primary impetus for immigration. During World War II, an estimated 120,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese nationals or citizens residing on the West Coast of the United States were forcibly interned in ten different camps across the western interior of the country.
The internments were based on the ancestry rather than activities of the interned. Families, including children, were interned together. Four decades the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 acknowledged the "fundamental violations of the basic civil liberties and constitutional rights" of the internment. Many Japanese-Americans consider the term internment camp a euphemism and prefer to refer to the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans as imprisonment in concentration camps. Webster's New World Fourth College Edition defines a concentration camp as, "A prison camp in which political dissidents, members of minority ethnic groups, etc. are confined." The nomenclature for each of their generations who are citizens or long-term residents of countries other than Japan, used by Japanese Americans and other nationals of Japanese descent are explained here. The Japanese American communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei and Sansei, which describe the first and third generations of immigrants.
The fourth generation is called Yonsei, the fifth is called Gosei. The term Nikkei encompasses Japanese immigrants of all generations; the kanreki, a pre-modern Japanese rite of passage to old age at 60, is now being celebrated by increasing numbers of Japanese American Nisei. Rituals are enactments of shared meanings and values. Issei and many nisei speak Japanese in addition to English as a second language. In general generations of Japanese Americans speak English as their first language, though some do learn Japanese as a second language. In Hawaii however, where Nikkei are about one-fifth of the whole population, Japanese is a major language and studied by many of the state's residents across ethnicities, it is taught in private Japanese language schools as early as the second grade. As a courtesy to the large number of Japanese tourists, Japanese characters are provided on place signs, public transportation, civic facilities; the Hawaii media market h