China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Yunfu romanized as Wanfow, is a prefecture-level city in western Guangdong province, People's Republic of China. It borders Zhaoqing to the north, Foshan to the east, Jiangmen to the southwest, Yangjiang to the south, Maoming to the southwest, the autonomous region of Guangxi to the west. Yunfu is considered sub-tropical and enjoys fine weather year-round, characterized by mild air temperatures, plentiful rainfall and sunshine, with an annual average temperature of 22 °C, annual average rainfall of 1,580mm and annual average sunshine hours of 1,418; the time-space distribution of rainfall is uneven in a year. It is overcast and dry in spring and rainy in the summer, cool in autumn, dry and sunny in winter; the prefecture-level city of Yunfu administers 5 county-level divisions, including 1 district, 1 county-level city and 3 counties. With 324 National Highway running through the whole prefecture, cement-paved roads are accessible to each single township and village. Guangzhou-Wuzhou Expressway linking Guangdong and Guangxi is connected to Yunfu which will further be united with Yulin and Wuzhou in Guangxi as well as the expressway network in southwest China.
Sanshui-Maoming Railway passes the whole municipality, which will be linked to Luoyang-Zhanjiang Railway in 2008. The Xijiang River has 100 kilometers of waterway, enabling direct cargo freight to Hong Kong. Yunfu has a total land area of 7,779 km2, including 1,868,200mu cultivated land, 1,353,700mu paddy field. In the total area, the mountainous area takes up 60.5%, the hilly area takes up 30.7%, making Yunfu a typical mountainous city. The city's total population is 2,600,900 people, of which the nonagricultural population is 887,000 people and the agricultural population 1,713,900 people, the per capita cultivated area is 0.718mu. There are 52 discovered minerals, 23 with proved reserves are being mined, of which metallic minerals include: gold, copper, tin, lead and manganese. By the end of 2002, there were 254 certified mines throughout the city. Government website of Yunfu Government website of Yunfu Tourism Department
Jiangcheng is a district of Yangjiang, Guangdong province, China
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres. The sea carries tremendous strategic importance. Huge oil and gas reserves are believed to lie beneath its seabed. According to International Hydrographic Organization Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition, it is located south of China; the minute South China Sea Islands, collectively an archipelago, number in the hundreds. The sea and its uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries; these claims are reflected in the variety of names used for the islands and the sea. South China Sea is the dominant term used in English for the sea, the name in most European languages is equivalent; this name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea.
The International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as "South China Sea". The Yizhoushu, a chronicle of the Western Zhou dynasty gives the first Chinese name for the South China Sea as Nanfang Hai, claiming that barbarians from that sea gave tributes of hawksbill sea turtles to the Zhou rulers; the Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period referred to the sea, but by the name Nan Hai in reference to the State of Chu's expeditions there. Nan Hai, the South Sea, was one of the Four Seas of Chinese literature. There are one for each of the four cardinal directions. During the Eastern Han dynasty, China's rulers called the Sea Zhang Hai. Fei Hai became popular during the Northern Dynasties period. Usage of the current Chinese name, Nan Hai, became widespread during the Qing Dynasty. In Southeast Asia it was once called the Champa Sea or Sea of Cham, after the maritime kingdom of Champa that flourished there before the sixteenth century; the majority of the sea came under Japanese naval control during World War II following the military acquisition of many surrounding South East Asian territories in 1941.
Japan calls the sea Minami Shina Kai "South China Sea". This was written 南支那海 until 2004, when the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched the spelling to 南シナ海, which has become the standard usage in Japan. In China, it is called the "South Sea", 南海 Nánhǎi, in Vietnam the "East Sea", Biển Đông. In Malaysia and the Philippines, it was long called the "South China Sea", with the part within Philippine territorial waters called the "Luzon Sea", Dagat Luzon, by the Philippines. However, following an escalation of the Spratly Islands dispute in 2011, various Philippine government agencies started using the name "West Philippine Sea". A Philippine Atmospheric and Astronomical Services Administration spokesperson said that the sea to the east of the Philippines will continue to be called the Philippine Sea. In September 2012, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III signed Administrative Order No. 29, mandating that all government agencies use the name "West Philippine Sea" to refer to the parts of the South China Sea within the Philippines' exclusive economic zone, including the Luzon Sea as well as the waters around and adjacent to the Kalayaan Island Group and Bajo de Masinloc, tasked the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority to use the name in official maps.
In July 2017, to assert its sovereignty, Indonesia renamed the northern reaches of its exclusive economic zone in the South China Sea as the "North Natuna Sea", located north of the Indonesian Natuna Islands, bordering the southern Vietnam exclusive economic zone, corresponding to the southern end of the South China Sea. The "Natuna Sea" is located south of Natuna Island within Indonesian territorial waters. Therefore, Indonesia has named two seas. States and territories with borders on the sea include: the People's Republic of China, Republic of China, the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia and Vietnam. Major rivers that flow into the South China Sea include the Pearl, Jiulong, Mekong, Pahang and Pasig Rivers; the International Hydrographic Organization in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition, defines the limits of the South China Sea as follows: On the South. The Eastern
Jiangmen romanized in Cantonese as Kongmoon, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province in southern China. Its 3 urban districts are now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation and the entire prefecture had a population of about 4.45 million in 2010. Jiangmen is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese name 江門 or 江门, based on its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect, its former Wade-Giles spelling was Chiang-men. The Postal Map spelling "Kongmoon" was based upon the same name's Cantonese pronunciation Gong¹-mun⁴. Other forms of the name include Kong Moon and Kiangmoon. Jiangmen is known as Pengjiang, its rural hinterland is known to the Chinese diaspora as the "Four Counties", although the addition of Heshan to Jiangmen has prompted the remaining locals to begin calling it the "Five Counties" instead. Jiangmen was a community under the administration of nearby Xinhui County. Jiangmen, was forced to open to western trade in 1902. A legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with western-style buildings.
The city has an ongoing renewal project, restoring many of these buildings. Jiangmen was proclaimed a city in 1951 and became the prefectural seat for the Sze Yup region including Taishan, Xinhui, Enping. In 2011, the city banned pet dogs in public after rabies killed 42 people over the preceding 3 years; the city reserved a 13-acre site to allow rural Chinese to adopt the 30,000 dogs, but public outcry led to a softer implementation where violators would be told to leave rather than have the dog confiscated. The city is located on the lower reaches of the Xijiang or West River, in the west of the Pearl River Delta in the middle of southern Guangdong Province, it faces the South China Sea in the south and is 100 kilometres away from Guangzhou and Zhuhai by highway. Jiangmen city has an area of 9,260 square kilometres, about one quarter the size of the Pearl River Delta; the climate is subtropical with monsoonal influences. The annual average temperature is 22.36 °C. Jiangmen was selected by the Chinese state as a pilot city for a nationwide information programme.
It was chosen by the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council as a trial city for the Regional Integration for Sustainable Economics project. According to the "Report on Investment Environment in China 2003" by the World Bank, Jiangmen ranked the fourth after Shanghai and Dalian of 23 cities under evaluation in China. Among various indicators, Jiangmen excelled in infrastructure, labour redundancy, proportion of joint ventures in all firms, informal payments to government, taxation and the investment rate; the economic development strategies within Jiangmen focus on the three urban districts, the south and north lines. It is planned to develop four main economic areas: the central urban district of the city, the Yinzhou Lake economic area, two economic areas along the various transport axes. Similar to other cities in the western Pearl River Delta, the manufacturing sector plays a significant role in Jiangmen's economy; the chief industries include manufacturing of motorcycles, household appliances, paper, food processing, synthetic fibers and garments, as well as textiles and stainless steel products.
Some worldwide brand names have factories in Jiangmen such as Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings, ABB Group and Lee Kum Kee foods. The city was the proposed site of a $6.5 billion, 40 billion renminbi, uranium processing plant which would have supplied about half of the enriched uranium needed by China's nuclear power plants. Announcement of the plant in July 2013 was met by public protests; the proposal was withdrawn out of "respect for public opinion" shortly thereafter. Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province; the local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries to include petrochemical and machinery plants, as well as an ocean-based economy. Jiangmen is the homeland of 3.68 million overseas Chinese, who live in 107 countries and regions throughout the world. Strong oversea connections are found in the villages. A significant amount of historical heritage survives from the period of mass emigration prior to World War II.
The most significant are the fortified multi-story towers found in Kaiping. These are known as "Gold Mountain Towers" or diaolou. A number of natural hotspring resorts has been developed by using its wealthy natural heated ground water resources such as Gudou Hotspring Resort. Guifeng Mountain, a mountain visited by many tourists, is the peak of Jiangmen with an elevation of 545 meters above sea level; the local government's economic development strategies emphasize the development of tourism and protection of the environment. Wuyi University is the main university in Jiangmen; the only international school in Jiangmen is Boren Sino-Canadian School, while bilingual schools include WuYi Country Garden Bilingual School and China-Hong Kong English School. Jiangmen Polytechnic College, located at Chaolian Island, enrolls about 13,000 students in various technical and humanities programs. Jiangmen No. 1 Middle School is claimed to be the top middle school in the district. It used to be one of the best middle schools in Guangdong Province in the 1990s.
However, the quality of its education has been dropping in recent years and within the district of Jiangmen, its status is being challenged by schools such as Xinhui No. 1 Middle School in Xinhui, Kaiqiao Middle School in Kiaping and Heshan No.1 Middle School in Heshan
Maoming romanized as Mowming, is located in southwestern Guangdong province, China. Facing the South China Sea to the city's south, Maoming city neighbors Zhanjiang in the west and is 362 kilometers from Guangzhou and 121 kilometers from Zhanjiang; the Maoming Port is a Grade I port that handled 16.8 million tons of cargo in 2007. Refined oil and aquatic products are the major export products from the city. Major export destinations include Hong Macao and ASEAN member nations; as of the 2010 census, Maoming had a population of 5,817,494 inhabitants, 2,436,312 of whom live in the most developed area, which includes 2 urban districts though its built-up area is limited to Maonan District with 820,821 inhabitants. The city's birth rate is 11.04‰, its GDP was RMB 195.118 billion, up by 10.6% over the previous year. According to government sources, Maoming's GDP ranked 7th among Guangdong's 21 cities, ranked 79th of China's 656 cities in 2012; the city is named after Jin Dynasty Taoist scholar and doctor Pan Maoming, born in Gaozhou.
The local area was renamed by imperial decree in honour of Pan in 598 A. D. during the Sui Dynasty. During the early development of Chinese civilization in the Wei and Yellow River valleys and across the North China Plain, the area around Maoming was held by the Baiyue. After the Qin invaded in the late 3rd century BC, the area was divided into Nanhai and Guilin. Maoming County was established c. 600 under the Sui. Under the Qing, it comprised part of Gaozhou Prefecture. Following the Chinese Civil War, Maoming became the primary community in the area and was raised to county-level city status in 1959. In 2014, the city was the site of popular protests against p-Xylene, a chemical based on benzene, being produced by local industry. Since the 18th Party Congress and the ascension of Xi Jinping, Maoming has been one of the "hardest hit" areas of the anti-corruption campaign, it was seen as a city where selling official positions was rampant. The 2014 investigation by central inspection authorities found that some 159 local officials had taken various forms of bribes.
The former Communist Party Secretary of Maoming, Zhou Zhenhong, was sentenced to death with a two-year reprieve for corruption in relation to the p-Xylene scandal. Two other former party chiefs, Liang Yimin and Luo Yinguo, were removed from office and sentenced to prison, respectively; the prefecture includes a large number of minority groups, including the Yao and Miao, giving it diverse cultural activities and folk arts. The people of southern Maoming speak a Min language brought by Putianese immigrants, closely related to the Leizhou dialect while the people of northern Maoming speak the Gaoyang dialect of Cantonese, as well as Mandarin; the prefecture-level city of Maoming administers 5 county-level divisions, including 2 districts and 3 county-level cities. Defunct Maogang District Situated in the southwestern coastal area of Guangdong, Maoming has under its jurisdiction Maonan District, Maogang District, Dianbai County; the city administers the smaller cities of Xinyi and Huazhou at the county level.
Maoming's coastline is 220 kilometers long. The "First Shoal of China" resort is 25 kilometers from downtown Maoming. Maoming was called one of "the top 100 developed cities in China" and the "National Garden City". Maoming is one of the largest petrochemical production areas in South China, one of the largest fruit production areas. Other major industries include tilapia culture and processing, winter-planted vegetable production, other energy and heavy-chemical industrial production. Major Economic indicators GDP: RMB 195.118 billion, 10.6% up GDP Composition: Primary Industry 19.1% Secondary Industry 37.2% Tertiary Industry 43,7%GDP Per Capita: RMB 33,537, 8.9% up Unemployment Rate: 2.5% Fixed Asset Investment: RMB 18.01 billion, 23.5% up Utilized FDI: US$31 million, 44.2% down Total Import & Export: US$673 million, 9.1% down Export: US$532 million, 7.4% up Import: US$141 million, 42.5% down Sales of Consumer Goods: RMB 60.1 billion, 20.3% up In March 2014, local people staged a protest over the production of paraxylene, a chemical used to make fabrics and plastic bottles at a plant run by the local government and state-owned Sinopec, China's biggest refiner.
Maoming can be reached by the Maozhan Expressway, linked to the Kaiyang Expressway and Fokai Expressway, which leads to the provincial capital, Guangzhou. Guangzhou is a 5 - 6 hour commute from Maoming. Maoming is served by the Guangzhou-Maoming Railway, which runs east to the provincial capital, the Hechun-Maoming Railway, which runs west to the Litang-Zhanjiang Railway, the Luoyang–Zhanjiang Railway, which runs north through eastern Guangxi and central Hunan to China's Central Plain. Maoming is home to the No. 1 Shoal of China Vacation Area, Chicken Island and Tianmashan Eco-tourist Area, the Temple of Madam Xian in Gaozhou, the Genzi Litchi Cultural Tourist Area. The No.1 Shoal of China Vacation Area is 25 kilometers from the downtown Maoming, in the Maogang District. With miles of fine beach outside the shelter belt, tourists can enjoy parachute gliding and sailboarding, it is a national training center for beach volleyball, hosts national and international competitions. Chicken Island is the largest island in Maoming, covering an area of 1.9 km2.
This tourist resort is a diving center, boasting pristine sea water. It is known for recreational scuba diving. Skin diving, deep diving, exploration
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities. A prefectural level city is a "city" and "prefecture" that have been merged into one consolidated and unified jurisdiction; as such it is a city, a municipal entry with subordinate districts, a prefecture with subordinate county-level cities and counties, an administrative division of a province. A prefectural level city is not a "city" in the usual sense of the term, but instead an administrative unit comprising a main central urban area, its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities and villages; the larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres. Prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, other such sub-divisions.
This results from the fact that the predominant prefectures, which prefectural level cities have replaced, were themselves large administrative units containing cities, smaller towns, rural areas. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its actual urban area, the term 市区 shìqū, is used; the first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983. Over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures. Most provinces are composed or nearly of prefectural level cities. Of the 22 provinces and 5 autonomous regions of the PRC, only 9 provinces and 3 autonomous regions have at least one or more second level or prefectural level divisions that are not prefectural level cities. Criteria that a prefecture must meet to become a prefectural level city: An urban centre with a non-rural population over 250,000 gross output of value of industry of 200,000,000 RMB the output of tertiary industry supersedes that of primary industry, contributing over 35% of the GDP15 large prefectural level cities have been granted the status of sub-provincial city, which gives them much greater autonomy.
Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities. There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city: Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, districts subdivisions. Consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. There are only 12 cities are under this classification: Ezhou, Guangzhou, Karamay, Sanya, Wuhai, Xiamen, Zhuhai Prefectural level city with no county-level divisions are cities that are not governed by any county-level divisions such as counties, county level cities, or legal administrative districts. There are only 5 cities are under this classification: Danzhou, Jiayuguan, Zhongshan In Europe and North America, cities are represented as points, while counties are represented as areas.
Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, distinct from, enclosed by, the area of Monroe County, Indiana. In China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose other cities. On a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States, County of Tongshan would be drawn as a smaller area within City of Xianning; this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources. For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town: Shawan, because it is too small, Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled "Leshan."
A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, but Jiading would still be missing. Statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, the city covers an area 100 kilometers across. Furthermore, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the urban