History of Russia
The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. The traditional beginning of Russian history is the establishment of Kievan Rus', the first united Eastern Slavic state, in 882; the state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Orthodox Slavic culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' disintegrated as a state due to the Mongol invasions in 1237–1240 along with the resulting deaths of about half the population of Rus'. After the 13th century, Moscow became a cultural center, by the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had grown to become the Russian Empire, stretching from eastern Poland to the Pacific Ocean. Peasant revolts were common, all were fiercely suppressed. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants fared poorly and turned to revolutionary pressures. In the following decades, reform efforts such as the Stolypin reforms, the constitution of 1906, the State Duma attempted to open and liberalize the economy and political system, but the tsars refused to relinquish autocratic rule or share their power.
The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown, war-weariness, discontent with the autocratic system of government. It brought to power a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the communist Bolsheviks on 25 October. Between 1922 and 1991, the history of Russia is the history of the Soviet Union an ideologically based state, conterminous with the Russian Empire before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; the approach to the building of socialism, varied over different periods in Soviet history, from the mixed economy and diverse society and culture of the 1920s to the command economy and repressions of the Joseph Stalin era to the "era of stagnation" in the 1980s. From its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves, beginning in March 1918. By the mid-1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute, Mikhail Gorbachev embarked on major reforms, which led to the overthrow of the communist party and the breakup of the USSR, leaving Russia again on its own and marking the start of the history of post-Soviet Russia.
The Russian Federation began in January 1992 as the legal successor to the USSR. Russia lost its superpower status. Scrapping the socialist central planning and state ownership of property of the socialist era, new leaders, led by President Vladimir Putin, took political and economic power after 2000 and engaged in an energetic foreign policy. Russia's recent annexation of the Crimean peninsula has led to severe economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union. In 2006, 1.5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus, demonstrating the presence of early humans in Russia from a early time. The discovery of some of the earliest evidence for the presence of anatomically modern humans found anywhere in Europe was reported in 2007 from the deepest levels of the Kostenki archaeological site near the Don River in Russia, dated to at least 40,000 years ago. Arctic Russia was reached by 40,000 years ago; that Russia was home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals was revealed by the discovery of the partial skeleton of a Neanderthal infant in Mezmaiskaya cave in Adygea, carbon dated to only 29,000 years ago.
In 2008, Russian archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk, working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia, uncovered a 40,000-year-old small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile hominin, which DNA analysis revealed to be a unknown species of human, named the Denisova hominin. During the prehistoric eras the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Remnants of these long gone steppe cultures were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta and Pazyryk. In the part of the 8th century BCE, Greek merchants brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Gelonus was described by Herodotus as a huge earth- and wood-fortified grad inhabited around 500 BC by Heloni and Budini; the Bosporan Kingdom was incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero.
At about the 2nd century AD Goths migrated to the Black Sea, in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia until it was overrun by Huns. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes which would move on to Europe, as was the case with the Huns and Turkish Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas through to the 8th century. Noted for their laws and cosmopolitanism, the Khazars were the main commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad, they were important allies of the Byzantine Empire, waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Caliphates. In the 8th century, the Khazars embraced Judaism; some of the ancestors of the modern Russians were the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes.
The Early East S
The Terek River, a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flows through South Ossetia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. It rises in South Ossetia near the juncture of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range and the Khokh Range, to the southwest of Mount Kazbek, winding north in a white torrent between the town of Stepantsminda and the village of Gergeti toward the Russian region North Ossetia and the city of Vladikavkaz, it turns east to flow through Chechnya and Dagestan before dividing into two branches which empty into the Caspian Sea. Below the city of Kizlyar it forms a swampy river delta around 100 kilometres wide; the river is a key natural asset in the region, providing irrigation and hydroelectric power in its upper reaches. The main cities on the Terek include Vladikavkaz and Kizlyar. Several minor hydroelectric power stations dam the Terek: Dzau electrostation and Pavlodolskaya. Construction has started of the Dariali Hydropower Plant, with a planned installed capacity of 108 MW, on the territory of Kazbegi municipality near the Russia–Georgia border.
Leo Tolstoy's novel The Cossacks is set amongst its Cossacks. The Terek drains most of the northeast Caucasus east into the Caspian just as its sister, the Kuban River, drains the northwest Caucasus west into the Black Sea, its major tributaries are the following. In the west a fan of rivers flows northeast into the Terek; these are the east-flowing Malka River, the Baksan River, the Chergem River and the Cherek River with its two branches. These three join the Malka; the Liashen, Urukh River and Duradon flow northeast, the Ardon River and its branch, the Fiagdon River flow north and the Gizeldon River drains the north slope of Mount Kazbek and reaches the Ardon near its mouth. There is the north-flowing part of the Terek with the Darial Pass; the great northwest bend of the Terek is cut off by the northeast-flowing Sunzha River which catches most of the north-flowing rivers. These are the Assa River, the Argun and Khukhulau. East of these are the Aksay River and the Aktash River which dried up in the lowlands between the Sulak and the Terek.
In the east the Sulak River drains most of interior Dagestan and turns east to the Caspian before it reaches the Terek. The capital of Khazaria, may have stood on the banks of the river Terek; the Terek river was the site of the final defeat of the army of Hulagu, khan of the Ilkhanate, at the hands of the army of Berke, khan of the Golden Horde, led by Berke's nephew, Nogai Khan, in the first civil war of the Mongol Empire, the Berke–Hulagu war of 1262. On the river Timur defeated Tokhtamysh in 1395; the Terek Cossack Host had its base in the Terek basin. During the Russian conquest of the Caucasus it was part of the North Caucasus Line. During World War II, German forces at the end of August 1942 reached the Terek near Mozdok – the farthest extent of German conquests in the Soviet Union – but aside from a small bridgehead were unable to forge further toward the oil fields of Baku, Hitler's objective. Terek Cossacks
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in the Russian North Caucasus region. Most are found in northern Dagestan and Stavropol Krai, as well as in Karachay-Cherkessia and Astrakhan Oblast, they speak the Nogai language and are descendants of various Mongolic and Turkic tribes who formed the Nogai Horde. There are two main groups of Nogais: the Ak Nogai and. In the 1990s, 65,000 were still living in the Northern Caucasus, divided into Aq Nogai and Qara Nogai tribal confederations. Nogais live in the territories of Dagestan, Stavropol district and Astrakhan Oblast. From 1928 there was a Nogaysky District, Republic of Dagestan and from 2007 a Nogaysky District, Karachay-Cherkess Republic. A few thousand Nogais live in Dobruja, in the town of Mihail Kogălniceanu and villages of Lumina, Valea Dacilor, Cobadin. An estimated 90,000 Nogais live in Turkey today settled in Ceyhan/Adana and Eskisehir provinces; the Nogai language is still spoken in some of the villages of Central Anatolia - around the Salt Lake, Eskişehir and Ceyhan.
To this day, Nogais in Turkey have maintained their cuisine: Üken börek, kasık börek, tabak börek, şır börek, köbete and Nogay şay. The Junior Juz, or the Lesser Horde of the Kazakhs, occupied the lands of the former Nogai Khanate in Western Kazakhstan. A part of Nogais joined Kazakhs in 17-18th centuries and formed separate clan or tribe called as Kazakh-Nogais, their estimated number is about 50,000. From the sixteenth century until their deportation in the mid-nineteenth century the Nogais living along the Black Sea northern coast were divided into the following sub-groups: Bucak Nogais inhabited the area from Danube to Dniester. Cedsan Nogais inhabited the land from Dniester to Southern Bug. Camboyluk Nogais inhabited in the lands from Bug to the beginning of Crimean Peninsula. Cedişkul Nogais inhabited the north of Crimean peninsula. Kuban Nogais inhabited the north of Sea of Azov around Prymorsk; the name Nogai derives from a general of the Golden Horde. The Mongol tribe called; the Nogai Horde supported the Astrakhan Khanate, after the conquest of Astrakhan in 1556 by Russians, they transferred their allegiance to the Crimean Khanate.
The Nogais protected the northern borders of the Crimean khanate, through organized raids to the Wild Fields inhibited Slavic settlement. Many Nogais migrated to the Crimean peninsula to serve as the Crimean khans' cavalry. Settling there, they contributed to the formation of the Crimean Tatars, they migrated seasonally in search of better pastures for their animals. Nogais were proud of their nomadic traditions and independence, which they considered superior to settled agricultural life; the recorded history of the Nogais first commenced when representatives of the Ottoman Empire reached the Terek–Kuma Lowland, where the Nogais were living as rogue clans and herders. There were two main chiefs: Ismail Mirza. Yusuf Mirza supported joining the Ottomans. However, his brother Ismail Mirza, allied with the Russians, ambushed Yusuf and declared his chiefdom under Russian rule. After that, the supporters of Yusuf Mirza migrated to Crimea and Yedisan, joining the Crimean Khanate. Supporters of Yusuf took the name Qara named by Crimeans as Kichi.
Those who remained in present-day West Kazakhstan and the North Caucasus took the name Uly. About 500,000 Nogais migrated to present-day Turkey around the 16th century, after the fall of the Nogai Horde, they settled in the following cities: Şanlıurfa, Gaziantep, Kırşehir, Eskişehir, Kahramanmaraş, Bursa. These Nogais do not speak the Nogai language anymore and some of them are not aware of their ancestry. At the beginning of the 17th century, the ancestors of the Kalmyks, the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region. Various theories attempt to explain this move, but the accepted view is that the Kalmyks sought abundant pastures for their herds, they reached the Volga about 1630. That land, was not uncontested pasture, but rather the homeland of the Nogai Horde; the Kalmyks expelled the Nogais, who fled to the Northern Caucasian Plains and to the Crimean Khanate, areas under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Some Nogai groups sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan.
The remaining nomadic Turkic tribes became vassals of the Kalmyk khan. After the Russian annexation of Crimea in 1783, Slavic settlers occupied the Nogai pastoral land, since the Nogais did not have permanent residence. In the 1770s and 1780s Catherine the Great resettled 120,000 Nogais from Bessarabia and areas northeast of the Sea of Azov to the Kuban and the Caucasus. In 1790, during the Russo-Turkish war, Prince Grigory Potemkin ordered the resettlement of some Nogai families from the Caucasus to the north shore of the Sea of Azov. Through the 1792 Treaty of Jassy the Russian frontier was extended to the Dniester River and the Russian takeover of Yedisan was complete; the 1812 Treaty of Bucharest transferred Budjak to Russian control. After confiscating the land belonge
Hajji Tarkhan known as Hashtar Khan / Actarxan or Astrakhan, was a medieval city at the right bank of Volga, situated 12 km north of the modern city of Astrakhan. The first mention of the town was recorded in 1333. In the 13th and 14th centuries it was one of the main trade and political centres of the Golden Horde. In 1395 the city was sacked by Timur. Astrakhan was rebuilt afterwards and became the capital of the Khanate of Astrakhan in 1459. In 1547 the city was seized by the Crimean khan Sahib Giray. In 1556 Astrakhan was burned by Ivan the Terrible. Saqsin Atil "Хаҗитархан". Tatar Encyclopaedia. Kazan: The Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia. 2002