Watkin Tench was a British marine officer who is best known for publishing two books describing his experiences in the First Fleet, which established the first settlement in Australia in 1788. His two accounts, Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay and Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson provide an account of the arrival, Watkin was first cousin to Banastre Tarleton. His father appears to have named Watkin after a local landowner, Watkin Williams Wynn. Tench joined His Majestys Marine Forces, Plymouth division, as a Second Lieutenant on 25 January 1776 and he was promoted to 1st Lieutenant on 25 January 1778 at the age of 19 years and 3 months. Tench was in command of the Marine unit on board HMS Mermaid and he and the other officers were transported to Philadelphia and exchanged in October,1778. The retirement did not last long, as in October of that year the Admiralty called for volunteers for a tour with the newly-forming New South Wales Marine Corps for service at Botany Bay.
Tenchs offer to re-enter the corps was accepted in December 1786, before sailing with the fleet, he arranged with the London publishing firm of Debretts to write a book describing his experience of the journey and the first few months of the colony. His manuscript was taken back in July 1788 by John Shortland and it ran to three editions and was quickly translated into French, German and Swedish. In October 1788, Robert Ross made a list of marines who wanted to stay in Australia either as soldiers or settlers, Tench headed the list as a soldier for one tour more of three years. Among his achievements in the colony of New South Wales Tench was the first European to discover the Nepean River. Tenchs accounts were influenced by the liberalism of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the idea of the noble savage and he thus writes with some sympathy of the Aborigines. His writings include much information about the Aborigines of Sydney, the Gadigal and Cammeraygal and he was friendly with Bennelong and several others.
He stayed in Sydney until December 1791 when he sailed home on the HMS Gorgon, in October 1792, Tench married Anna Maria Sargent, who was the daughter of Robert Sargent, a Devonport surgeon. The following year, publishers Nicol and Sewell published his Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson which was received as his first book. He joined HMS Alexander as a major, serving under Admiral Richard Rodney Bligh in the Channel fleets blockade of Brest. In November 1794, Bligh surrendered HMS Alexander after the Action of 6 November 1794, the crew were initially imprisoned on ships in Brest harbour, but Tench and Bligh were moved to Quimper and imprisoned on parole. During this time, Tench wrote the letters formed the basis of his third book. He was exchanged in May 1795 after being held prisoner for six months, after returning to service, he served four years on HMS Polyphemus escorting convoy ships in the Atlantic and the Channel
Richmond, New South Wales
Richmond is a town in New South Wales, in the local government area of the City of Hawkesbury. It is located at a latitude of 33°3554 South and it is about 65 km by road from Sydney. The Darug people were the people to the area in 1788. The area was explored by British settlers in 1789 and was known by them as Richmond Hill. This name was given by Governor Phillip, in honour of Charles Lennox, the local area was the third area to have European settlement in Australia after Sydney and Parramatta. The first 22 European settlers came to the area in 1794 and they came to farm a total of 30 acres in what is now Pitt Town Bottoms. They needed good farming land to help overcome the desperate need for food in the new colony, by 1799 this region was producing about half the grain produced in the colony. The Battle of Richmond Hill took place in May and June 1795 between the Darug people and the European settlers and it is perhaps the first time that the colonial authorities sent in the troopers and expressly stated their intent to destroy the whole local Aboriginal population of an area.
Around 1811 Macquarie established the five Macquarie Towns in the area, Richmond, Wilberforce, one of the early settlers, James Blackman, built Bowman Cottage from brick nog, a common construction technique in the colony, using money borrowed from William Cox. The house was constructed between the years 1815 and 1818, James was unable to pay his debts and was forced to sell the property to George Bowman. The building was restored by the NSW Public Works Department and became a Division of the Australian Foundation for the Disabled, during WWII the RAAF operated a top secret operations bunker from somewhere in Richmond. It was either half or completely underground, the location of this bunker is unknown but it has been reported that this bunker was identical to the Bankstown Bunker which is currently buried under a public park in Bankstown. It has reported that this bunker could still be intact. RAAF Base Richmond is a Royal Australian Air Force base at Richmond which was established in 1923, the air base is currently the home to the RAAFs transport squadrons.
During the Vietnam War, logistic support and medical evacuations were supplied by the C-130 Hercules aircraft from RAAF Richmond, the following buildings are listed on the Register of the National Estate. There are three schools in Richmond Richmond Public School, Hobartville Public School and St Monicas Primary School. Richmond High School is the only High School in the town of Richmond, as Colo High School draws from the area west of Richmond, the expansion of the Sydney suburban area has almost reached Richmond and it is now considered to be an outer suburb of Sydney. Bells Line of Road which leads into and across the Blue Mountains, finishing in Lithgow, Richmond railway station is the terminus of the Richmond branch of the North Shore, Northern & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network
The word shaman probably originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. The term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552, Mircea Eliade writes, A first definition of this complex phenomenon, and perhaps the least hazardous, will be, shamanism = technique of religious ecstasy. Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul, alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness. The shaman enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community, Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements. The shaman operates primarily within the world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment, hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism.
The word shaman probably originates from the Evenki word šamán, most likely from the dialect spoken by the Sym Evenki peoples. The Tungusic term was adopted by Russians interacting with the indigenous peoples in Siberia. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum, adam Brand, a merchant from Lübeck, published in 1698 his account of a Russian embassy to China, a translation of his book, published the same year, introduced the word shaman to English speakers. The etymology of the Evenki word is sometimes connected to a Tungus root ša- to know, other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, and as such would be the only commonly used English word that is a loan from this language. This proposal has been thoroughly critiqued since 1917, ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an anachronism and an impossibility that is nothing more than a far-fetched etymology. Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, there is no single agreed-upon definition for the word shamanism among anthropologists.
The English historian Ronald Hutton noted that by the dawn of the 21st century, the first of these uses the term to refer to anybody who contacts a spirit world while in an altered state of consciousness. The second definition limits the term to refer to those who contact a spirit world while in a state of consciousness at the behest of others. Problematically, scholars advocating the third view have failed to agree on what the defining technique should be, the fourth definition identified by Hutton uses shamanism to refer to the indigenous religions of Siberia and neighboring parts of Asia. According to the Golomt Center for Shamanic Studies, a Mongolian organisation of shamans, Shamans are normally called by dreams or signs which require lengthy training. However, shamanic powers may be inherited and colleagues mention a phenomenon called shamanistic initiatory crisis, a rite of passage for shamans-to-be, commonly involving physical illness and/or psychological crisis
Other versions of the name include Daruk, Dharrook, Dharug, Broken Bay tribe, and Dharung. There is some dispute about the extent of the Darug nation, while some historians believe the coastal Eora people were a separate group to the Darug people, others believe the two groups were part of the same grouping. Taking the first perspective, the Darug were situated North-West of the Eora, the territory that was indisputably Darug Boorooberongal-Warmuli was the Cumberland Plain in western Sydney, that stretches from Wisemans Ferry in the north down to around Camden in the south. Some think the Darug people extended into the foothills of the Blue Mountains and they likely extended into the Hills District to the east. A strong centre of cultural attachment for the Darug people has been the Blacks Town in the Blacktown local government area, however, in September 2012 the Blacktown City Council de-recognised the Darug tribe, which it had previously recognised as the former owners of the area. The Council passed a motion, opposed by some Councillors, an online petition was launched which called for the official re-recognition of the Darug.
According to one of the Liberal Councillors, Cr Jess Diaz, there was a cultural divide between the western Darug and the coastal Darug. The coastal Darug were katungal or sea people and they built canoes and their diet was primarily seafood including fish and shellfish from Sydney Harbour, Botany Bay and their associated rivers. The inland Darug were paiendra or tomahawk people and they hunted kangaroos and other land animals and used stone axes more extensively. The Darug nation was divided up into a number of clans who tended to live in a certain geographic area. This geographic area would house descendant clans, each clan typically included 50 to 100 people. Numbers in a geographic descendant clan area were kept at the lowest levels necessary for the survival of the clan and it was often the case that men and women married between the clans, and thus the members of the clans were interrelated. They lived in the caves and overhangs in the sandstone of the Hawksbury region, although some did choose to make huts out of bark, sticks
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Admiral Arthur Phillip RN was a Royal Navy officer and the first Governor of New South Wales who founded the British penal colony that became the city of Sydney, Australia. After much experience at sea, Phillip sailed with the First Fleet as Governor-designate of the proposed British penal colony of New South Wales, in January 1788, he selected its location to be Port Jackson. Phillip was a governor who soon saw that New South Wales would need a civil administration. But his plan to bring skilled tradesmen on the voyage had been rejected and his friendly attitude towards the aborigines was sorely tested when they killed his gamekeeper, and he was not able to assert a clear policy about them. Phillip retired in 1805, but continued to correspond with his friends in New South Wales, Arthur Phillip was born on 11 October 1738, the younger of two children to Jacob Phillip and Elizabeth Breach. His father Jacob was born in Frankfurt, Germany and he was a languages teacher who may have served in the Royal Navy as an able seaman and pursers steward.
His mother Elizabeth was the widow of a seaman, John Herbert. At the time of Arthur Phillips birth, his family maintained a modest existence as tenants near Cheapside in the City of London, there are no surviving records of Phillips early childhood. His father Jacob died in 1739, after which the Phillip family may have fallen on hard times, on 22 June 1751 he was accepted into the Greenwich Hospital School, a charity school for the sons of indigent seafarers. In keeping with the curriculum, his education was focused on literacy and navigational skills. He was a competent student and something of a perfectionist and his headmaster, Rev. Francis Swinden observed that in personality, Phillip was unassuming, business-like to the smallest degree in everything he undertakes. Phillip remained at the Greenwich School for two and a half years, considerably longer than the student stay of twelve months. At the end of 1753 he was granted a seven-year indenture as an apprentice aboard Fortune and he left the Greenwich School on 1 December and spent the winter aboard Fortune awaiting the commencement of the 1754 whaling season.
Phillip spent the summer of 1754 hunting whales near Svalbard in the Barents Sea, as an apprentice, his responsibilities included stripping blubber from whale carcasses and helping to pack it into barrels. Food was scarce and Fortunes thirty crew members supplemented their diet with eggs, scurvy grass. The ship returned to England on 20 July 1754, the whaling crew were paid off and replaced with twelve sailors for a winter voyage to the Mediterranean. As an apprentice, Phillip remained aboard as Fortune undertook a trading voyage to Barcelona and Livorno carrying salt and raisins, returning via Rotterdam with a cargo of grains. The ship returned to England in April 1755 and sailed immediately for Svalbard for that years whale hunt, Phillip was still a member of the crew, but abandoned his apprenticeship when the ship returned to England on 27 July