A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, comparable features and equipment, they share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or with some kind of alliteration. Sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered. For instance, the U. S. warships USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Missouri, USS Wisconsin are all sister ships, each being an Iowa-class battleship. The most famous sister ships were RMS Titanic and HMHS Britannic; as with some other liners, the sisters worked as running mates. Other sister ships include the Royal Caribbean International's Explorer of the Seas and Adventure of the Seas. Half-sister refers with some significant differences. One example of half-sisters are the First World War-era British Courageous-class battlecruisers where the first two ships had four 15-inch guns, but the last ship, HMS Furious, had two 18-inch guns instead.
Another example is the American Essex-class aircraft carriers of the Second World War that came in "long-hull" and "short-hull" versions. Notable airships include the American sister ships USS Akron and USS Macon, the German Hindenburg class airship's Hindenburg and Graf Zeppelin II; the accepted commercial distinctions of a sister ship are the following: Type: Identical main type Dry weight: ± 10% on the DWT Builder: Identical shipbuilding company name The critical overriding criteria are the same hull design. For example, the popular TESS-57 standard design built by Tsunishi Shipbuilding are built in Japan and the Philippines. All the ships of this design are classed as sister ships; the International Maritime Organization defined sister ship in IMO resolution MSC/Circ.1158 in 2006. Criteria included these: A sister ship is a ship built by the same yard from the same plans; the acceptable deviation of lightship displacement should be between 1 and 2% of the lightship displacement of the lead ship, depending on the length of the ship.
Ship naming and launching Ship commissioning
Ma'agan Michael Ship
The Ma'agan Michael Ship is a well-preserved 5th-century BCE boat discovered off the coast of Kibbutz Ma'agan Michael, Israel, in 1985. The ship was excavated and its timber immersed in preservation tanks at the University of Haifa, undergoing a seven-year process of impregnation by heated polyethylene glycol. In March 1999, the boat was reassembled and transferred to a dedicated wing built at the Hecht Museum, on the grounds of the university; the boat has provided researchers with insights into ancient methods of shipbuilding and the evolution of anchors. In the autumn of 1985, Ami Eshel, a member of Ma'agan Michael, discovered the wreck while diving off the coast of the kibbutz, 35 km south of Haifa. 75 metres off the coast Eshel spotted rocks uncharacteristic of the Levantine coast next to pieces of wood and pottery sherds, alerted the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Centre for Maritime Studies at the University of Haifa. Preliminary exploration of the wreck revealed pottery dating the ship to the 5th century BC as well as a great deal of submerged wood in an excellent state of preservation, encouraging further exploration.
In 1987 a University of Haifa team led by Elisha Linder received a permit to excavate the site. They enlisted the help of Jay Rosloff, a hull specialist from Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University; as the boat lay in shallow waters, 2 meters deep, excavators had to deal with difficult working conditions caused by the surge. Sand continuously drifted into the excavation trench and water clarity was poor. A horseshoe trench dredged around the site did little to ameliorate these problems, conditions were safe enough for both the crew and the unearthed wood. In the three seasons of work, totalling 160 days, only 32 days were spent excavating the ship and its contents; the small size of the site meant that no more than three pairs of divers could work on the ship at any one time. The excavators first removed the ship's ballast, pulling the stones to shore on a sled tied to a van; the ballast was revealed to be composed of the three lithological groups: metamorphic and sedimentary rock.
The first, composing 65 percent of the total, was blueschist originating from Euboea. Gabbro rocks found. Most of the boat was buried deep enough in the sand to be isolated from the aerobic conditions that would have degraded the wood and the seawater and its corrosive effect on metals, it was subsequently superbly preserved. Exploration moved forward. Only a few feet of the hull were excavated and photographed at a time, to prevent wave damage to exposed sections. Several of the planks had to be sawed or broken for removal and conservation as prolonged underwater exposure might have caused significant damage; the preserved hull is 37 feet long and 13.1 feet wide, with an estimated displacement weight of 20 tons, over 12 of, ballast. The keel consists of a single timber 4.5 inches wide and 6.25 inches high. The hull was constructed of Aleppo pine, except for the tenons and the false keel which were made of oak; the wood shows no sign of shipworm damage nor the wear characteristic of lengthy use, leading the excavators to believe the ship may have sunk on its maiden voyage or not long afterwards.
Artifacts recovered from the wreck include an olivewood box in the shape of a heart or leaf and with a swivel top and a pair of violin-shaped boxes. All were used for cosmetics or jewelry. Found were a collection of woodworking tools, a large number of treenails and tenons, plus a whetstone. Seventy pottery vessels, many of them complete, were found in the wreck; these include jugs, lamps, a cooking pot, a water jar, several storage jars, decorated amphorae, miniature juglets and black glazed ware. Most are attributed to Cyprus. Located among the wreck were remnants of food, including grape, fig and barley; these appear to originate in the eastern Mediterranean, most southwest Turkey and adjacent islands, indicate that the boat sank during the summer. Other organic material includes a large amount of rope; the copper nails used in construction of the ship were revealed to be made of copper mined in northwest Cyprus. Dating from a time of peak Phoenician maritime activity, the boat was thought to be Phoenician.
In view of its construction and contents it was deemed most to be Cypriot related to a Cypriot centre at nearby Dor. The ship's one-armed anchor, made from oak and with a lead-filled stock, was discovered off the ship's starboard bow, with the remains of rope still attached; the anchor's body, from head through shank to arm, was carved from a single timber, as was the stock. The wood used in its construction was identical to the one used on the ship's tenons, suggesting it was made by the same carpenters or shipwrights as the boat itself. A tooth made of copper had entirely corroded away; the discovery of the ship provided researchers with insights into the development of ancient shipbuilding. The ship displays many similarities to other ancient ships such as the Kyrenia ship, but important differences in size, construction methods and material, ballast. Beside offering clues to the evolution of anchors, the Ma'agan Michael anchor is the first complete one-armed ancient wooden anchor discovered.
Although absent from iconographic and literary source, maritime archaeologist Gerhard Käpitan had suggested their existence in the 1970s. The discovery not only confirmed this variety existed but that it was neith
War of the Pacific
The War of the Pacific known as the Saltpeter War and by multiple other names was a war between Chile and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance. It lasted from 1879 to 1884, was fought over Chilean claims on coastal Bolivian territory in the Atacama Desert; the war ended with victory for Chile, which gained a significant amount of resource-rich territory from Peru and Bolivia. Chile's army took Bolivia's nitrate rich coastal region and Peru was defeated by Chile's navy. Battles were fought in the Pacific Ocean, the Atacama Desert, Peru's deserts, mountainous regions in the Andes. For the first five months the war played out in a naval campaign, as Chile struggled to establish a sea-based resupply corridor for its forces in the world's driest desert. In February 1878, Bolivia imposed a new tax on a Chilean mining company despite Bolivian express warranty in the 1874 Boundary Treaty that it would not increase taxes on Chilean persons or industries for 25 years. Chile protested and solicited to submit it to mediation, but Bolivia refused and considered it a subject of Bolivia's courts.
Chile insisted and informed the Bolivian government that Chile would no longer consider itself bound by the 1874 Boundary Treaty if Bolivia did not suspend enforcing the law. On February 14, 1879 when Bolivian authorities attempted to auction the confiscated property of CSFA, Chilean armed forces occupied the port city of Antofagasta. Peru, bound to Bolivia by their secret treaty of alliance from 1873, tried to mediate, but on 1 March 1879 Bolivia declared war on Chile and called on Peru to activate their alliance, while Chile demanded that Peru declare its neutrality. On April 5, after Peru refused this, Chile declared war on both nations; the following day, Peru responded by acknowledging the casus foederis. Ronald Bruce St. John in The Bolivia–Chile–Peru Dispute in the Atacama Desert states: Even though the 1873 treaty and the imposition of the 10 centavos tax proved to be the casus belli, there were deeper, more fundamental reasons for the outbreak of hostilities in 1879. On the one hand, there was the power and relative stability of Chile compared to the economic deterioration and political discontinuity which characterised both Peru and Bolivia after independence.
On the other, there was the ongoing competition for economic and political hegemony in the region, complicated by a deep antipathy between Peru and Chile. In this milieu, the vagueness of the boundaries between the three states, coupled with the discovery of valuable guano and nitrate deposits in the disputed territories, combined to produce a diplomatic conundrum of insurmountable proportions. Afterwards, Chile's land campaign bested Peruvian armies. Bolivia withdrew after the Battle of Tacna on May 26, 1880. Chilean forces occupied Lima in January 1881. Peruvian army remnants and irregulars waged a guerrilla war. Chile and Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón on October 20, 1883. Bolivia signed a truce with Chile in 1884. Chile acquired the Peruvian territory of Tarapacá, the disputed Bolivian department of Litoral, as well as temporary control over the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica. In 1904, Chile and Bolivia signed the "Treaty of Peace and Friendship" establishing definite boundaries; the 1929 Tacna–Arica compromise gave Arica to Chile and Tacna to Peru.
The conflict is known as the "Saltpeter War", the "Ten Cents War", the "Second Pacific War". It should not to be confused with the pre-Columbian Saltpeter War, in what is now Mexico, nor the "Guano War" as the Chincha Islands War is sometimes named. Wanu is a Quechua word for fertilizer. Potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate are nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as salpeter, salitre, caliche, or nitrate, they have other important uses. Atacama is a Chilean region south of the Atacama Desert, which coincides with the disputed Antofagasta province, known in Bolivia as Litoral; the Atacama border dispute between Bolivia and Chile concerning the sovereignty over the coastal territories between the parallels 23°S and 24°S was just one of several long-running border conflicts in South America as the area gained independence throughout the nineteenth century, since uncertainty characterized the demarcation of frontiers according to the Uti possidetis 1810. The dry climate of the Peruvian and Bolivian coasts had permitted the accumulation and preservation of vast amounts of high-quality guano deposits and sodium nitrate.
In the 1840s, Europeans knew the guano and nitrate's value as fertilizer and saltpeter's role in explosives. The Atacama Desert became economically important. Bolivia and Peru were located in the area of the largest reserves of a resource the world demanded. During the Chincha Islands War, under Queen Isabella II, attempted to exploit an incident involving Spanish citizens in Peru to re-establish Spanish influence over the guano-rich Chincha Islands. Starting from the Chilean silver rush in the 1830s, the Atacama desert was prospected and populated by Chileans. Chilean and foreign enterprises in the region extended their control to the Peruvian saltpeter works. In the Peruvian region of Tarapacá, Peruvian people constituted a minority behind both Chileans and Bolivians. Bolivia and Chile negotiated the "Boundary Treaty of 1866"; the treaty established the 24th parallel south, "from the littoral of the Pacific to the eastern limits of Chile", as their m
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres
The Kyrenia ship is the wreck of a 4th-century BC Greek merchant ship. It was discovered by Greek-Cypriot diving instructor Andreas Cariolou in November 1965 during a storm. Having lost the exact position Cariolou carried out more than 200 dives until he re-discovered the wreck in 1967 with the help of James Husband close to Kyrenia in Cyprus. Michael Katzev, a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, directed a salvage expedition from 1967-69. Preservation of the ship's timbers continued during the winter of 1970. Katzev was a co-founder of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology; the find was extensively covered in a documentary by the BBC. The ship was considered to be well preserved with 75% of it in good condition, it found a new home at the Ancient Shipwreck Museum in Kyrenia Castle. The ship sailed in the Mediterranean during the lifetime of his successors, she sank than a mile from the anchorage of Kyrenia. The evidence points to her being taken by rough seas around the year 300 BC, when she was rather old, though piracy is becoming more likely.
Archaeologists found spear points in the hull. While these could well be used for the protection of the crew, rubber casts indicate that they were in contact with the lead sheathing covering the ship; this would suggest that the points were stuck inside the hull when it sank - possible evidence of an attack. In typical merchant ships the captain would have a balance and coinage for measuring and trading goods- all of which were missing. More surprising is that over a ton of cargo is absent from the wreckage; this leads researchers to believe. What opens up this argument further is the presence of a curse tablet in the wreckage. A pirate, for example, would hammer the lead tablet to a part of the boat as it sank in hopes that the dark magic the tablet evoked would conceal the evidence of their crime; these facts, taken together, lead many to believe. The ship was in use by merchants for 15–25 years. Knowing that the ship was old, archaeologists could use the repairs on the Kyrenia to better understand classical carpentry.
The hull’s age increased the need for the defense against water loss, so any repairs would give specific evidence to the problems facing ancient ships. A break in the ship’s keel was fixed, the outside of the ship was protected with pitch and lead sheathing; these measures were taken to extend the ship’s lifespan. Closer analysis of the rabbets in the hull’s frame suggest that the mast step had been moved up to three, four times; this movement happens to be in close proximity with a well to collect bilge water. Because of this, archaeologists surmise that the movement of the mast step was to make way for a larger bilge pump, capable of dealing with the greater needs of the aging ship; the extreme measures to deal with water infiltration corroborate the frailty of this ship, which likely contributed to the ship’s sinking. All these factors could have worked together to cause the sinking; the definitive answer cannot be known but the ship is still important to scholars. The hull’s near-complete preservation, along with the extent of its reconstruction, adds to our knowledge concerning ship building in antiquity.
The shipwreck of Kyrenia was discovered in November 1965 by the Kyrenian Greek Cypriot Diving Instructor and Municipal Councilor Andreas Cariolou while cultivating sponges at a sea depth of 33 metres a nautical mile NorthEast of the harbour of Kyrenia on the North coast of the Republic of Cyprus, during a stormy day. With the storm at the surface the anchor of his vessel started to drag on the muddy seabed. Cariolou noticed the cloud of the drag and followed the anchor's slow travel when he noticed the shipwreck. Bewildered he had to recover and follow the drag of his anchor as his vessel was dangerously approaching the rocky coast. Understanding the importance of his finding and the danger of illegal excavations, he remained discrete about it informing only the director of the Department of Antiquities Dr. Vasos Karagiorgis and the President of the Republic of Cyprus. In late 1967 the Department of Antiquities of the Republic of Cyprus, invited a number of Underwater Archaeologists to study the possibilities of excavating at such a difficult and costly sea depth.
Amongst them was nautical archaeologist Michael Katzev of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, working at the time on a survey of the coast of Cyprus for shipwrecks. In that year, Andreas Cariolou took. A British team of scientists from Oxford University, using a "proton" magnetometer metal detector and probes, spent a month surveying the site to find metal parts and the approximate position of the entire ship and her cargo over an area measuring 20 metres by 5 metres. During the summer diving periods of 1968 and 1969 the expedition consisting of more than 50 underwater archaeologists and technicians employed stereo-photography and other developed techniques to record the position of each object before it was brought to surface; the ship's wooden hull, well preserved in the silt and muddy seabed was "mapped", labeled and lifted in a number of pieces to the surface. The objects in Kyrenia Castle are the original ones that she carried during her last voyage about 2300 years ago.
From them we can learn about the life of those traders. More than 400 wine amphoras made in Rhodes, constitute the main cargo and th
The Oseberg ship is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway. This ship is acknowledged to be among the finer artifacts to have survived from the Viking Era; the ship and some of its contents are displayed at the Viking Ship Museum at Bygdøy on the western side of Oslo, Norway. The Oseberg burial mound contained two female human skeletons as well as a considerable quantity of grave goods; the ship's interment into its burial mound dates from AD 834, but parts of the ship date from around 800, the ship itself is thought to be older. It was excavated by Norwegian archaeologist Haakon Shetelig and Swedish archaeologist Gabriel Gustafson in 1904–1905; the ship is a Karve, clinker built entirely of oak. It is 21.58 metres long and 5.10 metres broad, with a mast of 9–10 metres. With a sail of c. 90 square metres, the ship could achieve a speed up to 10 knots. The ship has 15 pairs of oar holes. Other fittings include a broad steering oar, iron anchor, a bailer.
The bow and stern of the ship are elaborately decorated with complex woodcarvings in the characteristic "gripping beast" style known as the Oseberg style. During the debate on whether to move the original ship to a new proposed museum, thorough investigations were made into the possibilities of moving the ship without damaging it. During the process thorough photographic and laser scans of both the outside and inside of the ship were made. In 2004, an attempt to build a copy of the Oseberg ship was launched. A collective effort of Norwegian and Danish professional builders and volunteers engaged in this new attempt with the photo scans and laser scans made available free of charge to the enthusiastic builders. During this new attempt it was discovered that, during the initial restoration of the ship, a breach in one of the beams had been made and that the ship was therefore inadvertently shortened; that fact had not been appreciated earlier. It is believed this was the prime reason why several earlier replicas sank: previous attempts at working replicas had failed owing to a lack of correct data.
In 2010, a new reconstruction was entitled Saga Oseberg. Using timber from Denmark and Norway and utilizing traditional building methods from the Viking age, this newest Oseberg ship was completed. On the 20th of June 2012 the new ship was launched from the city of Tønsberg; the ship floated well and in March 2014 it was taken to open seas, with Færder as its destination, under full sail. A speed of 10 knots was achieved; the construction was a success, the ship performing well. It demonstrated that the Oseberg ship could have sailed and was not just a burial chamber on land; the skeletons of two women were found in the grave with the ship. One aged around 80, suffered badly from arthritis and other maladies; the second was believed to be aged 25–30, but analysis of tooth-root translucency suggests she was older. It is not clear which one was the more important in life or whether one was sacrificed to accompany the other in death; the younger woman had a broken collarbone thought to be evidence that she was a human sacrifice, but closer examination showed that the bone had been healing for several weeks.
The opulence of the burial rite and the grave-goods suggests that this was a burial of high status. One woman wore a fine red wool dress with a lozenge twill pattern and a fine white linen veil in a gauze weave, while the other wore a plainer blue wool dress with a wool veil showing some stratification in their social status. Neither woman wore anything made of silk, although small silk strips were appliqued onto a tunic worn under the red dress. Dendrochronological analysis of timbers in the grave chamber dates the burial to the autumn of 834. Although the high-ranking woman's identity is unknown, it has been suggested that she is Queen Åsa of the Yngling clan, mother of Halfdan the Black and grandmother of Harald Fairhair. Recent tests of the women's remains suggest; this theory has been challenged and some think that she may have been a shaman. There were the skeletal remains of 14 horses, an ox, three dogs found on the ship. According to Per Holck of Oslo University, the younger woman's mitochondrial haplogroup was discovered to be U7.
Her ancestors came to Norway from the Pontic littoral Iran. Three subsequent studies failed to confirm these results, it is that the bone samples contain little original DNA or have been contaminated through handling. Examinations of fragments of the skeletons have provided more insight into their lives; the younger woman's teeth showed signs that she used a rare 9th century luxury. Both women had a diet composed of meat, another luxury when most Vikings ate fish. However, there was not enough DNA to tell if they were related, for instance a queen and her daughter; the grave had been disturbed in antiquity, precious metals were absent. A great number of everyday items and artifacts were found during the 1904–1905 excavations; these included four elaborately decorated sleighs, a richly carved four-wheel wooden cart, bed-posts, wooden chests, as well as the so-called "Buddha bucket", a brass and cloisonné enamel ornament of a bucket handle in the shape of a figure sitting with crossed legs. The bucket is made from yew wood, held
Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company
The Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company, Limited was a shipyard and iron works straddling the mouth of Bow Creek at its confluence with the River Thames, at Leamouth Wharf on the west side and at Canning Town on the east side. Its main activity was shipbuilding, but it diversified into civil engineering, marine engines, electrical engineering and motor cars; the company notably produced iron work for Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Royal Albert Bridge over the Tamar in the 1850s, the world's first all-iron warship, HMS Warrior, launched in 1860. The company originated in 1837 as the Ditchburn and Mare Shipbuilding Company, founded by shipwright Thomas J. Ditchburn and the engineer and naval architect Charles John Mare. Located at Deptford, after a fire destroyed their yard the company moved to Orchard Place in 1838, between the East India Dock Basin and Bow Creek. There they took over the premises of the defunct shipbuilders Benjamin Wallis; the firm within a few years occupied three sites covering an area of over 14 acres.
Ditchburn and Mare were among the first builders of iron ships in the area. The company's early customers included the Iron Steamboat Company and the Blackwall Railway Company, several paddle steamers being constructed for the latter, including the Meteor and the Prince of Wales, which operated between Gravesend and the company's station on Brunswick Wharf. In this period the company was awarded several contracts by the Admiralty, including HMS Recruit, one of the first iron warships built, they constructed the P & O Company's steamers Ariel and Erin. Thomas Ditchburn retired in 1847 and the business was carried on by Charles Mare, under the name of C. J. Mare and Company, he was joined by naval architect James Ash, who began his own shipyard at Cubitt Town. From 1847 the company grew and Mare purchased land on the Canning Town side of the River Lea, a ferry service being established between the two sites. Mare constructed a yard with rolling mills that could construct vessels of 4,000 tons. In 1853 the company launched the SS Himalaya for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company the world's largest passenger ship before becoming a naval troopship.
In 1855, the company which by now had more than 3000 employees, was threatened with closure following Mare's bankruptcy. It is thought by some that his financial difficulties arose from delays in payment for completed work or, that the company had miscalculated the cost of building vessels for the Royal Navy; the business did not lack orders, having in hand six contracts for gunboats and the contract for Westminster Bridge. The company's chief creditors moved to keep the company in operation, two employees, Joseph Westwood and Robert Baillie were appointed works managers; the main figure in saving the company was Peter Rolt, Mare's father-in-law and Conservative MP for Greenwich. Rolt was a timber merchant and a descendant of the Pett shipbuilding family, he was supported in the venture by Lord Alan Spencer-Churchill. Rolt took control of the company's assets and in 1857 transferred them to a new limited company, named the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Ltd.. It had a capital of £100,000 in 20 shares of £5000 each, five of which were held by Rolt, the main shareholder and chairman of the board.
The new company was the largest shipbuilder on the Thames, its premises described by the Mechanics' Magazine in 1861 as "Leviathan Workshops". Large scale Ordnance Survey maps of the 1860s show the yard occupying a large triangular site in a right-angled bend on the east bank of Bow Creek with the railway to Thames Wharf on the third side, with a smaller site on the west bank; the main yard had a quay 1,050 feet long. To the south-east the yard occupied the north bank of the Thames east of Bow Creek, with two slips giving direct access to the main river. Today the site is crossed by the A1020 Lower Lea Crossing and the Docklands Light Railway south of Canning Town station. By 1863 the company had the capacity to build 25,000 tons of warships and 10,000 tons of mail steamers simultaneously. One of its first Admiralty contracts was for HMS Warrior, launched in 1860, at the time the world's largest warship and the first iron-hulled armoured frigate. HMS Minotaur followed in 1863, 10,690 tons displacement.
Work on vessels such as Minotaur was performed on the Canning Town side of the Lea, this is where the Thames Ironworks expanded from less than 10 acres in 1856 to 30 acres by 1891. While the old site at Orchard Place was still the company's official address until 1909, its presence there was minimal, by the late 1860s the company having only a 5 acres site there. General shipbuilding on the Thames came under great pressure due to the cost advantages of northern yards with closer supplies of coal and iron, many yards closed following the 1866 financial crisis. Of the survivors, those like the Thames Ironworks were specialised in liners. Following the success of HMS Warrior and HMS Minotaur, orders were placed by navies all over the world, vessels were built for Denmark, Portugal, Russia and the Ottoman Empire; the yard built the Prussian Navy's first iron-hulled warship, the SMS König Wi