Zhoukou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, China. It borders Zhumadian to the southeast and Luohe to the west, Kaifeng to the northwest, Shangqiu to the northeast, the province of Anhui on all other sides, its population was 8,953,793 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 535,738 lived in the built-up made up of Chuanhui district and the northern part of Shangshui county. The prefecture-level city of Zhoukou administers 1 county-level city and 8 counties. Chuanhui District Xiangcheng City Huaiyang County Shenqiu County Dancheng County Luyi County Taikang County Fugou County Xihua County Shangshui County For thousands of years, Chen had been the center of this area and a nationally well-known city; the ancient city site founded at Pingliangtai is over 4600 years old, one of the oldest cities in China. According to the legend, Fu Xi, the first of the Three Sovereigns of ancient China, died in the city. During the Spring and Autumn period, Chen was the capital of Chen State and annexed by Chu.
Therefore, the area was referred to as "Chen Chu" in ancient times. The leaders of the first Chinese peasant uprising established the government at Chen; the city's name "Zhoukou" is short for "Zhoujiakou", which means "Zhou's ferry". Located at the intersection of Jialu River and Shaying River, it started to develop as a river harbor of China's Inland Water Transport System in the early Ming Dynasty. By the end of the 18th century, two towns along the rivers merged into one big town with several tens of thousand permanent residents. From the port, cargo could either be shipped south to the Yangtze River or north to the Yellow River. However, after the "sea ban" was canceled, sea transport began to play a major role on the trade between Jiangnan and North China, which diminished the utility of inland waterways; the cost of maintaining the river channels kept increasing because of the ever-rising river bed. The appearance of railways and modern roads in the early 20th century lead to a recession in the water transport business nearby.
In the 1970s, a dam was built on the Shaying River, which cut the city's last waterway. In 2000, the government of the Zhoukou prefecture-level city was founded; the old county-level city and its suburban area became Chuanhui District. Zhoukou is a major agricultural producer in the province of Henan, its economy is based on the trade of agricultural products, such as grain, oil and tobacco. In particular, Zhoukou is famous for the skin of the Huai Goat, a local breed of goat. Railways Luofu Railway Expressways Nanluo Expressway Shangzhou Expressway Daguang Expressway Yongdeng Expressway Highways China National Highway 311 China National Highway 106 Universities and Colleges Zhoukou Normal University Zhoukou Vocational College of Science and Technology Zhoukou Institute of Education Zhoukou Polytechnic Schools Huaiyang High School Zhoukou First High School High School of Fugou County Xiangcheng First High School Shangshui First High School Laozi Wu Guang Yuan Shikai Ji Hongchang Yue Wenhai Petropavl, Kazakhstan Taió, Santa Catarina, Brazil Government website of Zhoukou
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Hebei is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province, its one-character abbreviation is "冀", named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei means "north of the river", referring to its location to the north of the Yellow River; the modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928. Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei; the province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.
A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào, after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history. Plains in Hebei were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC. During the Spring and Autumn period, Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south. During this period, a nomadic people known as Dí invaded the plains of northern China and established Zhongshan in central Hebei. During the Warring States period, Jin was partitioned, much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao; the Qin dynasty unified China in 221 BC. The Han dynasty ruled the area under two provinces, You Prefecture in the north and Ji Province in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei came under the control of warlords Gongsun Zan in the north and Yuan Shao further south.
Hebei came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei, established by the descendants of Cao Cao. After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern and Southern dynasties ensued. Hebei in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yan; the Northern Wei reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half, which had its capital at Ye, near modern Linzhang, Hebei. The Sui dynasty again unified China in 589. During the Tang dynasty, the area was formally designated "Hebei" for the first time. During the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang; the next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei to the Khitan Liao dynasty in the north.
During the Northern Song dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty. The Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin–Song wars; the Mongol Yuan dynasty did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat at capital Dadu; the Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as "Beizhili", meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital, Beijing. When the Manchu Qing dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, Hebei became known as "Zhili", or "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia; the Qing dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Within a few years, China descended with regional warlords vying for power.
Since Zhili was so close to Peking, the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking to Nanking; as a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, that the capital had been relocated elsewhere. During the Second World War, Hebei was under the control of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of Japan, a puppet state of Imperial Japan; the founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes: the region around Chengde, previo
A relationship breakup referred to as a breakup, is the termination of an intimate relationship by any means other than death. The act is termed "dumping " in slang when it is initiated by one partner; the term is less to be applied to a married couple, where a breakup is called a separation or divorce. When a couple engaged to be married breaks up, it is called a "broken engagement". Susie Orbach has argued that the dissolution of dating and cohabiting relationships can be as painful as or more painful than divorce because these nonmarital relationships are less recognized. Kamiar-K. Rueckert argues with the works of Donald Winnicott that the ability to be alone is an healthy sign of emotional development and maturity. Once a child has obtained closeness and attachment by his early caregivers, he or she is able to develop autonomy and identity. If children have not introjected the good and protective qualities of their parents, they will fear separation and break-ups. Several psychological models have been proposed to explain the process of a relationship breakup, many suggesting that'relationship dissolution occurs in stages'.
L. Lee proposes that there are five stages leading up to a breakup. Steve Duck outlines a six-stage cycle of relationship breakup, including Hill and Peplau identify 5 factors that predicted breakup before marriage: Gottman and Levenson outlined the Cascade Model of Relational Dissolution in which four negative nonverbal behaviors lead to the breakdown of a marriage/relationship: criticism 3. Defensiveness contempt 4. Stonewalling In 1976, sociologist Diane Vaughan proposed an "uncoupling theory," where there exists a "turning point" in the dynamics of relationship breakup –'a precise moment when they "knew the relationship was over," when "everything went dead inside"' – followed by a transition period in which one partner unconsciously knows the relationship is going to end, but holds on to it for an extended period for years. Vaughan considered that the process of breakup was asymmetrical for initiator and respondent: the former'has begun mourning the loss of the relationship and has undertaken something tantamount to a rehearsal, mentally and, to varying degrees, experientially, of a life apart from the partner'.
The latter has to play catch-up:'to make their own transition out of the relationship, partners must redefine initiator and relationship negatively, legitimating the dissolution'. As a result, for Vaughan'getting out of a relationship includes a redefinition of self at several levels: in the private thoughts of the individual, between partners, in the larger social context in which the relationship exists', she considered that'uncoupling is complete when the partners have defined themselves and are defined by others as separate and independent of each other – when being partners is no longer a major source of identity'. Breakups are stressful and traumatic events, regardless of whether the individual in question is the one who made the decision to end the relationship. Both parties feel a large number of negative effects as a result of the relationship’s dissolution, these events gain the reputation for being some of the worst events in people’s lives; these include psychological distress symptoms, grief reactions, an overall decline of psychological well-being, potential stalking behaviors.
Individuals work hard to keep their relationships intact because of how distressing and problematic these negative effects can be in the face of potential complications in their relationship, for as long as they can bear it. While the negative symptoms observed may not fit the definitions of post-traumatic stress as described by the DSM-IV from the American Psychiatric Association, there are some certain symptoms that mirror those from extreme traumatic events and disasters in a person’s life. However, not all individuals are exposed to the same level of impact following a breakup, as a result of several mitigating factors based on the quality of the relationship before the dissolution takes place. Individuals who had just experienced the dissolution of a romantic relationship reported several symptoms of acute psychological distress; these included flashback and intrusive memories associated with their partner triggered by important dates associated with either the relationship or the breakup.
These intrusive distress symptoms manifested in various ways for both the individual who initiated the breakup and their partner, such as being reminded of certain aspects of their behavior or their preferences. Another set of psychological distress symptoms that were reported by individuals who had experienced a romantic relationship breakup fell under the category of avoidance behavior. Being without their partner causes their self-concept to shift as they struggle through emotional distress; this involves an active attempt at denying or ignoring the circumstances of the current situation, or those that led to the dissolution of the relationship. In relation to this, individuals noted feeling numb and uninterested with the world around them because of the breakup; the combination of this desire to engage in avoidance behaviors and the intrusive memories that may come up cause individuals to feel significant emotional swings and outbursts in the form of irritation and startle responses. Individuals were noted as being far more paranoid and jealous tied towards a desire to know information about their ex-partner.
Overall, these psychological distress symptoms come together to result in a lower level of self-esteem among individuals who have just underwen
In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense. Legal guilt is externally defined by the state, or more a "court of law". Being "guilty" of a criminal offense means that one has committed a violation of criminal law, or performed all the elements of the offense set out by a criminal statute; the determination that one has committed that violation is made by an external body and is, therefore, as definitive as the record-keeping of the body. So the most basic definition is fundamentally circular: a person is guilty of violating a law, if a court says so. Philosophically, guilt in criminal law is a reflection of a functioning society and its ability to condemn individuals' actions, it rests fundamentally on a presumption of free will, in which individuals choose actions and are, subjected to external judgement of the rightness or wrongness of those actions. An adjudication of guilt is more than a factual determination that the defendant pulled a trigger, took a bicycle, or sold heroin.
It is a moral judgment. Our collective conscience does not allow punishment. Our concept of blameworthiness rests on assumptions that are older than the Republic: man is endowed with these two great faculties and liberty of will. Our substantive criminal law is based on a theory of punishing the viscious will, it postulates a free agent confronted with a choice between doing right and wrong, choosing to do wrong. See Cotton, Michael, A FOOLISH CONSISTENCY: KEEPING DETERMINISM OUT OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, 15 B. U. Pub. Int. L. J. 1 "Guilt" is the obligation of a person who has violated a moral standard to bear the sanctions imposed by that moral standard. In legal terms, guilt means having been found to have violated a criminal law, though law raises'the issue of defences, the mitigation of offences, the defeasibility of claims'. Les Parrott draws a three-fold distinction between "objective or legal guilt, which occurs when society's laws have been broken... social guilt... an unwritten law of social expectation", the way "personal guilt occurs when someone compromises one's own standards".
Guilt can sometimes be remedied by: punishment. Guilt can be remedied through intellectualisation or cognition. Helping other people can help relieve guilt feelings: "thus guilty people are helpful people... helping, like receiving an external reward, seemed to get people feeling better". There are the so-called "Don Juans of achievement... who pay the installments due their superego not by suffering but by achievements.... Since no achievement succeeds in undoing the unconscious guilt, these persons are compelled to run from one achievement to another". Law does not accept the agent's self-punishment, but some ancient codes did: in Athens, the accused could propose their own remedy, which could, in fact, be a reward, while the accuser proposed another, the jury chose something in-between; this forced the accused to bet on his support in the community, as Socrates did when he proposed "room and board in the town hall" as his fate. He drank hemlock, a poison, as advised by his accuser. Culpability Erinyes Malum in se Malum prohibitum "Guilt in Think On These Things".
Archived from the original on January 17, 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-16. By Gary Gilley "The Innocent Bear the Guilt for the Guilty Ones". Retrieved 2007-05-10. By Gerd Altendorff translation by Jochen Reiss Learnt or innate Guilt on In Our Time at the BBC
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.
The eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought; the Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life.Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission.of a human – This element presents the issue of when life begins.
At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath.by another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder. The requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice. All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice"; the four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill.
In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility. Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping; the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. As with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation.
When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offence. The jury might sympathise with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life imprisonment or execution. Many jurisdictions divide murder by degrees; the distinction between first- and second-degree murder exists, for example, in Canadian murder law and U. S. murder law. The most common division is between first- and second-degree murder. Second-degree murder is common law murder, first-degree is an aggravated form; the aggravating factors of first-degree murder depend on the jurisdiction, but may include a specific intent to kill, premeditation, or deliberation. In some, murder committed by acts such as strangulation, poisoning, or lying in wait are treated as first-degree murder. A few states in the U. S. further distinguish third-degree murder, but they differ in which kinds of murders they classify as second-degree versus third-degree.
For example, Minnesota defines third-degree murder as depraved-heart murder, whereas Flori